Suenaga H.,National Research Institute of Vegetables |
Suenaga H.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development |
Hamamura T.,National Research Institute of Vegetables |
Hamamura T.,Kubota Co.
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2014
We manipulated the density of the wolf spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch in enclosed cabbage plots (2 × 2 m) to assess the impact on the herbivore density and crop yield. P. astrigera was introduced to half of the enclosures at densities of 25 and 50 individuals/m2 in the spring and autumn experiments, respectively; spiders were removed from other enclosures. The results indicated that P. astrigera significantly suppressed the densities of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in the spring, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in the autumn experiments. The cabbage yield did not increase, despite the suppression of these herbivores. P. astrigera had no impact on three other lepidopteran species: Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval, Autographa nigrisigna (Walker), and Mamestra brassicae (L.). The number of spiders increased by 23 % but decreased by 62 % at the end of the spring and autumn experiments, respectively, compared with the initial numbers introduced. Our results show that wolf spiders (Lycosidae) would be effective biocontrol agents of certain herbivore species if spiders abundantly occur early in the crop season and remain stable throughout the season. However, further investigations are required to determine the effect of spiders on the crop yield. © 2014, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.
Tojo S.,Saga University |
Ryuda M.,Saga University |
Ryuda M.,JT Biohistory Research Hall |
Fukuda T.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development |
And 3 more authors.
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2013
Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) males were monitored with sex-pheromone traps from spring to early summer in 1999, 2002, 2003, 2009, and 2010 in four regions in East Asia: western Japan, South Korea, China, and Taiwan. The backward trajectory analysis was conducted to investigate whether any air current arrived over the monitoring sites around the dates when distinguished increases in catches of >100 insects per day occurred. The catch data showed abrupt catch increases. Some of the catch increases coincidentally appeared among monitoring sites several hundreds of kilometers apart. These catch increases were found to coincide with the arrival of southwesterly air currents within 24-36 h from southern China and/or Taiwan. Other evidence related to the overseas migration are discussed in detail. The results of this and previous studies suggest that S. litura males immigrate into western Japan and South Korea in spring to early summer using air currents from southern China and/or Taiwan. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.
Itoh M.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences |
Itoh M.,Kyoto University |
Sudo S.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences |
Mori S.,Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center |
And 10 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2011
In order to analyze the mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions and the global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy fields by modifying the adopted water-management technique, we conducted field experiments to measure the CH4 and N2O fluxes at nine sites across Japan. Over 2 years, we tested different water-management strategies such as prolonged midseason drainage (MD) in each site. The CH4 emission rates at each site varied considerably; the rates were dependent on the ratio of reductive and oxidative capacities of the fields. Seasonal CH4 emission was effectively reduced at most sites by prolonging MD beyond its conventional duration, especially at sites where organic matter was added to the soil before the cultivation. We attribute this result to the effective suppression of the CH4 emission peak that occurs early in the cultivation period. Despite the large variation in seasonal CH4 emissions among the sites, the rate of CH4 emission resulting from alternative water-management strategies relative to that resulting from conventional water-management strategies is highly dependent on the degree of drainage during the MD period. N2O emission at most sites, in terms of GWP-based CO2-equivalent, was much smaller than that of CH4 emission. Compared to conventional water-management strategies, the seasonal CH4 emissions and the net 100-year GWPs (CH4+N2O) can be suppressed to 69.5±3.4 (SE)% and 72.0±3.1% while maintaining grain yields as high as 96.2±2.0% by prolonging MD on average by employing the selected alternative water-management strategies that satisfied the following conditions: the percent of CH4 emission of alternative water-management strategies was less than 90% and the grain yield was greater than 85% relative to conventional water-management strategies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Kobayashi A.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station |
Sonoda J.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development |
Sugimoto K.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science |
Kondo M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
And 6 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2013
Decline in the apparent quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain due to high temperatures during ripening recently became a major concern in many areas in Japan. The occurrence of white-back kernels (WBK) is one of the main problems of heat-induced quality decline. We identified QTLs associated with the occurrence of WBK using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and verified their effects using near-isogenic lines (NILs). The QTL analysis used F7 and F8 RILs derived from 'Hana-echizen' (HE), which is tolerant to high temperature, × 'Niigata-wase' (NW), which is sensitive to high temperature. Four QTLs were identified on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, and 9 (qWB3, qWB4, qWB6 and qWB9). To verify the effects of qWB6 and qWB9, we developed two NILs in which qWB6 or both were introduced from HE into the NW background. The HE allele at qWB6 significantly decreased WBK under multiple environments. The combination of qWB6 and qWB9 in an F2 population derived from a cross between a NIL and NW showed that the NW allele at qWB9 significantly decreased WBK if the qWB6 allele was HE. These results will be of value in marker-assisted selection for the breeding of rice with tolerance to heat-induced quality decline.
Sawada K.,DSM nutrition Japan KK |
Nagano K.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development |
Nishino N.,Okayama University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2013
In this study, plasma 3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) and other Amino Acids (AA) were measured in high yielding dairy cows between 1 week prepartum and 4 weeks postpartum to evaluate the effect of different protein levels in a postpartum diet on milk performance, metabolites and feed intake. Eleven multiparous cows were used in the study and all received the same prepartum diet. Postpartum, they were divided into two groups; five cows received a diet of 19% CP (CP19) and six cows received a diet of 17% CP (CP17). Plasma 3-MH and also other AA concentrations were significantly lower in the CP19 cows than in the CP17 cows. The peak plasma 3-MH concentration postpartum in CP17 and CP19 were 15.5 and 9.9 μM, respectively while the mean plasma 3-MH concentration throughout the trial in CP17 and CP19 were 11.7 and 7.6 μM, respectively. Milk yield and composition tended to improve in CP19 cows, however, these were not significant. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) was significantly higher in CP19 than that in CP17 (14.3 vs. 9.9 mg dL-1, respectively). The kinetics of plasma 3-MH were the same as a earlier study where it increased after parturition for 1 week and then progressively decreased until 4 weeks postpartum. These results indicate that muscle protein mobilization can be lowered by protein in the diet as evidenced by plasma 3-MH. Lower AA might be an indication of their efficient utilization from the diet, so that an increased consumption of AA for milk production is reflected in lower AA levels in blood. This study suggested that even for cows receiving 19% CP in early lactation, if the AA utilization into milk protein is efficient, BUN can be kept within a normal range. In conclusion, plasma 3-MH is a sensitive and useful index for protein nutrition in early lactation and a 19% CP diet might be effective in preventing body protein degradation as evidenced by plasma 3-MH. © Medwell Journals, 2013.
Nakamura S.,Miyagi Prefectural Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture |
Masuda T.,Miyagi Prefectural Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture |
Mochizuki A.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences |
Konishi K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2013
Leafminer flies, especially, Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii, are quarantine species in many countries. Their morphological similarity makes identification difficult. To develop a rapid, reliable, sensitive and simple molecular identification method using multiplex PCR, we newly sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes of Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii, Chromatomyia horticola and four parasitoid species. We aligned them with all the COI sequences of the leafminer flies found in the international DNA nucleotide sequence databases (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBankWe then designed species-specific primers to allow us to differentiate between L. bryoniae, L. chinensis, L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, and L. trifolii. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sawada K.,DSM Nutrition Japan K.K. |
Nagano K.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development |
Nagano K.,Laboratory of Nippon Formula Feed Manufacturing Co. |
Nishino N.,Okayama University
Livestock Science | Year: 2012
Plasma 3-MH and amino acids were measured in high yielding dairy cows between one week prepartum and four weeks postpartum to evaluate the relationship between these parameters and forage intake. Cows received low forage or high forage content after calving with the same crude protein (CP), 17% (11% rumen-degradable protein; 6% rumen-undegradable protein) in the diets. Nine cows received a control (CON) diet (35% forage; 12% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF)) and five cows received a low-forage (LF) diet (25% forage; 7% forage NDF). Plasma 3-methylhistidine concentration at four weeks after parturition was significantly higher in LF than CON cows (9.1 vs. 5.1μM). Plasma urea concentrations were significantly higher in LF cows than in CON cows, ranging from 3.71 to 7.33. mM and 2.78 to 4.98. mM, respectively. Plasma methionine remained at a significantly lower level in LF, ranging from 17.5 to 24.1μM, compared with CON cows ranging from 26.6 to 39.5μM during the entire experimental period. Other amino acids were not affected by the LF diet but they decreased significantly towards parturition and returned to precalving levels by 4. weeks postcalving, except for leucine, glutamic acid, histidine and aspartic acid. Milk performance was not significantly different between the groups. The results indicate that a LF diet affects later plasma 3-MH increase, indicating the extension of body protein mobilization, which is commonly observed in early lactating dairy cows. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Ichinose K.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science |
Miyazi K.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development |
Matsuhira K.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development |
Yasuda K.,Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Research Center |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2010
Systemic insecticides and application methods were examined for the control of the vector psyllid of citrus greening disease, Diaphorina citri, on grown king mandarin trees in an orchard in southern Vietnam from May 2007 to September 2008. Leaf spraying of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin attained about 50% to 70% mortality of the psyllid for one month after the application and showed decreased efficacy thereafter. Imidacloprid was more effective than the other two insecticides, but the efficacy on grown trees was still much lower than that following application to young seedlings. Trunk injection of these insecticides accomplished similar mortality, about 50%, and the efficacy of the insecticides continued for one month. An adjuvant was used with the goal of protecting the insecticide applied on leaves from precipitation, and mineral oil was used for the same reason, as well as its potential to control the psyllid. Neither the adjuvant nor the mineral oil played an evident role in the increase of insecticide efficacy or longevity. Application of systemic insecticides at even 50 times the dose described above did not show an apparent increase in psyllid mortality. The insecticides commonly used for the control of the psyllid were not as effective on this insect on grown trees as we had expected they would be. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Shirao T.,Wadomari Town |
Ueno K.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development |
Abe T.,RIKEN |
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013
Four chrysanthemum cultivars were generated through (carbon) ion-beam irradiation of the original 'Jimba' (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). The new cultivars had acquired a number of superior cultivation traits, while remaining identical to the commercially available 'Jimba' in appearance. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to detect the mutated region of each strain, thereby allowing clear identification at the molecular level. PCR assays were performed with 446 primer sets, including random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primer sets (10-mer RAPD), arbitrarily primed (AP)-PCR primers based on retrotransposon-like sequences and modified RAPD primers (15-mer RAPD). 15-mer RAPD primers generated a 1. 49-fold increased band number at high annealing temperatures compared with the original 10-mer RAPD primers and could thus be effective for detection of polymorphic patterns. Our results provide information on the mutated regions of these ion-beam-irradiated chrysanthemum cultivars. Thus, specific DNA markers could be used to improve identification of new cultivars of chrysanthemum as well as other clonal cultivars of horticultural and agricultural crops. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Otuka A.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
Matsumura M.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
Sanada-Morimura S.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
Takeuchi H.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
And 3 more authors.
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2010
The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is one of the major insect pests of rice in East Asia. This species is known as a vector insect of Rice stripe virus, and has been believed to show strong indigenousness, unlike other migratory rice planthoppers, the brown planthopper and the whitebacked planthopper. Large trap catches of L. striatellus with high viruliferous rates were recorded in western Japan on a windy day in early June 2008, and subsequently, rice stripe diseases spread in these regions. The migration source was estimated using backward trajectory analysis, and found to be Jiangsu Province, China. Laodelphax striatellus with high viruliferous rates and rice stripe diseases has occurred markedly throughout Jiangsu Province since 2004, and early June is the wheat harvest season, which could serve as a stimulus for planthopper emigration. Insecticide susceptibility of populations collected in rice fields both in western Japan and Jiangsu were compared by a topical application method. Both Chinese and immigrant populations showed resistance only against imidacloprid, whereas Japanese local populations showed resistance only against fipronil. Collectively, this evidence suggested that the overseas migration of viruliferous L. striatellus from China to western Japan occurred and subsequently caused rice stripe diseases in the areas to which insects immigrated.