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Stoter J.,Kadaster | Stoter J.,Technical University of Delft | Vallet B.,IGN | Lithen T.,Lantmateriet | And 6 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2016

Techniques for 3D mapping are maturing. At the same time the need for 3D data is increasing. This has pushed national (and regional) mapping agencies (NMAs) to consider extending their traditional task of providing topographic data into the third dimension. To show how research results in 3D mapping obtained over the past twenty years have been adopted by practice, this paper presents the ongoing work on 3D mapping within seven NMAs, all member of the 3D Special Interest Group of European Spatial Data Research (EuroSDR). The paper shows that some NMAs are still in the initial (experimental) phase of 3D mapping, while others have already built solid databases to maintain 2.5D and 3D topographic data covering their whole country.

Heeringen H.V.,Sogeti Inc. | Kuijpers H.,Software Improvement Group | Scholten R.,Kadaster | Uiterkamp F.S.,Rendeck Automatisering | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings - 2014 Joint Conference of the International Workshop on Software Measurement, IWSM 2014 and the International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement, Mensura 2014 | Year: 2014

Outsourcing software development projects continues to be a very difficult task for many organizations. They struggle with the questions they should ask in the 'Request for Proposal (RFP)' phase. These organizations wish to find the questions that enable them to compare the bidding suppliers in an objective, yet meaningful way and they wish to select the right supplier based on this comparison. In practice, the industry sees many RFP's that seem to comply to this goal, but when looked into a little detailed, it becomes obvious that in many cases the comparison is not objective and meaningful at all and even that in many cases the wrong supplier is selected, often resulting in failing projects. Repeatedly, suppliers argue with client organizations about the objective reasoning for missed offers and sometimes they even start legal actions. © 2014 IEEE.

Stoter J.,Kadaster | Stoter J.,Technical University of Delft | Reuvers M.,Geonovum | Vosselman G.,NCG | And 5 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

This paper presents the ongoing research project in The Netherlands in which a large number of stakeholders are realising a 3D testbed based on selected use cases and test areas. The findings of the project will result in a Proof of Concept for a 3D Geo-information standard and a 3D data infrastructure in The Netherlands compatible with international (e.g. CityGML) and national standards.

Huisman L.,Kadaster | Huisman L.,Technical University of Delft | Teunissen P.J.G.,Technical University of Delft | Teunissen P.J.G.,Curtin University Australia
International Association of Geodesy Symposia | Year: 2016

Real-time orbit and clock corrections to GPS broadcast ephemeris, in short broadcast corrections (BCs), have become available as International GNSS Service (IGS) products through the IGS Real-time Service (RTS) in 2013. The BCs are distributed via the Network Transport of RTCMby Internet Protocol (NTRIP) according to RTCMState Space Representation standards. When applying the BCs in real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP), user positions with sub-decimetre precision after convergence can be obtained. The IGS BCs refer to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008 (ITRF2008). BCs in regional reference frames (RBCs) are available through regional NTRIP broadcasters in Europe, North-America, South-America and Australia. The IGS RTS website states that: Applying orbit and clock corrections from regional product streams in a real-time PPP solution automatically leads to regional coordinates. The PPP client would not need to transform coordinates because that is already done on the server side. However, in contrast to the PPP-approach that uses BCs in ITRF2008 followed by a transformation to the local datum, the approach based on RBCs causes a bias in the PPP solution due to the scale factor between regional and global reference frames. This scale induced bias is satellite geometry dependent when the conventional 14-parameter transformation from the global to the regional reference frame is applied to the satellite position vectors in ITRF2008, to derive the RBCs from the IGS BCs. The size of the scale induced bias is significant. The bias is up to 8 cm for the Australian GDA94 and up to 0.5 cm for the North American NAD83. Currently an additional satellite position dependent value is added to the satellite clock correction to deal with the scale induced biases of three RBCs, resulting in a transformed clock correction (Weber, BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) Version 2.9 – Manual, 2013). Applying these transformed clocks results in a remaining scale induced bias of less then 10mm for each RBC of ETRF2000, NAD83 and SIRGAS2000. For GDA94 the remaining scale induced bias is maximum 30 mm, this is caused by the large scale factor of GDA94 compared to other regional reference frames. This contribution will show that the remaining bias in the PPP solution is practically independent from satellite geometry and depends mainly on the user position; hence the remaining bias can be predicted and corrected for at any location. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Stoter J.E.,Technical University of Delft | Van Smaalen J.,Esri | Nijhuis R.,Kadaster | Dortland A.,Kadaster | And 2 more authors.
Urban and Regional Data Management, UDMS Annual 2011 - Proceedings of the Urban Data Management Society Symposium 2011 | Year: 2012

This paper studies the feasibility of fully automated generalisation of topographic data in the context of nowadays use of geo-information and available technologies. The starting point is that the requirements with respect to up-to-dateness may get priority over cartographic principles, although the result should still be of acceptable quality. In addition the study acknowledges that the results obtained by an automated process may differ from results from interactive processes. A pilot was carried out that takes these perspectives and set up a fully automated generalisation workflow using commercial software. In the pilot the workflow has been refined and the optimal implementations and parameter settings have experimentally been determined by an expert team in five weeks time. The results show potentials to generalise a 1:50 k map from 1:10 k data in a fully automated manner. Issues for further research are identified. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.

Stoter J.,Kadaster | Stoter J.,Technical University of Delft | Van Altena V.,Kadaster | Post M.,Kadaster | And 2 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2016

Producing maps and geo-data at different scales is traditionally one of the main tasks of National (and regional) Mapping Agencies (NMAs). The derivation of low-scale maps (i.e. with less detail) from large-scale maps (with more detail), i.e. generalisation, used to be a manual task of cartographers. With the need for more up-to-date data as well as the development of automated generalisation solutions in both research and industry, NMAs are implementing automated generalisation production lines. To exchange experiences and identify remaining issues, a workshop was organised end 2015 by the Commission on Generalisation and Multi-representation of the International Cartographic Association and the Commission on Modelling and Processing of the European Spatial Data Research. This paper reports about the workshop outcomes. It shows that, most NMAs have implemented a certain form of automation in their workflows, varying from generalisation of certain features while still maintaining a manual workflow; semi-automated editing and generalisation to a fully automated procedure.

Stoter J.,Technical University of Delft | Visser T.,University of Twente | van Oosterom P.,Technical University of Delft | Quak W.,Technical University of Delft | Bakker N.,Kadaster
International Journal of Geographical Information Science | Year: 2011

National mapping agencies maintain topographic data sets at different scales. Keeping the data sets consistent, for example by means of automated update propagation, requires formal knowledge on how the different data sets relate to each other. This article presents a multi-scale information model that, first, integrates the data states at the different scales and, second, formalises semantics on scale transitions. This is expressed using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) class diagrams, complemented with Object Constraint Language (OCL). Based on a requirement analysis using the needs of the Netherlands' Kadaster as case study, this article examines several modelling alternatives and selects the optimal modelling approach for a multi-scale information model for topography. The model is evaluated through a prototype database implementation. The results show that UML/OCL provides an appropriate formalism to model rich semantics on both multi-scale data content and scale transitions, which can be used for guarding consistency based on automated generalisation of updates. Further research is required to express generalisation specifications that are currently not formalised and that are only available in software code or as cartographers' knowledge. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Van Hinsbergh W.,Kadaster | Rijsdijk M.,Kadaster | Witteveen W.,Kadaster
GIM International | Year: 2013

Identification of the location of new legal boundaries is presently done on site in the presence of a cadastral officer. Even when an appointment has been made, and sometimes when the cadastral officer is already on site, seller and/or buyer frequently cancel the arrangement - an undesirable and costly phenomenon. High-resolution images enable the creation of orthomosaics of uniform scale and hence the boundaries outlined are free of distortion. However, orthomosaics created from conventional aerial images are unsuitable because their current precision and resolution are too low. During the winter and spring of 2012, Kadaster started tests on the suitability of aerial images captured by UAS for the identification of property boundaries. The tests were conducted in co-operation with KLPD (Dutch national police force), National Aerospace Laboratory of the Netherlands (NLR) and, in a later stage, the firm OrbitGIS. Three experiments were conducted at two locations: Austerlitz and the city of Nunspeet.

Grus M.,Kadaster | Te Winkel D.,Kadaster
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2015

Since Topographical Key Register has become an open data the amount of users increased enormously. The highest grow was in the private users group. The increasing number of users and their growing demand for high actuality of the topographic data sets motivates the Dutch Kadaster to innovate and improve the Topographical Key Register (BRT). One of the initiatives was to provide a voluntary geographical information project aiming at providing a user-friendly feedback system adjusted to all kinds of user groups. The feedback system is a compulsory element of the Topographical Key Register in the Netherlands. The Dutch Kadaster is obliged to deliver a feedback system and the key-users are obliged to use it. The aim of the feedback system is to improve the quality and stimulate the usage of the data. The results of the pilot shows that the user-friendly and open to everyone feedback system contributes enormously to improve the quality of the topographic dataset.

Stoter J.,Technical University of Delft | Post M.,Kadaster | Van Altena V.,Kadaster | Nijhuis R.,Kadaster | Bruns B.,Kadaster
Cartography and Geographic Information Science | Year: 2014

This article presents research that implements a fully automated workflow to generalize a 1:50k map from 1:10k data. This is the first time that a complete topographic map has been generalized without any human interaction. More noteworthy is that the resulting map is good enough to replace the existing map. Specifications for the automated process were established as part of this research.Replication of the existing map was not the aim, because feasibility of automated generalization is better when compliance with traditional generalizations rules is loosened and alternate approaches are acceptable. Indeed, users valued the currency and relevancy of geographical information more than complying with all existing cartographic guidelines. The development of the workflow thus started with the creation of a test map with automated generalization operations. The reason for the test map was to show what is technologically possible and to refine the results based on iterative users evaluation. The generalization operations (200 in total) containing the relevant algorithms and parameter values were developed and implemented in one model. Particular effort was made to enrich the source data in order to improve the results. The model is context aware which means it is able to apply different algorithms or adjust parameter values in accordance with a specific area. The result of the research is a fully automated generalization workflow that produces a countrywide map at scale 1:50k from 1:10k data in 50 hours.A fully automated workflow may be the only way to produce flexible and on-demand products; consequently, the results were implemented as a new production line in 2013. Issues for further research have been identified. © 2013 Cartography and Geographic Information Society.

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