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Morioka I.,Kobe University | Nakamura H.,Kobe University | Koda T.,Kobe University | Sakai H.,Kobe Childrens Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Brain and Development | Year: 2015

Background: This study aimed to evaluate peak serum total bilirubin (TB) and unbound bilirubin (UB) levels in preterm infants with clinical kernicterus (KI) who were diagnosed by clinical findings during infancy. Design/subjects: For this multicenter retrospective study, 18 Japanese extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with clinical KI were included. Clinical KI was diagnosed based on the presence of motor developmental impairment with/without athetosis, and abnormal magnetic resonance imaging or brainstem auditory evoked potential findings during infancy. High and low TB or UB levels were defined as serum TB levels ≥ and <15 mg/dL or serum UB levels ≥ and <0.8 μg/dL, respectively. The clinical characteristics of KI preterm infants were analyzed. The proportion of infants with high or low serum TB levels and with high or low serum UB levels was then investigated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: In 18 KI infants, the median age when serum TB levels peaked was 28 days after birth. In eight KI infants with low serum TB levels, 88% of them had high serum UB levels. For comparison of the number of infants who had high or low serum TB and UB levels, the sensitivity was 90% and specificity was 13%. Conclusions: Serum TB and UB levels peak at a later age than expected. Chronic serum UB monitoring may be helpful for identifying ELBW infants at risk for developing KI, even when they do not have high serum TB levels. © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology.


Kurokawa D.,Kobe University | Nakamura H.,Kobe University | Yokota T.,Kobe University | Iwatani S.,Kobe University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2016

Objectives To assess the accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurements at 5 different body sites in Japanese very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and to determine a cut-off value of TcB to detect total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB) levels ≥10 mg/dL (171 μM). Study design In a prospective multicenter study, 85 Japanese VLBW infants were enrolled from 5 neonatal intensive care units during the study period. A total of 383 blood samples from infants not receiving phototherapy or ≥24 hours postphototherapy were analyzed. TcB was measured at the forehead, sternum, upper back, lower abdomen, and waist within 1 hour of blood collection. Linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare TcB values at each site with TB levels. The TcB cut-off value for detecting TB ≥10 mg/dL was determined by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Results TcB significantly correlated with TB, but the coefficient of determination varied among the sites (forehead: 0.5294, sternum: 0.6488, upper back: 0.6321, lower abdomen: 0.5430, waist: 0.7396). At a TcB value ≥8, the sensitivity was 100% at the sternum and upper back, 85% at the waist, 84% at the forehead, and 64% at the lower abdomen to detect TB ≥10 mg/dL. Conclusions In Japanese VLBW infants, the accuracy of TcB measurements varies according to body site. TcB ≥8 on the sternum or upper back is more reliable than that on the forehead, lower abdomen, or waist to detect TB levels ≥10 mg/dL. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Morioka I.,Kobe University | Morioka I.,Japan Neonatal Jaundice Study Group | Nakamura H.,Kobe University | Nakamura H.,Japan Neonatal Jaundice Study Group | And 32 more authors.
Pediatrics International | Year: 2015

Clinical kernicterus in preterm infants has recently been reported in Japan, diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings during the neonatal and infancy periods. We investigated the incidence of clinical kernicterus in preterm infants <30 weeks gestational age (GA) based on a nationwide survey conducted in 233 certified educational facilities for neonatologists. The numbers of infants admitted and infants who died within 14 days after birth during 2011, and the number of infants who subsequently developed clinical kernicterus, were recorded. A total of 2720 infants were analyzed, representing 59% (2720/4623) of all preterm live births <30 weeks GA in Japan in 2011. Of these, 159 (5.8%) died within 14 days after birth, similar to the national rate. Five infants developed clinical kernicterus in infancy (5/2720, 0.18%). The current incidence of clinical kernicterus in Japan is therefore estimated at 1.8 per 1000 live births <30 weeks GA. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

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