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Oakland, CA, United States

Kaiser Permanente is an integrated managed care consortium, based in Oakland, California, United States, founded in 1945 by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney Garfield. Kaiser Permanente is made up of three distinct groups of entities: the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and its regional operating subsidiaries; Kaiser Foundation Hospitals; and the autonomous regional Permanente Medical Groups. As of 2014, Kaiser Permanente operates in eight states and the District of Columbia, and is the largest managed care organization in the United States.Kaiser Permanente has 9.3 million health plan members, 167,300 employees, 14,600 physicians, 37 medical centers, and 611 medical offices. For 2011, the non-profit Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Kaiser Foundation Hospitals entities reported a combined $1.6 billion in net income on $47.9 billion in operating revenues. Each independent Permanente Medical Group operates as a separate for-profit partnership or professional corporation in its individual territory, and while none publicly reports its financial results, each is primarily funded by reimbursements from its respective regional Kaiser Foundation Health Plan entity. Wikipedia.

CONTEXT: Targeted systematic review to support the updated US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for obesity in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To examine the benefits and harms of behavioral and pharmacologic weight-management interventions for overweight and obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Our data sources were Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, the Education Resources Information Center, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Cochrane databases, reference lists of other reviews and trials, and expert recommendations. After 2 investigators reviewed 2786 abstracts and 369 articles against inclusion/exclusion criteria, we included 15 fair- to good-quality trials in which the effects of treatment on weight, weight-related comorbidities, and harms were evaluated. Studies were quality rated by 2 investigators using established criteria. Investigators abstracted data into standard evidence tables. RESULTS: In the available research, obese (or overweight) children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years were enrolled, and no studies targeted those younger than 4 years. Comprehensive behavioral interventions of medium-to-high intensity were the most effective behavioral approach with 1.9 to 3.3 kg/m2 difference favoring intervention groups at 12 months. More limited evidence suggests that these improvements can be maintained over the 12 months after the end of treatments and that there are few harms with behavioral interventions. Two medications combined with behavioral interventions resulted in small (0.85 kg/m2 for orlistat) or moderate (2.6 kg/m2 for sibutramine) BMI reduction in obese adolescents on active medication; however, no studies followed weight changes after medication use ended. Potential adverse effects were greater than for behavioral interventions alone and varied in severity. Only 1 medication (orlistat) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prescription use in those aged ≥12 years. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past several years, research into weight management in obese children and adolescents has improved in quality and quantity. Despite important gaps, available research supports at least short-term benefits of comprehensive medium- to high-intensity behavioral interventions in obese children and adolescents. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Screening programs using conventional cytology have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests might enhance screening. To systematically review the evidence on liquid-based cytology (LBC) and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) screening for U.S. Preventive Services Task Force use in updating its 2003 recommendation. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO from January 2000 through September 2010. Two independent reviewers selected fair- to good-quality English-language studies that compared LBC or HPV-enhanced primary screening with conventional cytology in countries with developed population-based screening for cervical cancer. At least 2 independent reviewers critically appraised and rated the quality of studies and used standardized abstraction forms to extract data about test performance for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer and screening-related harms. On the basis of 4 fair- to good-quality studies (141 566 participants), LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to conventional cytology. Six fair- to good-quality diagnostic accuracy studies showed that 1-time HPV screening was more sensitive than cytology for detecting CIN3+/CIN2+ but was less specific. On the basis of 2 fair- to good-quality randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) (120 533 participants), primary HPV screening detected more cases of CIN3 or cancer in women older than 30 years. Four fair- to good-quality diagnostic accuracy studies and 4 fair- to good-quality RCTs showed mixed results of cotesting (HPV plus cytology) in women aged 30 years or older compared with cytology alone, with no clear advantage over primary HPV screening. Incomplete reporting of results for all screening rounds, including detection of disease and colposcopies, limits our ability to determine the net benefit of HPV-enhanced testing strategies. Resources were insufficient to gather unpublished data, short-term trial data showed possible ascertainment bias, and most RCTs used protocols that differed from current U.S. practice. Evidence supports the use of LBC or conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening, but more complete evidence is needed before HPV-enhanced primary screening is widely adopted for women aged 30 years or older. Source

Adams A.L.,Kaiser Permanente
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume

Poor glycemic control in patients with diabetes may be associated with adverse surgical outcomes. We sought to determine the association of diabetes status and preoperative glycemic control with several surgical outcomes, including revision arthroplasty and deep infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in five regions of a large integrated health-care organization. Eligible subjects, identified from the Kaiser Permanente Total Joint Replacement Registry, underwent an elective first primary total knee arthroplasty during 2001 through 2009. Data on demographics, diabetes status, preoperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, and comorbid conditions were obtained from electronic medical records. Subjects were classified as nondiabetic, diabetic with HbA1c < 7% (controlled diabetes), or diabetic with HbA1c ≥ 7% (uncontrolled diabetes). Outcomes were deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism within ninety days after surgery and revision surgery, deep infection, incident myocardial infarction, and all-cause rehospitalization within one year after surgery. Patients without diabetes were the reference group in all analyses. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Of 40,491 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty, 7567 (18.7%) had diabetes, 464 (1.1%) underwent revision arthroplasty, and 287 (0.7%) developed a deep infection. Compared with the patients without diabetes, no association between controlled diabetes (HbA1c < 7%) and the risk of revision (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99 to 1.76), risk of deep infection (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.86), or risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.17) was observed. Similarly, compared with patients without diabetes, no association between uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 7%) and the risk of revision (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.54), risk of deep infection (OR, 0.55; 95% CI 0.29 to 1.06), or risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.13) was observed. No significantly increased risk of revision arthroplasty, deep infection, or deep venous thrombosis was found in patients with diabetes (as defined on the basis of preoperative HbA1c levels and other criteria) compared with patients without diabetes in the study population of patients who underwent elective total knee arthroplasty. Source

Steiner J.F.,Kaiser Permanente
Annals of Internal Medicine

In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) will introduce measures of adherence to oral hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering drugs into its Medicare Advantage quality program. To meet these quality goals, delivery systems will need to develop and disseminate strategies to improve adherence. The design of adherence interventions has too often been guided by the mistaken assumptions that adherence is a single behavior that can be predicted from readily available patient characteristics and that individual clinicians alone can improve adherence at the population level. Effective interventions require recognition that adherence is a set of interacting behaviors influenced by individual, social, and environmental forces; adherence interventions must be broadly based, rather than targeted to specific population subgroups; and counseling with a trusted clinician needs to be complemented by outreach interventions and removal of structural and organizational barriers. To achieve the adherence goals set by CMS, front-line clinicians, interdisciplinary teams, organizational leaders, and policymakers will need to coordinate efforts in ways that exemplify the underlying principles of health care reform. © 2012 American College of Physicians. Source

Hamilton S.P.,Kaiser Permanente
Biological Psychiatry

Clinicians already face "personalized" medicine every day while experiencing the great variation in toxicities and drug efficacy among individual patients. Pharmacogenetics studies are the platform for discovering the DNA determinants of variability in drug response and tolerability. Research now focuses on the genome after its beginning with analyses of single genes. Therapeutic outcomes from several psychotropic drugs have been weakly linked to specific genetic variants without independent replication. Drug side effects show stronger associations to genetic variants, including human leukocyte antigen loci with carbamazepine-induced dermatologic outcome and MC4R with atypical antipsychotic weight gain. Clinical implementation has proven challenging, with barriers including a lack of replicable prospective evidence for clinical utility required for altering medical care. More recent studies show promising approaches for reducing these barriers to routine incorporation of pharmacogenetics data into clinical care. © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Source

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