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Gratzke C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Bachmann A.,University of Basel | Descazeaud A.,University of Limoges | Drake M.J.,University of Bristol | And 5 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2015

Context Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) represent one of the most common clinical complaints in adult men and have multifactorial aetiology. Objective To develop European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on the assessment of men with non-neurogenic LUTS. Evidence acquisition A structured literature search on the assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS was conducted. Articles with the highest available level of evidence were selected. The Delphi technique consensus approach was used to develop the recommendations. Evidence synthesis As a routine part of the initial assessment of male LUTS, a medical history must be taken, a validated symptom score questionnaire with quality-of-life question(s) should be completed, a physical examination including digital rectal examination should be performed, urinalysis must be ordered, post-void residual urine (PVR) should be measured, and uroflowmetry may be performed. Micturition frequency-volume charts or bladder diaries should be used to assess male LUTS with a prominent storage component or nocturia. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) should be measured only if a diagnosis of prostate cancer will change the management or if PSA can assist in decision-making for patients at risk of symptom progression and complications. Renal function must be assessed if renal impairment is suspected from the history and clinical examination, if the patient has hydronephrosis, or when considering surgical treatment for male LUTS. Uroflowmetry should be performed before any treatment. Imaging of the upper urinary tract in men with LUTS should be performed in patients with large PVR, haematuria, or a history of urolithiasis. Imaging of the prostate should be performed if this assists in choosing the appropriate drug and when considering surgical treatment. Urethrocystoscopy should only be performed in men with LUTS to exclude suspected bladder or urethral pathology and/or before minimally invasive/surgical therapies if the findings may change treatment. Pressure-flow studies should be performed only in individual patients for specific indications before surgery or when evaluation of the pathophysiology underlying LUTS is warranted. Conclusions These guidelines provide evidence-based practical guidance for assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS. An extended version is available online (www.uroweb.org/guidelines). Patient summary This article presents a short version of European Association of Urology guidelines for non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The recommended tests should be able to distinguish between uncomplicated male LUTS and possible differential diagnoses and to evaluate baseline parameters for treatment. The guidelines also define the clinical profile of patients to provide the best evidence-based care. An algorithm was developed to guide physicians in using appropriate diagnostic tests. © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Finsterer J.,Danube University Krems | Stollberger C.,Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung | Berger E.,Kaiser Franz Josef Spital
Herz | Year: 2012

Objectives: The I(f) blocker ivabradine reduces heart rate and improves systolic function without causing arterial hypotension. Ivabradine has not been reported to improve cardiac involvement in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Case report: In a 22-year-old Vietnamese male with BMD, cardiac involvement became apparent at age 19 years with reduced systolic function, which was treated with ramipril. At the age of 20 years, he developed sinus tachycardia, leg edema, coughing, and arterial hypotension. Dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed and ramipril was successfully replaced by candesartan, ivabradine, and furosemide. An attempt to discontinue ivabradine and increase candesartan was followed by recurrence of sinus tachycardia and reduction of blood pressure. Under ivabradine, candesartan, and spironolactone, which replaced furosemide, he achieved heart rates between 60 and 80 beats/min and systolic blood pressure values between 85 and 105 mmHg without heart failure. Conclusion: Ivabradine normalizes sinus tachycardia and resolves heart failure in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy from BMD. In addition to normalization of the heart rate and remodeling of the left ventricle, ivabradine seems to also have a positive inotropic effect in dilated cardiomyopathy of BMD patients. © 2012 Urban & Vogel, Muenchen.

Scherzer T.-M.,Medical University of Vienna | Stattermayer A.F.,Medical University of Vienna | Stauber R.,Medical University of Graz | Maieron A.,Elisabethinen Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2013

Background & Aims Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) gene protect patients from ribavirin induced anemia. To investigate other possible protective cofactors, gender differences were analyzed in patients with HCV genotype 1. Methods Hemoglobin levels at baseline (Hb0) and the decline after 4 weeks of treatment (HbΔ4) were analyzed in 308 chronic hepatitis C patients participating in 5 Austrian trials (n = 308, age 43.9 ± 11.1, male:185, female:123, BMI 25.3 ± 3.9, no cirrhosis: n = 259, liver cirrhosis: n = 49). All patients were treated with 180 μg peginterferon-alpha 2a and ribavirin [1000-1200 mg/d; females: mean (95% CI) 15.8 mg/kg (15.4-16.2); males 14.3 (14.1-14.5); p <0.001]. The SNPs rs6051702, rs1127354, rs7270101 and IL28B rs12979860 were analyzed by the StepOnePlus Real time PCR System. Results 188 were major alleles homozygotes; 95 (30.8%) carried the minor allele (C) of rs6051702, 47 (15.3%) of rs1127354 (A), and 69 (22.4%) of rs7270101 (C). The overall Hb0 was 14.8 g/dl (14.6-14.9) [mean (95%CI); females 13.7 (13.5-13.9); males 15.5; 15.3-15.6; p <0.001]. The overall HbΔ4 was greater in major allele homozygotes [2.8 g/dl (2.6-3.0)] than in minor allele carriers [1.6 (1.4-1.9); p <0.001]. Irrespective of the ITPA genotypes HbΔ4 was smaller in female [2.0 (1.7-2.2)] than in male patients [2.6 (2.4-2.8); p <0.001] and among females in premenopausal [1.5 (1.3-1.8)] than in postmenopausal patients [2.7 (2.3-3.1); p <0.001]. Conclusions Irrespective of the protective effect of ITPA mutations, premenopausal females less likely develop ribavirin induced anemia.

Cornu J.-N.,University Paris - Sud | Ahyai S.,Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf | Bachmann A.,University of Basel | De La Rosette J.,University of Amsterdam | And 6 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2015

Context A number of transurethral ablative techniques based on the use of innovative medical devices have been introduced in the recent past for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transurethral ablative procedures for BPO. Evidence acquisition A systematic literature search was performed for all RCTs comparing any transurethral surgical technique for BPO to another between 1992 and 2013. Efficacy was evaluated after a minimum follow-up of 1 yr based on International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum flow rate, and postvoid residual volume. Efficacy at midterm follow-up, prostate volume, perioperative data, and short-term and long-term complications were also assessed. Data were analyzed using RevMan software. Evidence synthesis A total of 69 RCTs (8517 enrolled patients) were included. No significant difference was found in terms of short-term efficacy between bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP) and monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (M-TURP). However, B-TURP was associated with a lower rate of perioperative complications. Better short-term efficacy outcomes, fewer immediate complications, and a shorter hospital stay were found after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) compared with M-TURP. Compared with M-TURP, GreenLight photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) was associated with a shorter hospital stay and fewer complications but no different short-term efficacy outcomes. Conclusions This meta-analysis shows that HoLEP is associated with more favorable outcomes than M-TURP in published RCTs. B-TURP and PVP have resulted in better perioperative outcomes without significant differences regarding efficacy parameters after short-term follow-up compared with M-TURP. Further studies are needed to provide long-term comparative data and head-to head comparisons of emerging techniques. Patient summary Bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate, photovaporization of the prostate, and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate have shown efficacy outcomes comparable with conventional techniques yet reduce the complication rate. The respective role of these new options in the surgical armamentarium needs to be refined to propose tailored surgical treatment for benign prostatic obstruction relief. © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Finsterer J.,Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung | Grisold W.,Kaiser Franz Josef Spital
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice | Year: 2015

Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required.

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