Kahramanmaras, Turkey
Kahramanmaras, Turkey

Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University is a public university founded 1992 in Kahramanmaraş, Turkey. The university carries out its academic activities in the campus located in the Avsar Campus, Bahceli evler, Karacasu, The Faculty of Medicine and Aksu campuses. Karacasu campus has an area of 100 hectares and Avsar campus, which is still under construction, will have an area of 1,300 hectares. 266 hectares of this area have been nationalized up to now. There are totally 170 departments and programs in our university ; 45 departments including the second education program in 10 faculties and 12 in higher vocational schools, 93 programs in higher vocational schools, 17 departments in the Institute of Natural science, 9 departments in the Institute of Social science, 6 departments subordinated to the Rectorate. Wikipedia.


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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.3.1-01 | Award Amount: 8.94M | Year: 2012

Most plants use the C3 pathway of photosynthesis that is compromised by gross inefficiencies in CO2 fixation. However, some plants use a super-charged photosynthetic mechanism called C4 photosynthesis. The C4 pathway is used by the most productive vegetation and crops on Earth. In addition to faster photosynthesis, C4 plants demand less water and less nitrogen. Overall, our aim is to introduce the characteristics of C4 into C3 crops. This would increase yield, reduce land area needed for cultivation, decrease irrigation, and limit fertiliser applications. If current C3 crops could be converted to use C4 photosynthesis, large economic and environmental benefits would ensue from both their increased productivity and the reduced inputs associated with the C4 pathway. It is important to note that the huge advances in agricultural production associated with the Green Revolution were not associated with increases in photosynthesis, and so its manipulation remains an unexplored target for crop improvement both for food and biomass. Even partial long-term success would have significant economic and environmental benefits. Efficient C4 photosynthesis would be achieved by alterations to leaf development, cell biology and biochemistry. Although initially we will be using model species such as rice and Arabidopsis we envisage rapid transfer of technological advances into mainstream EU crops, such as wheat and rape, that are used both for food and fuel. We will build capacity for C4 research in Europe in this area by the training of future generations of researchers. To achieve this aim we need to increase our understanding of the basic biology underlying the C4 pathway. Our specific objectives will therefore address fundamental aspects of C4 biology that are needed for a full understanding the pathway. Specifically we aim: 1. To understand the roles and development of the two cell types (mesophyll and bundle sheath) in C4 plants. 2. To identify mechanisms controlling the ex


Sage R.F.,University of Toronto | Sage T.L.,University of Toronto | Kocacinar F.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2012

C4 photosynthesis is one of the most convergent evolutionary phenomena in the biological world, with at least 66 independent origins. Evidence from these lineages consistently indicates that the C4 pathway is the end result of a series of evolutionary modifications to recover photorespired CO2 in environments where RuBisCO oxygenation is high. Phylogenetically ormed research indicates that the repositioning of mitochondria in the bundle sheath is one of the earliest steps in C4 evolution, as it may establish a single-celled mechanism to scavenge photorespired CO 2 produced in the bundle sheath cells. Elaboration of this mechanism leads to the two-celled photorespiratory concentration mechanism known as C2 photosynthesis (commonly observed in C3-C4 intermediate species) and then to C4 photosynthesis following the upregulation of a C 4 metabolic cycle. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Tiryaki I.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University | Keles H.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2012

Possible role of melatonin in the germination of negatively photoblastic and thermosensitive seeds of Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth was studied. Final germination percentage (FGP) was determined in the presence or absence of light at various temperatures, ranging from 0 to 40°C. The highest FGP was determined as 48.7% and 92% at temperature of 15°C in the presence and absence of light, respectively. Seeds were primed with 1% KNO 3 containing various concentrations (0.3, 1, 6, 12, 30, 60, or 90 μm) of melatonin for 2 days at 15°C in darkness. Primed seeds were germinated at an inhibitory temperature of 30°C, and results were compared to those occurring at the optimum temperature of 15°C under both light and no light conditions. Melatonin incorporated into priming medium significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of light and high temperature. Germination was elevated from 2.5% to 52% of FGP for seeds primed in the presence of 6 μm melatonin in darkness at 30°C, while 1 μm melatonin had the highest FGP (21.0%) in the presence of light at 30°C. The highest FGP (47.5%) was obtained from seeds primed in the presence of 0.3 μm melatonin under the light condition at 15°C, while untreated seeds had 1.5% of FGP. The fastest seed germination was determined from seeds primed in the presence of 0.3 μm melatonin (G 50 = 0.56 days) at 15°C in darkness. The possible roles of melatonin in promoting germination parameters of photo- and thermosensitive seed germination are discussed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Ozkan F.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of enthesopathy in familial Mediterranean fever by using a newly developed sonographic method, the Madrid Sonographic Enthesitis Index (MASEI). The study included 50 consecutive patients with familial Mediterranean fever and 57 healthy sex- and age-matched control participants. Six entheseal sites (olecranon tuberosity, superior and inferior poles of the patella, tibial tuberosity, and superior and inferior poles of the calcaneus) on both lower limbs were evaluated. All sonographic findings were identified according to MASEI. Validity was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. P < .05 was considered significant. Mean total enthesitis scores ± SD were 7.54 ± 4.99 for patients and 3.63 ± 3.03 for controls (P < .001). No statistically significant correlation was found between the MASEI score and familial Mediterranean fever duration or colchicine treatment duration. There was no difference between the MASEI score and the presence or absence of arthritic involvement among the patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.649-0.839). When analyzed by sex, men with familial Mediterranean fever had significantly higher MASEI scores than women (P < .05). This study showed significant enthesopathy in patients with familial Mediterranean fever. The findings support the hypothesis that familial Mediterranean fever and spondyloarthropathy may have common inflammatory mechanisms and suggest that the MASEI scoring system can be incorporated into clinical protocols for studying patients with familial Mediterranean fever in daily practice.


Toroglu S.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

Spices and herbs have been used for many years by different cultures. The aim of the present study is (1) to investigate in- vitro antimicrobial effects of different spices and herbs (5 species: Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. Brachycalyx P.H. Davis (White micromeria), Cumium cyminum (cumin), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) against different bacteria and fungi species, and (2) to discuss the in-vitro possible effects between the plants and antibiotics. The microorganisms used were Micrococcus luteus LA 2971, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Bacillus brevis FMC 3, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 15753, Pseudomonas pyocyaneusDC 127, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Escherichia coli DM, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Yersinia enterocolitica AU 19, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74 bacteria, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae WET 136, Kluvyeromyces fragilis DC 98 fungi in this study. The results indicated that essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, Coriandrum sativum L., Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. brachycalyx P.H. Davis, Cumium cyminum L., Mentha piperita L. were shown antimicrobial activity in the range of 7-60 mm 2 μl -1 inhibition zone to the microorganisms tested, using disc diffusion method. Standard antibiotic such as Gentamicin (10 μg), Cephalothin (30 μg), Ceftriaxone (10 μg), Nystatin (10 U) discs were used for comparison with the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of these plants. In addition, antibacterial activity of essential oils of these plants was researched by effects when it was used together with these standard antibiotics in vitro. However, antibacterial activity changed also by in vitro interactions between these standard antibiotics and essential oils of these plants. Synergic, additive or antagonist effects were observed in antibacterial activity. © 2011 Triveni Enterprises.


Uysal Y.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Lemna minor to remove Cr (VI) ions from wastewater in a continuous flow pond system. This system was used to simulate a wastewater treatment pond and a natural wetland as habitat of plants. In order to find optimal conditions for chromium removal, ponds were operated with aqueous solutions having different pH (4.0-7.0) and chromium concentration of 0.25mgCr+6/L, then plants were exposed to different chromium concentrations (0.25-5.0mgCr+6/L) at pH 4.0. Chromium concentrations, both in biomass and wastewater, were measured and removal efficiency was determined throughout water flow. Growth factors such as growth rates, chlorophyll contents and dry/fresh weight ratios of plants were also determined to measure toxic effects of chromium. The percentages of chromium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were calculated for each run. The highest accumulated chromium concentration (4.423mgCr/g) was found in plants grown in the first chamber of pond operated at pH 4.0 and 5.0mgCr/L, while the minimum accumulated chromium concentration (0.122mgCr/g) was in plants grown in the last chamber of pond operated at pH 4.0 and 0.25mgCr+6/L. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Bal B.C.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

In this study, laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and reinforced LVL (RLVL) with interwoven glass fibers were produced from poplar veneers (Populus x euramericana I-214) using phenol formaldehyde as the adhesive. Tests were performed on LVL and RLVL to determine their modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, specific modulus of rupture, specific modulus of elasticity, tensile shear strengths, and splitting strengths. Thus, the objective of the investigation was to determine how reinforcing LVL with woven glass fibers affected its flexural properties, bonding performance and splitting strengths. The results showed that reinforcement with woven glass fibers increased the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, and the splitting strength of RLVL was significantly greater than that of LVL. Another result was that the density of the reinforced LVL was increased significantly. Conversely, the reinforcement resulted in significant decreases in the specific modulus of rupture and the specific modulus of elasticity. Based on the experimental results that were obtained, it can be said that the reinforcement of LVL with woven glass fibers had some positive effects and some negative effects on the mechanical properties that were tested. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kok M.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2011

This study presents an experimental investigation of the effects of cutting speed, size and volume fraction of particle on the surface roughness in turning of 2024Al alloy composites reinforced with Al2O3 particles. A plan of experiments, based on Taguchi method, was performed machining with different cutting speeds using coated carbide tools K10 and TP30. The objective was to establish a correlation between cutting speed, size and volume fraction of particle with the surface roughness in workpieces. These correlations were obtained by multiple linear regression. The analysis of variance was also employed to carry out the effects of these parameters on the surface roughness. The test results revealed that surface roughness increased with increasing the cutting speed and decreased with increasing the size and the volume fraction of particles for both cutting tools. The average surface roughness values of TP30 cutting tools were observed to be lower than those of K10 tools. For the average surface roughness values of TP30 tool, cutting speed was found to be the most effective factor while the volume fraction of particle was the most effective factor for those of K10 tool. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental surface roughness was observed within a reasonable limit. © 2011 Springer-Verlag London Limited.


Kayadelen C.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Liquefaction of soils induced by the earthquake is one of the major complex problems for the geotechnical engineering. It is generally determined from in situ tests and laboratory test of which application is very difficult, expensive and time consuming. They also require extreme cautions and labor. Hence the development of new models for the prediction of liquefaction potential of soils provides fairly significant facility to design the constructions. This study presents the potential of Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy (ANFIS) computing paradigm to forecast the safety factor for liquefaction of soils. To develop the models, a total of 569 data set collected from the literature were used. Five parameters such as standard penetration test ((N1)60), percentage of finest content (FC), effective overburden stresses (σ′), cyclic stress ratios (CSR) and angle of shearing resistance (φ′) were used as input parameters. The performance of models was comprehensively judged using several statistical verification tools. The results revealed that GEP and ANFIS models are fairly promising approach for the prediction of the soil liquefaction potential and capable of representing the complex relationship between seismic properties of soils and their liquefaction potential. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Karatas S.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2010

In this study, electrical characteristics of the Sn/p-type Si (MS) Schottky diodes have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements at room temperature. The barrier height obtained from C-V measurement is higher than obtained from I-V measurement and this discrepancy can be explained by introducing a spatial distribution of barrier heights due to barrier height inhomogeneities, which are available at the nanostructure Sn/p-Si interface. A modified Norde's function combined with conventional forward I-V method was used to extract the parameters including barrier height (φb) and the series resistance (R S). The barrier height and series resistance obtained from Norde's function was compared with those from Cheung functions. In addition, the interface-state density (N SS) as a function of energy distribution (E SS-EV) was extracted from the forward-bias I-V measurements by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height (φb) and series resistance (R S) for the Schottky diodes. While the interface-state density (N SS) calculated without taking into account series resistance (R S) has increased exponentially with bias from 4.235 × 10 12 cm -2eV -1 in (E SS - 0.62) eV to 2.371 × 10 13 cm -2eV -1 in (E SS - 0.39) eV of p-Si, the N SS obtained taking into account the series resistance has increased exponentially with bias from of 4.235 × 1012 to 1.671 × 10 13 cm -2eV -1 in the same interval. This behaviour is attributed to the passivation of the p-doped Si surface with the presence of thin interfacial insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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