Kabul, Afghanistan
Kabul, Afghanistan

Kabul University is located in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. It was founded in 1931 but officially opened for classes in 1932. Kabul University is attended by 7,000 students, of which 1,700 are women. Hamidullah Amin is the chancellor of the university. The university is still recovering from the long period of war and chaos in the country. The main building was renovated about 500 meters from the old one, which has almost the same design. Wikipedia.


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Tominaga A.,Nagoya Institute of Technology | Sadat S.H.,Kabul University
River Sedimentation - Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on River Sedimentation, ISRS 2016 | Year: 2017

The combination of permeable and impermeable spur dike was proposed to reduce severe local scour and to create diverse reverbed configuration. The purpose is to find out an optimum distance between pilegroup and solid spur dike for reducing the local scour. We investigated the flow structure and bed deformation around a single spur dike downstream of a pile-group in an open channel. A series of experiments were conducted under emerged flow and clear-water scour conditions. In the cases with an upstream pile-group, the local scour was faded with a noticeable decrease in the depth and amount of bed erosion. The scour depth and volume were decreased as the distance increased from zero to four times the spur dike length. In the cases with a pile-group, flow near the spur dike became lower relative to the single solid spur-dike case. The flow structures around the combination of the pile-group and the spur dike were well simulated by a 2D numerical model and the reduction of the bed shear stress near the spur dike by the pile-group was demonstrated. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Saay S.,Kabul University | Norta A.,Tallinn University of Technology | Laanpere M.,Tallinn University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) are for sharing resources between member organizations. NRENs play an important role in e-learning activities as they provide necessary communication. Heterogeneous infrastructures used for e-learning are a challenge for system design, integrity and interoperability. This paper proposed a NREN e-learning reference model and affiliated NREN e-learning architectural patterns that considered communication, reliable access, cooperation between e-learning infrastructures and interoperability. Research exists about different architecture including services oriented Cloud computing, For example, the E-School Systems and other institutional e-learning systems use traditional client server architectures. However, no research has been carried out on NREN e-learning architectures. For deeper insight, we investigate and compare in this paper the Estonian Education and Research Network (EENet) as an NREN example of a developed country, the Pakistan Education and the Research Network (PERN) as an example of a developing country and the Afghanistan Research and Education Network (AfgREN). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Rahimzai M.,Kabul University | Amiri M.,Kabul University | Burhani N.H.,Ministry of Public Health | Leatherman S.,University of North Carolina | And 2 more authors.
International Journal for Quality in Health Care | Year: 2013

Quality problem or issue. When the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan began reconstructing the health system in 2003, it faced serious challenges. Decades of war had severely damaged the health infrastructure and the country's ability to deliver health services. Initial assessment. A national health resources assessment in 2002 revealed huge structural and resource disparities fundamental to improving health care. For example, only 9% of the population was able to access basic health services, and about 40% of health facilities had no female health providers, severely constraining access of women to health care. Multiple donor programs and the MoPH had some success in improving quality, but questions about sustainability, as well as fragmentation and poor coordination, existed. Plan of action. In 2009, MoPH resolved to align and accelerate quality improvement efforts as well as build structural and skill capacity. Implementation. The MoPH established a new quality unit within the ministry and undertook a year-long consultative process that drew on international evidence and inputs from all levels of the health system to developed a National Strategy for Improving Quality in Health Care consisting of a strategy implementation framework and a five-year operational plan. Lessons Learned. Even in resource-restrained countries, under the most adverse circumstances, quality of health care can be improved at the front-lines and a consensual and coherent national quality strategy developed and implemented. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; All rights reserved.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The Birmingham Museum of Art announces the third Bunting Biennial Ceramics Symposium to be held at the Museum February 17 – 18, 2017. Established and debuted by the Birmingham Museum of Art in 2013, the Ceramics Symposium serves as a platform to broaden international dialogue about the study, creation, and collection of ceramic arts historically and today. “A large portion of our collection is ceramics, and we'd like people to understand that the making and using of ceramics is universal. The history of ceramics is essentially the history of mankind and even today, when ceramics can be pretty cheap to buy and easily replaced, we can all somehow relate to the ceramics of other times and cultures because each society continues to create and use ceramics,” says Anne Forschler-Tarrasch, the Marguerite Jones Harbert and John M. Harbert III Curator of Decorative Arts at the Birmingham Museum of Art. The symposium seeks to explore all aspects of ceramics from function, style, and decoration to technology, artists and factories. The 2017 theme Communities of Clay: Ceramic Enterprises Past and Present will explore topics of ceramic enterprises past and present by considering the subject in a broad array of historical and geographical contexts. Acclaimed ceramic artist Susan Folwell and cultural specialist Ali Istalifi will be featured as the keynote speakers. Five additional speakers will comprise the weekend agenda. The symposium is presented in conjunction with the 32nd annual Alabama Clay Conference. "We are so excited to host our third Bunting Ceramics Symposium. These biennial gatherings bring together scholars, collectors, artists, and the general public to hear wonderful talks about ceramics traditions from around the world. Our theme this year looks at communities all over the world that have specialized in making ceramics - one of the oldest art forms in existence. It's interesting to consider who has guarded that knowledge and passed it down, and whether ceramics economies are viable today,” says Emily Hanna, Curator of the Arts of Africa and the Americas at the Birmingham Museum of Art. The Birmingham Museum of Art, a comprehensive regional museum, has emerged as a major Southeastern center for ceramic study. The collection, which is divided among six major curatorial departments, currently includes more than 16,000 objects of ceramic art dating from the Jomon period of Neolithic Japan to the present day. The collection reflects the centrality of ceramics to cultures worldwide as objects of utilitarian, ritualistic, or aesthetic significance. Susan Folwell, a ceramic artist from Santa Clara Pueblo, Taos, New Mexico, has won numerous awards for her work and has been featured in several books, including NDN Art: Contemporary Native American Art, Free Spirit: The New Native American Potter, and Changing Hands: Art Without Reservation: Contemporary Native American Art From the Southwest. Her work is represented in well over a dozen permanent museum collections world-wide. Folwell is also an active board member of the Southwestern Association for Indian Arts (SWAIA) and is chair of the SWAIA Arts Committee. Ali Istalifi is a specialist in Central Asian ethnographic arts and crafts, a project manager at Jindhag Foundation, and an independent filmmaker. He was born in Kabul, Afghanistan. His father, Abdul Istalifi, is a renowned arts and crafts dealer in Kabul and his mother was a senior professor of law at Kabul University. During his childhood, Afghanistan was a relatively liberal, peaceful and normal place. However, during the 1980s, after the Soviet Invasion, Afghanistan changed dramatically. As the political situation deteriorated further, Abdul decided that Ali, his brother, and mother would move to London, but he stayed behind to care for less fortunate members of their extended family. Ali grew up in London, but with his father still in Afghanistan, he never lost his connection to his homeland. In 2000, Ali graduated from London’s Brunel University with an honors degree in Film and TV Studies and American studies with the goal of pursuing a career in media. However, when Afghanistan was liberated in 2001, he was finally able to communicate with his father, who expressed an interest in helping to rebuild the war-devastated country. The reunion of father and son in 2003 was also the start of the project to revive Istalif, Ali’s father’s home in Afghanistan. Anne Forschler-Tarrasch, Ph.D., chief curator, The Marguerite Jones Harbert and John M. Harbert III Curator of Decorative Arts, Birmingham Museum of Art Bruce Bernstein, Ph.D., executive director and curator, Ralph T. Coe Foundation for the Arts, Santa Fe, NM Chris Kelly, chair of the art department and associate professor of art, Piedmont College, Demorest, GA Founded in 1951, the Birmingham Museum of Art has one of the finest collections in the Southeast. More than 27,000 objects displayed within the Museum represent a rich panorama of cultures, including Asian, European, American, African, Pre-Columbian, and Native American. Highlights include the Museum’s collection of Asian art, Vietnamese ceramics, the Kress collection of Renaissance and Baroque paintings, sculpture, and decorative arts from the late 13th century to the 1750s, and the Museum’s world- renowned collection of Wedgwood, the largest outside of England.


Aziz Mohibbi A.,Kabul University | Cochard R.,ETH Zurich
Environmental Development | Year: 2014

In 2009 the scenic Band-e-Amir Lakes and surrounding landscapes (2800-3800. m elevation) were declared Afghanistan's first national park (BANP) with the hope that the lakes will eventually attract tourists at levels as before the war period (1979-2001). The area is rich in plant species, and was formerly populated by ibex and urial. Today fauna is impoverished and vegetation (mostly mountain steppe) is degraded due to intensive livestock grazing, dryland agriculture, and shrub collection. BANP was created in collaboration with local residents (~800 families), and longer-term plans are to upgrade biological qualities of landscapes whilst improving residents' livelihoods. To provide baselines for adequate management plans, a survey of 116 households was conducted in 15 villages. Most families were subsistent agro-pastoralists. Population growth was ~2.2% annually. Estimates of mostly free-ranging livestock populations were ~19,900 sheep and goats, ~2500 cattle, and ~2100 donkeys and horses. Grazing impacts were evident, especially near villages. Families collected ~3.1. t of shrubs and ~0.4. t of cattle dung annually as biofuel. Estimates indicated that ≥0.7% of BANP area was cleared of shrubs annually. Dryland agriculture covered ~3.4% area. Other resource uses (collection of reed, medicinal plants, hunting, fishing) were assessed. Further research is needed on spatial patterns of resource exploitation and vegetation ecology. Promotion of alternative energy sources could alleviate pressures on shrub resources. Steep lands should be better protected (possibly fenced) from livestock and human impacts. Environmental workshops with residents and integration of locals in research projects could enhance management effectiveness and acceptance of park rules. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Safi Z.,Kabul University | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics | Year: 2011

Little is known about the heavy metal and microbial contamination of vegetables produced in Central Asian cities. We therefore measured the concentration of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) and of faecal pathogens (Coliform bacteria, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Ascaris lubricoides, Entamoeba sp. and pinworms [Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis]) in soil, irrigation water, and marketed vegetables of Kabul City, Afghanistan. Leaf Pb and Zn concentrations of leafy vegetables were with 1-5 and 33-160 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) several-fold above respective international thresholds of 0.3 mg Pb kg -1 and 50 mg Zn kg -1. The tissue concentration of Cu was below threshold limits in all samples except for spinach in one farm. Above-threshold loads of microbes and parasites on vegetables were found in five out of six gardens with coliforms ranging from 0.5-2 × 10 7 ' cells 100g -1 fresh weight (FW), but no Salmonella and Shigella were found. Contamination with 0.2 × 10 7 eggs l00g -1 FW of Ascaris was detected on produce of three farms and critical concentrations of Entamoeba in a single case, while Oxyuris vermicularis, and Enterobius vermicularis were found on produce of three and four farms, respectively. Irrigation water had Ascaris, Coliforms, Salmonella, Shigella, Entamoeba, and Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis ranging from 0.35 × 10 7 to 2 × 10 7 cells l -1 The heavy metal and microbial loads on fresh UPA vegetables are likely the result of contamination from rising traffic, residues of the past decades of war and lacking treatment of sewage which needs urgent attention.


News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.fastcompany.com

It's been 15 years since U.S. forces invaded Afghanistan. In the capital city of Kabul—the world’s fifth-fastest-growing urban population, which jumped from half a million in 2001 to over 4.6 million—the Afghan government struggles against a worsening humanitarian situation. As U.S. and NATO troops continue to withdraw, so do international aid workers. Typically, the burden of international problems such as poverty, disaster, and war are left exclusively to governments and nonprofit organizations. In recent years, a new approach has emerged. Social entrepreneurs are spearheading job growth and stability, and a burgeoning private sector seeks to stabilize the economy and break the dependency on foreign aid. They walk a fragile line. They must build networks with trusted government workers, the international business community, young students, and professionals. Many Afghan business leaders hope to attract investors who will bet on them to secure hard-won gains in human rights, especially for women. Shetab Afghanistan, which translates to "accelerator" in Persian/Dari, is a newly launched incubator and coworking space offering mentoring and acceleration services for social innovators, activists, and entrepreneurs. Founders Ajmal Paiman and Azadeh Tajdar launched their first lab to support six startups this September. This included the first female participant in Shetab’s emerging network, a country ranked to be the most oppressive in the world for girls and women. "Afghanistan has a nascent women-led startup scene, and women need more encouragement and incentives to actually consider the entrepreneurial option, particularly in the Afghan context, where formal employment opportunities for women are limited," explains Tajdar. "The more successful female entrepreneurs emerge in Afghanistan, the more society will leap forward." According to the U.N., the World Bank, and other organizations, when women have access to education, jobs, and leadership positions, communities and nations benefit. But there are significant challenges. estimates that almost nine out of 10 Afghan women face physical, sexual, or psychological violence or are forced into marriage. As in many countries, Afghan girls tend to drop out in secondary school due to cultural barriers, including early marriage practices. The United Nations Population Fund estimates that 46% of Afghan girls are married by age 18, and 15% of them are married before age 15. The country has the highest gender disparity in the world for primary education: 71 girls attend for every 100 boys. Only 21% of these girls end up completing primary school. According to experts and women across the war-torn country, little has changed for women there, despite upwards of $1.5 billion spent to empower women and girls. But could supporting women-led initiatives and startups ensure intervention programs run as intended? "Entrepreneurship also empowers, enabling a poor woman in a poor country to generate income, secure a good home, and send her children to school," states Steven Koltai, who helped lead the creation of the Global Entrepreneurship Program under former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. "This is also the promise of microfinance, but full-blown entrepreneurship takes it to a meaningful, lasting level," he says. Koltai sees entrepreneurship as the first step up the economic ladder, "providing access to both well-being and social respect for those who are normally denied such access, including women, ethnic minorities, and those lacking friends in high places." Over the course of two years, Koltai acted as senior adviser to the Global Entrepreneurship Program and oversaw the launch of pilot projects across the Middle East. For Koltai, "There’s a straight-line connection between unemployment, and political instability and unrest." Fostering entrepreneurship is the remedy. Koltai believes that the U.S. government should be spending more money to support entrepreneurs. "I’d like to see it shift its international economic development resources—even slightly—so that more U.S. aid dollars are directed to bolstering the entrepreneurship ecosystems that are essential to nurturing startups," he says. Afghan President Ashraf Ghani expressed a similar view in his TEDGlobal talk, "How to Rebuild a Broken State." He urged the importance of global engagement in the region, but stressed, "Instead of sending $100 billion in aid, send the money to the most innovative companies." Ghani echoed this in his inaugural speech in 2014, referring to it as a "triangle of stability" whose three sides are the economy, security, and human resources. His leadership aims to stimulate the private sector by attracting foreign investors as traditional aid dries up. To date, the U.S. has spent over $850 billion in Afghanistan. Of that money, roughly $218 million went towards entrepreneurship. From 2012 to 2016, the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Assistance in Building Afghanistan by Developing Enterprise (ABADE) program created more than 260 public-private alliances with Afghan businesses. In 2015, the Social Impact Partnership Act was proposed to Congress with bipartisan support, but it has not yet passed. The uncertainty of the security transition poses problems for a country whose past decade of economic growth has relied on international aid and spending, which has been referred to as the "Kabul bubble." According to the World Bank, Afghanistan's economic growth was down sharply to 3.7% in 2013. An in-person poll by Gallup revealed that job prospects across Afghanistan have been in sharp decline since 2012. Supporting a new model of collaboration could be the key to securing a better future for Afghanistan's people. "As international NGOs are leaving, the status of women is even more fragile," says Dr. Massouda Jalal, the former minister of women’s affairs who ran for president in 2004. She created the Jalal Foundation in 2007, the first women-led initiative of its type in Afghanistan’s history. The Jalal Foundation reports that so far, 120,000 women have been trained in literacy, English, IT, leadership, and political participation. 150,000 women are now active in local councils, 1,600 have tried to join local elections as candidates, 10,000 have been trained to serve as election clerks, and 80% of the women to vote in the 2014 election were women directed by one of her programs. Jalal wants the trend to continue for the upcoming 2017 election. Afghanistan’s constitution guarantees women both the right to an education and to employment, but in the political world, there is a gap between agreed-upon rights and the reality on the ground. For this reason, Jalal says she would like it to be easier for women to participate in rebuilding Afghanistan’s political system. Women were noticeably absent in the peace talks held in Qatar. Human Rights Watch has stressed that international donors will increase once female participation in peace talks is guaranteed. "For Afghan women’s rights, we want to build a culture where women can help the economy rise, and that’s why we rely on solidarity with organizations to promote women as first-class citizens who can contribute to social life," says Jalal. The Jalal Foundation is currently focused on attracting donors to promote computer literacy because the internet acts as a lifeline to the outside world. "If we can give women access to the internet and computer skills, then we’ve connected them to an ocean of information in the world," explains Jalal. Jalal Foundation is just one of a number of organizations campaigning for computer science education as a way to alleviate the oppression of women. Promote, a USAID program committed in Kabul until at least 2019, supports computer classes administered by local NGOs. Nagina Yari, a spokesperson for Afghans for Tomorrow (AFT), says Promote provides invaluable support and computer equipment for over 450 students at a high school level. In 2016, AFT provided scholarships for 110 young women to pursue university. Typically, they attend classes in the capital at Kabul University, which saw renewed enrollment after the Taliban fell in 2001. The computer science department is now 30% women. Before 2002, this number was zero. Fakhria Momtaz, Shetab’s first female participant and cofounder of a Kabul-based IT company called Momtaz Solutions, also aims to increase access to computer education. She wants to extend safe environments like the one that allowed her success in her profession. "My company is launching a center to encourage girls to stay in computer science classes," she says. "We want to show them a clear future and let them know they are stronger than the men who try to bully them out of the field." The project proposal, Momtaz Host, seeks to enhance employable skills like coding and programming for both students and professionals. The aim is to build capacity to train 100 young professionals at any given time. The center plans to include membership to the International Scientific Institutes such as Elsevier for research. Child care, another barrier to the workplace, will also be provided. An estimated $1.5 million is needed by donors to implement the project. "Many women face harsh discrimination in their first year of studying computer science at university," says Momtaz. "They are fighting against prescribed roles and drop out to do what is expected of them, like be a teacher or a doctor or other helping professions." An exact number was not provided, but estimates say that only half of the women who enroll graduate. Momtaz says that she’s personally benefited from a unique support system. Her father and grandfather both detested the cultural attitudes towards women, and her husband is the cofounder of her company. "My father loved to see women in leadership positions," she says. "He would show me pictures of [former Pakistani Prime Minister] Benazir Bhutto and inspire me to work on behalf of my community. These are difficult times, but this is my country and I am dedicated to it." "It gives us such joy because we are accelerating startups where the founders and cofounders are women," says Tajdar. "Societies that have increased the growth of established women entrepreneurs are more inclusive and have a more thriving private sector and entrepreneurship climate, which are so fundamental to building strong, peaceful, and competitive societies." For the business leaders aiming to lift Afghanistan out of the effects of over 30 years of war, renewed international support is crucial. The future of the country remains unclear now that the traditional aid model has reached a dead end, but many stakeholders have hope. As Jalal says, "We have a long way to go, but we are positive we can achieve our goal."


Broughton E.I.,Bethesda University | Broughton E.I.,International Health | Ikram A.N.,Kabul University | Sahak I.,Kabul University
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objectives: Improvement activities, surveillance and research in maternal and neonatal health in Afghanistan rely heavily on medical record data. This study investigates accuracy in delivery care records from three hospitals across workshifts. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted in one maternity hospital, one general hospital maternity department and one provincial hospital maternity department. Researchers observed vaginal deliveries and recorded observations to later check against data recorded in patient medical records and facility registers. Outcome measures: We determined the sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operator characteristics curves (AUROCs), proportions correctly classified and the tendency to make performance seem better than it actually was. Results: 600 observations across the three shifts and three hospitals showed high compliance with active management of the third stage of labour, measuring blood loss and uterine contraction at 30 min, cord care, drying and wrapping newborns and Apgar scores and low compliance with monitoring vital signs. Compliance with quality indicators was high and specificity was lower than sensitivity. For adverse outcomes in birth registries, specificity was higher than sensitivity. Overall AUROCs were between 0.5 and 0.6. Of 17 variables that showed biased errors, 12 made performance or outcomes seem better than they were, and five made them look worse (71% vs 29%, p=0.143). Compliance, sensitivity and specificity varied less among the three shifts than among hospitals. Conclusions: Medical record accuracy was generally poor. Errors by clinicians did not appear to follow a pattern of self-enhancement of performance. Because successful improvement activities, surveillance and research in these settings are heavily reliant on collecting accurate data on processes and outcomes of care, substantial improvement is needed in medical record accuracy.


Meeran M.T.,Kabul University | Tucker W.D.,University of the Western Cape
2014 4th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Vehicular Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace and Electronic Systems, VITAE 2014 - Co-located with Global Wireless Summit | Year: 2014

The paper focuses on analyzing the affects of wireless mesh networks with some mobile nodes on Voice over Internet Protocol service quality. Our interest is to examine this in simulation to learn how to better deploy voice services on such a network in a rural community. Wireless mesh networks' unique characteristics like multi-hop, node mobility, coverage, and medium usage cause quality of service issues for Voice over Internet Protocol implementations. This research considers three wireless mesh scenarios on 26 mesh nodes. In the first scenario all nodes are stationary. In the second, 10 nodes are mobile and 16 nodes are stationary. In a third scenario, all nodes are mobile. Nodes move at a walking speed of 1.3m per second. The analysis and results show that while node mobility can increase packet loss, delay, jitter, Voice over Internet Protocol implementations in wireless mesh networks can be successful if there is no background traffic. We recommend that Voice over Internet Protocol implementations in wireless mesh networks with some mobile nodes and background traffic be supported by quality of service standards; else it can lead to service level delivery failures. © 2014 IEEE.


Razaq Manati A.,Kabul University
Zoologische Garten | Year: 2012

The Studbook for the Persian Leopard, Panthera pardus saxicolor, was analyzed. The whole population derives from a few founder animals, imported in the midth fifties from Iran and in the late sixties from Afghanistan. To avoid inbreeding later on the Iranian and the Afghan lines were mixed. A female imported in 1968 from Kabul to Cologne is represented in each of the more than 100 animals living today. This study deals with the question of subspecies of leopards in Afghanistan. Out of the 27 subspecies described four are believed to exist in Afghanistan. However, according to a molecular-biological revision of the species there is only one subspecies in Afghanistan, Panthera pardus saxicolor. To clarify the subspecies question various measures of furs have been taken in the bazars. The results revealed that the leopards in Afghanistan are the biggest of its species. However a further differentiation according to the area of origin within the country was not possible. Also the traditional differentiation on the basis of colours and patterns on the furs was not possible. In contrast to the molecular-biological investigations published, not only samples of zoo animals were available in this study but also samples from the wild. The results confirm that almost all leopards from Afghanistan and Iran belong to one and the same subspecies. Only in the most eastern part of Afghanistan, the Indian leopard, Panthera pardus fusca, can be found. Mixing the two lines subsequently is justified by the results of this study. Recently acquired animals from the Caucasus, however, should be tested genetically before integrating them into the zoo population. © 2012.

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