Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital

Delhi, India

Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital

Delhi, India

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Sharma S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Sharma S.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Sankhyan N.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Sankhyan N.,Institute of Medical Education and Research | And 2 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2013

Summary Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the modified Atkins diet in a randomized controlled trial in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods Children aged 2-14 years who had daily seizures despite the appropriate use of at least three anticonvulsant drugs were enrolled. Children were randomized to receive either the modified Atkins diet or no dietary intervention for a period of 3 months. The ongoing anticonvulsant medications were continued unchanged in both the groups. Seizure control at 3 months was the primary end point. Analysis was intention to treat. Adverse effects of the diet were assessed by parental reports (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00836836). Key Findings Among a total of 102 children, 50 were in the diet group and 52 in the control group. Four children discontinued the diet before the study end point, and three children in the control group were lost to follow-up. The mean seizure frequency at 3 months, expressed as a percentage of the baseline, was significantly less in the diet group: 59 ± 54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 44-74.5) versus 95.5 ± 48 (95% CI 82-109), p = 0.003. The proportion of children with >90% seizure reduction (30% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.005) and >50% seizure reduction was significantly higher in the diet group (52% vs. 11.5%, p < 0.001). Constipation was the most common adverse effect among children on the diet (23, 46%). Significance The modified Atkins diet was found to be effective and well tolerated in children with drug-refractory epilepsy. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.


Aneja S.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Sharma S.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Need and Purpose of review: A number of newer anti-epileptic drugs have been developed in the last few years to improve the treatment outcomes in epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of newer anti-epileptic drugs in children. Methods used for locating, selecting, extracting and synthesizing data: MEDLINE search (1966-2013) was performed using terms "newer anti-epileptic drugs", "Oxcarbazepine", vigabatrin", topiramate", "zonisamide", "levetiracetam", "lacosamide", "rufinamide", "stiripentol", "retigabine", "eslicarbazepine", "brivaracetam", "ganaxolone" and "perampanel" for reports on use in children. Review articles, practice parameters, guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case series were included. The main data extracted included indications, efficacy and adverse effects in children. Main conclusions: Oxcarbazepine is established as effective initial monotherapy for children with partial-onset seizures. Vigabatrin is the drug of choice for infantile spasms associated with tuberous sclerosis. Lamotrigine, levetiracetam and lacosamide are good add-on drugs for patients with partial seizures. Lamotrigine may be considered as monotherapy in adolescent females with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Levetiracetam is a good option as monotherapy for females with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Topiramate is a good add-on drug in patients with epileptic encephalopathies such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and myoclonic astatic epilepsy. © 2013 Indian Academy of Pediatrics.


Yadav D.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Chandra J.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder affecting at least one third of world's population. Though anemia is common manifestation of iron deficiency, other effects of iron deficiency on various tissues, organs and systems are usually under recognized. Impaired brain development and cognitive, behavioural and psychomotor impairment are most worrisome manifestations of iron deficiency. Studies have demonstrated that some of these changes occurring during period of brain growth spurt (<2 years age) may be irreversible. Association of iron deficiency with febrile seizures, pica, breath holding spells, restless leg syndrome and thrombosis is increasingly being recognized. Impaired cell-mediated immunity and bactericidal function are generally noted in iron-deficient persons; however, the findings are inconsistent. Despite proven reversible functional immunological defects in vitro studies, a clinically important relationship between states of iron deficiency and susceptibility to infections remains controversial. Studies from malaria endemic regions have reported increased incidence of malaria in association with iron supplementation. These and some other aspects of iron deficiency are reviewed in this article. © 2010 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.


Kumar V.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2016

In children, influenza is one among the commonest causes of acute respiratory illness and loss of school days. Influenza A, B, and C are 3 types of viruses responsible for illness. Type A virus has many subtypes based on antigens but Type B and Type C viruses have no known subtypes. Currently, influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and influenza type B viruses are circulating in humans. Transmission of influenza occurs through droplets from infected person or through direct contact with person or fomites. Clinically, influenza is characterized by acute onset fever, chills, running nose, cough, sore throat, headache and myalgia. Mostly, febrile illness lasts for 3–4 d with resolution of disease in 7–10 d. Confirmation of influenza can be done either by virus culture, RT-PCR or specific neutralizing antibodies in blood. Basic principles of management include prompt institution of infection control measures, early identification of children at higher risk, supportive care and antiviral drugs. Vaccine and chemoprophylaxis are two commonly used methods for prevention of influenza. Currently, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are available for use with good efficacy. Cough etiquette, use of face masks and hand hygiene are the most important measures to reduce the risk of infection transmission from person to person. © 2016 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation


Seth A.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Breast milk is the best form of nutrition for infants. However, it places infants born to HIV infected women at risk of acquiring HIV infection. Total avoidance of breastfeeding is the only way of completely avoiding HIV transmission through breast milk. However, this strategy has not proved to be viable in resource constrained nations. A high infection related mortality and morbidity, and a high prevalence of malnutrition have been observed in HIV exposed infants on replacement feeding. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months followed by rapid weaning has also not proved to be a good strategy, with a surge in infection related morbidity and malnutrition reported after weaning. Current evidence indicates that continued use of ARV prophylaxis to mother/infant starting during pregnancy and continued to cover the entire duration of breastfeeding offers the infant best chance of HIV free survival, combining the benefits of breast milk with safety induced by ARV prophylaxis. © Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2011.


Seth A.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Sharma R.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. © 2012 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.


Aggarwal V.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Seth A.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Aneja S.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Sharma B.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Context: Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. Objective: The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. Design and Methods: In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Results: Mean intake of calcium (204 ± 129 vs. 453 ± 234 mg/d; P < 0.001) and proportion of calcium from dairy sources (41.7 vs. 88.6%; P < 0.001) were significantly lower in cases vs. controls. The dietary intake of phytate was also significantly higher in cases (P = 0.01). Median serum 25OHD level (interquartile range) in both cases and controls was in the range of deficiency [13.7 (10; 17.9) and 19.4 (12.3; 24.6) ng/ml, respectively]. There was no significant difference in the serum 25OHD level (P = 0.08) or sun exposure as measured by UV score (P = 0.39) among the cases and controls. In cases with rickets, significant negative correlations were seen between dietary calcium intake and radiological score (r = -0.28; P = 0.03) and PTH (r = -0.26; P = 0.02). No correlation was found between serum 25OHD level and radiological score or biochemical parameters of rickets. Conclusions: Rickets develops when low dietary calcium intake coexists with a low or borderline vitamin D nutrition status. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.


Nangia S.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Tiwari S.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Failure to thrive is poor physical growth that results when the nutritional demands of young children are not fulfilled. This diagnosis is made when, on serial growth monitoring, the child's anthropometric parameters such as weight for age and/or height are found to be significantly below the expected values. A detailed evaluation by the treating physician, taking into account physical and psychosocial factors affecting the child's health is essential for understanding the factors contributing to failure to thrive. The treatment of this entity requires a multidisciplinary approach, correcting the macro and micronutrient deficiency in the child as well as education of parents regarding age-appropriate feeding recommendation for children. In addition, parents need to be apprised of the possible implications of malnutrition on growth and neurodevelopment of the child. Early childhood being a crucial period for growth and development, an early diagnosis and treatment will result in better outcomes in children with failure to thrive. © 2013 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.


Kanwal S.K.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Kumar V.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2011

An 11-month-old child presented with persistent seizures requiring ventilator support. The child had global developmental delay, was staying in the premises of battery manufacturing unit, had microcytic and hypochromic anemia with basophilic stripling on peripheral smear, lead line on radiograph of the long bones and BLL of 244 μg/dl. The CT scan of the brain revealed cerebral atrophy. The mother also had high BLL and lead line in the radiograph of the long bones. The child was managed with chelation therapy. Given the continuing lead exposure among occupational and general populations in India, this case study highlights the need for prompt environmental preventive actions as well as nutritional and preventive counseling for occupational populations. © 2011 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.


Chandra J.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Megaloblastic anemia (MA), in most instances in developing countries, results from deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid. Over the last two to three decades, incidence of MA seems to be increasing. Of the two micronutrients, folic acid deficiency contributed to MA in a large majority of cases. Now deficiency of B12 is far more common. In addition to anemia, occurrence of neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia is increasingly being reported. Among cases presenting with pancytopenia, MA stands out as an important (commonest cause in some series) cause. This article focuses on these and certain other aspects of MA. Possible causes of increasing incidence of MA are discussed. Observations on other clinical features like neurocognitive dysfunction, associated hyperhomocysteinemeia and occurrence of tremors and thrombocytosis during treatment are highlighted. © 2010 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.

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