Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development

Minami Satsuma, Japan

Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development

Minami Satsuma, Japan
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Natsume M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Tashiro N.,Saga Prefectural Upland Farming Research and Extension Center | Doi A.,Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station | Nishi Y.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development | Kawaide H.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

Streptomyces scabies, causative agent of common scab of potato, produces the phytotoxins concanamycin and thaxtomin. In a potato tuber slice assay to study the contribution of concanamycins to lesion development, concanamycin A had weak necrosis-inducing activities; >10× the amount of thaxtomin A was needed to produce equivalent lesion severity. Concanamycins were detected in tubers inoculated with S. scabies, which caused deep-pitted lesions but not in those inoculated with Streptomyces acidiscabies, which caused corky, raised lesions. In field-grown, diseased potatoes, concanamycin content tended to be higher in tubers with deep-pitted lesions than in those with corky, raised lesions. © 2017 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan

Inoue K.,Japan National Institute of Rural Engineering of Japan | Nakazato H.,Japan National Institute of Rural Engineering of Japan | Kubota T.,Japan National Institute of Rural Engineering of Japan | Takeuchi M.,Geo Vest Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Exploration Geophysics | Year: 2017

An artificial groundwater recharge experiment was conducted in a pyroclastic plateau in Kagoshima Prefecture in Japan, and time-lapse electrical resistivity data were collected to monitor the recharge process. In the experiment, time-efficient in-line resistivity surveys were performed along four intersecting lines, because a large amount of water was released from two recharge areas and a relatively fast migration of water into the vadose zone was expected. The migration of recharged water may be estimated from changes in electrical resistivity because resistivity in the vadose zone is largely controlled by water saturation variations there. The geological setting at the experiment site was interpreted from the resistivity distribution inverted from the in-line survey data, which were obtained before the recharge experiment. The resistivity distribution showed an approximately layered structure, which could be correlated with four borehole logs in the area. Three-dimensional (3D) distributions of the resistivity change ratio were derived through constrained nonlinear ratio inversion. Three-dimensional inversion of the in-line resistivity data was more suitable than two-dimensional inversion to describe the 3D phenomena associated with groundwater recharge. During the recharge experiment, the zones of decreased resistivity shifted with time, indicating non-uniform penetration of water from the recharge areas into the ground and a horizontal flow of the recharged water, especially in the secondary Shirasu layer, which comprises lacustrine or marine sediments of pyroclastic origin. These interpretations agree with the variation in water content observed in a borehole. © 2017 Journal compilation ASEG.

Suenaga H.,Kagoshima Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development | Suenaga H.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2017

The sweet potato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., which has extrafloral nectaries, was visited by nine indigenous ant species in south Kyushu, Japan. These ant species were evaluated for their ability to remove the eggs of two lepidopteran species—Aedia leucomelas (Linnaeus) and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)—through ant-exclusion experiments. The results showed that Tetramorium bicarinatum (Nylander), one of the dominant ant species, is an efficient predator of lepidopteran eggs. This ant species removed A. leucomelas eggs from ant-visited plants in six trials conducted from mid-July to mid-October, with high removal rates (90–100%) occurring from mid-September onward. On ant-excluded plants, only 0–18% of exposed eggs were removed by ants that accidentally invaded the plants. Tetramorium bicarinatum also removed egg masses and the hatchlings of S. litura. The mean percent area of egg-laden leaves eaten by S. litura larvae was lower on ant-visited plants (0.9%) than on ant-excluded plants (57.3%). In contrast, Formica japonica Motschulsky, another dominant ant species, was not observed removing the eggs or larvae of the lepidopteran species. These results show that certain indigenous ant species are efficient as biocontrol agents. Thus, individual ant species need to be investigated for their ability to control insect pests in various crops. © 2017, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.

Kamimuro T.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development | Higashitarumizu S.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development | Suenaga H.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2017

We investigated the efficacy of insecticides to control the tea leaf roller, Caloptilia theivora, which is a major pest of tea fields throughout Kagoshima Prefecture. Benzoylurea analog insect growth regulator insecticide (s IGRs) exhibited low efficacy against the tea leaf roller in the Nansatsu region (Makurazaki City, Minamikyushu City). In a subsequent investigation on the sensitivity of different tea leaf roller populations in different regions of Kagoshima Prefecture, the LC50 for flufenoxuron in the Nansatsu population was found to range from 21.5 to 57.0 ppm(resistance ratio of 239- to 356-fold), confirming the population's reduced sensitivity. We speculate that this is due to the continuous use of this chemical to control a range of insects, including the tea leaf roller, for more than ten years. In addition, benzoylurea analog IGRs exhibited high efficacy in all other populations outside the Nansatsu region. Meanwhile, diacylhydrazine analog IGRs (methoxyfenozide), neonicotinoid (dinotefuran), and diamide (chlorantraniliprole) were confirmed to be effective against the tea leaf roller in all regions of the prefecture. In the future, it will be important to implement integrated pest management using insecticides with different modes of action depending on the region.

Tojo S.,Saga University | Ryuda M.,Saga University | Ryuda M.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Fukuda T.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development | And 3 more authors.
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2013

Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) males were monitored with sex-pheromone traps from spring to early summer in 1999, 2002, 2003, 2009, and 2010 in four regions in East Asia: western Japan, South Korea, China, and Taiwan. The backward trajectory analysis was conducted to investigate whether any air current arrived over the monitoring sites around the dates when distinguished increases in catches of >100 insects per day occurred. The catch data showed abrupt catch increases. Some of the catch increases coincidentally appeared among monitoring sites several hundreds of kilometers apart. These catch increases were found to coincide with the arrival of southwesterly air currents within 24-36 h from southern China and/or Taiwan. Other evidence related to the overseas migration are discussed in detail. The results of this and previous studies suggest that S. litura males immigrate into western Japan and South Korea in spring to early summer using air currents from southern China and/or Taiwan. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.

Itoh M.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Itoh M.,Kyoto University | Sudo S.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Mori S.,Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center | And 10 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2011

In order to analyze the mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions and the global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy fields by modifying the adopted water-management technique, we conducted field experiments to measure the CH4 and N2O fluxes at nine sites across Japan. Over 2 years, we tested different water-management strategies such as prolonged midseason drainage (MD) in each site. The CH4 emission rates at each site varied considerably; the rates were dependent on the ratio of reductive and oxidative capacities of the fields. Seasonal CH4 emission was effectively reduced at most sites by prolonging MD beyond its conventional duration, especially at sites where organic matter was added to the soil before the cultivation. We attribute this result to the effective suppression of the CH4 emission peak that occurs early in the cultivation period. Despite the large variation in seasonal CH4 emissions among the sites, the rate of CH4 emission resulting from alternative water-management strategies relative to that resulting from conventional water-management strategies is highly dependent on the degree of drainage during the MD period. N2O emission at most sites, in terms of GWP-based CO2-equivalent, was much smaller than that of CH4 emission. Compared to conventional water-management strategies, the seasonal CH4 emissions and the net 100-year GWPs (CH4+N2O) can be suppressed to 69.5±3.4 (SE)% and 72.0±3.1% while maintaining grain yields as high as 96.2±2.0% by prolonging MD on average by employing the selected alternative water-management strategies that satisfied the following conditions: the percent of CH4 emission of alternative water-management strategies was less than 90% and the grain yield was greater than 85% relative to conventional water-management strategies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Nakamura S.,Miyagi Prefectural Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture | Masuda T.,Miyagi Prefectural Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture | Mochizuki A.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Konishi K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2013

Leafminer flies, especially, Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii, are quarantine species in many countries. Their morphological similarity makes identification difficult. To develop a rapid, reliable, sensitive and simple molecular identification method using multiplex PCR, we newly sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes of Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii, Chromatomyia horticola and four parasitoid species. We aligned them with all the COI sequences of the leafminer flies found in the international DNA nucleotide sequence databases (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBankWe then designed species-specific primers to allow us to differentiate between L. bryoniae, L. chinensis, L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, and L. trifolii. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sawada K.,DSM Nutrition Japan K.K. | Nagano K.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development | Nagano K.,Laboratory of Nippon Formula Feed Manufacturing Co. | Nishino N.,Okayama University
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

Plasma 3-MH and amino acids were measured in high yielding dairy cows between one week prepartum and four weeks postpartum to evaluate the relationship between these parameters and forage intake. Cows received low forage or high forage content after calving with the same crude protein (CP), 17% (11% rumen-degradable protein; 6% rumen-undegradable protein) in the diets. Nine cows received a control (CON) diet (35% forage; 12% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF)) and five cows received a low-forage (LF) diet (25% forage; 7% forage NDF). Plasma 3-methylhistidine concentration at four weeks after parturition was significantly higher in LF than CON cows (9.1 vs. 5.1μM). Plasma urea concentrations were significantly higher in LF cows than in CON cows, ranging from 3.71 to 7.33. mM and 2.78 to 4.98. mM, respectively. Plasma methionine remained at a significantly lower level in LF, ranging from 17.5 to 24.1μM, compared with CON cows ranging from 26.6 to 39.5μM during the entire experimental period. Other amino acids were not affected by the LF diet but they decreased significantly towards parturition and returned to precalving levels by 4. weeks postcalving, except for leucine, glutamic acid, histidine and aspartic acid. Milk performance was not significantly different between the groups. The results indicate that a LF diet affects later plasma 3-MH increase, indicating the extension of body protein mobilization, which is commonly observed in early lactating dairy cows. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Shirao T.,Wadomari Town | Ueno K.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development | Abe T.,RIKEN | Matsuyama T.,RIKEN
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Four chrysanthemum cultivars were generated through (carbon) ion-beam irradiation of the original 'Jimba' (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). The new cultivars had acquired a number of superior cultivation traits, while remaining identical to the commercially available 'Jimba' in appearance. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to detect the mutated region of each strain, thereby allowing clear identification at the molecular level. PCR assays were performed with 446 primer sets, including random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primer sets (10-mer RAPD), arbitrarily primed (AP)-PCR primers based on retrotransposon-like sequences and modified RAPD primers (15-mer RAPD). 15-mer RAPD primers generated a 1. 49-fold increased band number at high annealing temperatures compared with the original 10-mer RAPD primers and could thus be effective for detection of polymorphic patterns. Our results provide information on the mutated regions of these ion-beam-irradiated chrysanthemum cultivars. Thus, specific DNA markers could be used to improve identification of new cultivars of chrysanthemum as well as other clonal cultivars of horticultural and agricultural crops. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Otuka A.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Matsumura M.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Sanada-Morimura S.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Takeuchi H.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2010

The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is one of the major insect pests of rice in East Asia. This species is known as a vector insect of Rice stripe virus, and has been believed to show strong indigenousness, unlike other migratory rice planthoppers, the brown planthopper and the whitebacked planthopper. Large trap catches of L. striatellus with high viruliferous rates were recorded in western Japan on a windy day in early June 2008, and subsequently, rice stripe diseases spread in these regions. The migration source was estimated using backward trajectory analysis, and found to be Jiangsu Province, China. Laodelphax striatellus with high viruliferous rates and rice stripe diseases has occurred markedly throughout Jiangsu Province since 2004, and early June is the wheat harvest season, which could serve as a stimulus for planthopper emigration. Insecticide susceptibility of populations collected in rice fields both in western Japan and Jiangsu were compared by a topical application method. Both Chinese and immigrant populations showed resistance only against imidacloprid, whereas Japanese local populations showed resistance only against fipronil. Collectively, this evidence suggested that the overseas migration of viruliferous L. striatellus from China to western Japan occurred and subsequently caused rice stripe diseases in the areas to which insects immigrated.

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