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Smidt E.C.,State University of Feira de Santana | Borba E.L.,Federal University of ABC | Gravendeel B.,Leiden University | Fischer G.A.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | van den Berg C.,State University of Feira de Santana
Taxon | Year: 2011

The systematic utility of sequences from two non-coding regions of plastid DNA, psbA-trnH and trnS-trnG, and one nuclear region, nrITS, was examined in an assessment of phylogenetic relationships among Neotropical sections of Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Dendrobieae). The nrITS region was 6 to 7 times more variable than the two cpDNA regions. No major incongruencies between the nuclear and cpDNA datasets were detected. The combined analysis revealed a well-resolved phylogeny at sectional level based on both maximum parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Six sections of Bulbophyllum are recognized for the Neotropics. Five of these were pre-existent but needed to be recircumscribed and one is proposed as new. We did not find disagreements between maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses, but the latter showed better resolved relationships between the sections, which are supported by morphological features. Of the two main clades of Neotropical Bulbophyllum species, one has two lineages and occurs predominantly north of the Equator. The second contains four lineages which are highly diverse in southeastern Brazil. Our results suggest a single colonization event in the Neotropics, from Africa to northern South America, followed by dispersion through the Andes to southeastern Brazil.


Zou F.,South China Institute of Endangered Animals | Zou F.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen G.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yang Q.,South China Institute of Endangered Animals | Fellowes J.R.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden
Ibis | Year: 2011

A total of 134 bird species were recorded at Jianfengling, Hainan Island, in China from May 2000 to September 2004, of which 44 participated in one or more of 134 mixed-species flocks. These flocks averaged 3.8±0.2 species and 20.3±1.2 individuals. Flocking propensity in a given species ranged from 1.5 to 100%. For flocking species, frequency of flocking and number of individuals in flocks was positively correlated with frequency and number in point counts. Among all species pairs with flocking frequency above 5%, cluster and correlation analysis indicated there were two principal groups of flocking birds - canopy species and understorey species: associations were positive within a group, but negative between groups. Canopy birds had a higher flocking propensity than understorey birds. They also made significantly less use of inner branches and trunks and greater use of middle branches, and foraged at a significantly greater height when in mixed-species flocks than when solitary. For understorey bird species, there were no significant differences in foraging locations between solitary and mixed-species flocks. Higher flocking frequency occurred in the wet season for canopy birds, but in the dry season for understorey birds. Overall patterns were consistent with the explanation that flocking enables an expansion of foraging niche by reducing the risk of predation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 British Ornithologists' Union.


Gale S.W.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Suddee S.,Forest Herbarium | Watthana S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden
Kew Bulletin | Year: 2013

Summary: A new one-flowered species of Nervilia is described and illustrated from plants collected in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, eastern Thailand. The glabrous, angular leaf of Nervilia khaoyaica Suddee, Watthana & S. W. Gale affiliates it to the taxonomically difficult and widespread Nervilia adolphi-punctata species alliance of Section Linervia, but it is otherwise readily distinguished by its broad, oblong-obovate lip with a saccate base and obscure, rounded side lobes below the middle, and by the striking colouration of the disk. © 2013 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


Gale S.W.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Kumar P.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Hu A.-Q.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Pang K.S.,Government of Hong Kong
Kew Bulletin | Year: 2013

Summary: The jewel orchid Cheirostylis pusilla Lindl. is newly recorded from Hong Kong, a significant distance from Yunnan Province, the only other confirmed locality for the species in China. A full description, photos and line drawings are presented for this hitherto poorly known species, and its conservation status is assessed. Cheirostylis malleifera C. S. P. Parish & Rchb. f. is shown to be a later synonym. © 2013 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


Qian H.,University of Illinois at Springfield | Swenson N.G.,Michigan State University | Zhang J.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim: Ecologists have generally agreed that beta diversity is a key component of global patterns of species richness. Incorporating phylogenetic information into the study of beta diversity allows researchers to identify the degree to which the shared evolutionary histories of species explain ecological patterns observed today. For example, phylogenetic analyses can determine whether closely related species tend to occupy similar positions along broad climatic gradients and whether this explains the compositional turnover along these gradients. Despite the promise of phylogenetic beta diversity analyses, few continental-scale investigations exist. Here, we quantify the phylogenetic beta diversity and taxonomic beta diversity of the angiosperm flora across North America. We relate these metrics to one another and to geographical and environmental distances to uncover the phylogenetic signal underlying species compositional turnover. Location: North America. Method: Seventy-one regional floras were used and assigned into five latitudinal zones and two longitudinal bands. The Sørensen index and PhyloSor index were used to quantify taxonomic similarity and phylogenetic similarity, respectively, between floras, and were related to geographical and environmental distances. Results: Phylogenetic similarity between floras is strongly correlated with taxonomic similarity, is higher in eastern North America than in western North America, and increases strikingly with latitude. Geographical and environmental distances together explained on average about 76% of the variation in phylogenetic beta diversity with environmental distance explaining more variation in phylogenetic similarity in three of the four latitudinal bands examined. Main conclusions: The results show that phylogenetic beta diversity is consistently lower than taxonomic beta diversity, which suggests that the spatial turnover of species in the study system is predominantly the spatial turnover of closely related species and not distantly related species. Thus, the turnover of angiosperm floras in North America is best explained by small divergences along environmental axes for closely related species and a gradual turnover of lineages through space. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Grioni A.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Ho K.K.Y.,University of Hong Kong | Karraker N.E.,University of Rhode Island | Leung K.M.Y.,University of Hong Kong
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Reference intervals for blood biochemical analytes and packed cell volume are useful to veterinarians and conservation programs for monitoring the health of threatened species. Populations of the critically endangered Chinese three-striped box turtle, Cuora trifasciata (Bell, 1825), are heavily depleted in the wild because of overharvesting; and many individuals are now maintained in captive breeding programs. Reference intervals of biochemical analytes and packed cell volume were established for individuals of this species held in a captive breeding program at Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong. Blood samples were obtained from 86 healthy individuals from a captive population during annual health examinations between 2006 and 2010. Packed cell volume and 17 biochemical analytes were measured, and data were analyzed using both multivariate and univariate statistical analyses. Significant differences in eight analytes between males and females were identified. Ten analytes were found to increase or decrease significantly with the body weight of the turtles. The reported plasma reference intervals, based on 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles, may serve as benchmarks for clinical assessment and conservation of this critically endangered species. © 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Yang L.,Nankai University | Li H.,Nankai University | Kendrick R.C.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden
ZooKeys | Year: 2012

The taxonomic study of the genus Thisizima Walker, 1864 is carried out in China. Thisizima subceratella sp. n. and T. fasciaria sp. n. are described as new based on the specimens collected in Fujian, Hainan and Hong Kong. Detailed male and female genitalia are described for the first time for the genus. Photographs of adults and genital structures are provided. A checklist of all the described species is included. © Linlin Yang et al.


Zhang M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Zhang M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Fellowes J.R.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Fellowes J.R.,Oxford Brookes University | And 5 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2010

The Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus) is one of the most endangered primates in the world, confined to mature natural forest in Hainan Island, China. We assessed changes in habitat condition on the island between 1991 and 2008, using vegetation maps generated by remote-sensing images. We defined forest suitable for gibbons based on composition, tree size and canopy cover. During the 17-year period, the area of suitable gibbon forest decreased by 540km2 (35%) across the whole island, and by 6.3km2 (7%) in the locality of the sole remaining gibbon population at Bawangling National Nature Reserve. The forest patches large enough (>1km2) to support a gibbon group decreased from 754km2 to 316km2 in total area, and from 92 to 64 in number. Suitable natural forest was mainly replaced by plantations below 760m, or degraded by logging, grazing and planting of pines above 760m. Meanwhile, forests in former confirmed gibbon areas became more fragmented: mean area of patches decreased by 53%. We mapped the patches of natural forest in good condition which could potentially support gibbons. We recommend a freeze on further expansion of plantations between core patches at Bawangling, Jiaxi-Houmiling and Yinggeling Nature Reserves in accordance with forest protection regulations; establishment of nature reserves in currently unprotected natural forest patches elsewhere in line with the local government's nature reserve expansion policy; and active natural-forest restoration between remaining fragments at Bawangling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lau M.W.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Fellowes J.R.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Fellowes J.R.,Oxford Brookes University | Chan B.P.L.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden
Mammal Review | Year: 2010

Evidence from the literature, interviews, market surveys, general rapid field surveys and camera trapping was reviewed to infer the regional status of 33 recorded carnivores in South China (Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Hong Kong and Macau). The carnivore fauna in South China is among the most depleted for any continental area in the world. The tiger Panthera tigris, leopard Panthera pardus, grey wolf Canis lupus and binturong Arctictis binturong are probably extirpated. The dhole Cuon alpinus, Asiatic golden cat Catopuma temmincki and clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa are at great risk of regional extirpation, as are the more ecologically adaptable red fox Vulpes vulpes, raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, Asian badger Meles leucurus, Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, Oriental small-clawed otter Aonyx cinereus and large Indian civet Viverra zibetha. Though more widely reported, the Asiatic black bear Ursus thibetanus, yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula, hog badger Arctonyx collaris and Siberian weasel Mustela sibirica are at regional risk. The status of the Burmese ferret-badger Melogale personata, stripe-backed weasel Mustela strigidorsa, smooth-coated otter Lutrogale perspicillata, large-spotted civet Viverra megaspila and Owston's palm civet Chrotogale owstoni is uncertain due to inadequate information. Five carnivore species - the Chinese ferret-badger Melogale moschata, masked palm civet Paguma larvata, yellow-bellied weasel Mustela kathiah, small Indian civet Viverricula indica and leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis - are relatively secure (though not common) in the region, along with the Asian palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and the Javan mongoose Herpestes javanicus in some areas, while the spotted linsang Prionodon pardicolor and crab-eating mongoose Herpestes urva may have been under-reported. The main threats have been habitat destruction and unsustainable exploitation. Only in Hong Kong, where enforcement of protection legislation has been stronger, are the surviving carnivore species easily encountered. Improved enforcement and monitoring are essential to retaining the remainder of South China's carnivores. Support could be boosted by conservation education and better research. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Mammal Society.


News Article | February 5, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

Hunted for food, traditional medicine and the pet trade, primate populations in Asia, particularly China, are under pressure. "I think it's going to be a very lucky year for all of us who care about monkeys, apes, primates and animals in general but particularly the primates," Goodall said in a video. "And I hope that it will be a year where we can really draw attention to the wonderful monkeys and apes of China and the rest of Asia because they badly need our help, we really need to step up conservation. And what better time to do it than the Year of the Monkey." In Hong Kong, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden wants to spread the message of conservation, while Ocean Park is aiming to educate the public about endangered wildlife.

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