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Kabul, Afghanistan

Kabul University is located in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. It was founded in 1931 but officially opened for classes in 1932. Kabul University is attended by 7,000 students, of which 1,700 are women. Hamidullah Amin is the chancellor of the university. The university is still recovering from the long period of war and chaos in the country. The main building was renovated about 500 meters from the old one, which has almost the same design. Wikipedia.

Safi Z.,Kabul University | Safi Z.,University of Kassel | Dossa L.H.,University of Kassel | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2011

Little is known about the economics of urban and peri-urban agriculture in Kabul, Afghanistan. This study therefore aimed to investigate the profitability of 15 mixed cropping farms with a total of 42 farm plots that were selected from a survey of 100 households (HHs). The sample represented the three dominant farm types: cereal producers (15 plots), vegetable farmers (15 plots) and grape producers (12 plots). A cost-revenue analysis of all inputs and outputs (costs of tillage, seed where applicable, weeding, harvesting, casual labour, machinery use, pruning, pesticides and of revenue from produce sold) over two years showed major differences in net HH income. Differences were largely due to production type and crops grown and reflected differences in market prices for produce. Cereal production yielded a total bi-annual revenue of 9630 US$ ha?1, and a gross margin and a net profit of 8770 US$ ha ?1. Vegetable farming gave an average bi-annual revenue of 27 900 US$ ha?1, a gross margin of 26 330 US$ ha?1 and a net profit of 25 530 US$ ha?1. Surprisingly, vineyards generated the lowest returns with a revenue of 5400 US$ ha?1, and a gross margin and a net profit of 4480 US$ ha?1. The results suggest that among the production systems studied vegetable cultivation was most profitable given its direct linkage to city market demands, rather stable prices and much shorter growing season than for cereals and grapes. In addition, the inflow of wheat and grapes from rural areas into the city negatively affects local producer revenues. If vineyards are to be maintained in the city surroundings, incentives such as subsidized credit may need to be made available to producers. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Razaq Manati A.,Kabul University
Zoologische Garten | Year: 2012

The Studbook for the Persian Leopard, Panthera pardus saxicolor, was analyzed. The whole population derives from a few founder animals, imported in the midth fifties from Iran and in the late sixties from Afghanistan. To avoid inbreeding later on the Iranian and the Afghan lines were mixed. A female imported in 1968 from Kabul to Cologne is represented in each of the more than 100 animals living today. This study deals with the question of subspecies of leopards in Afghanistan. Out of the 27 subspecies described four are believed to exist in Afghanistan. However, according to a molecular-biological revision of the species there is only one subspecies in Afghanistan, Panthera pardus saxicolor. To clarify the subspecies question various measures of furs have been taken in the bazars. The results revealed that the leopards in Afghanistan are the biggest of its species. However a further differentiation according to the area of origin within the country was not possible. Also the traditional differentiation on the basis of colours and patterns on the furs was not possible. In contrast to the molecular-biological investigations published, not only samples of zoo animals were available in this study but also samples from the wild. The results confirm that almost all leopards from Afghanistan and Iran belong to one and the same subspecies. Only in the most eastern part of Afghanistan, the Indian leopard, Panthera pardus fusca, can be found. Mixing the two lines subsequently is justified by the results of this study. Recently acquired animals from the Caucasus, however, should be tested genetically before integrating them into the zoo population. © 2012.

Pop D.,Pasteur Hospital | Nadeemy A.S.,Pasteur Hospital | Nadeemy A.S.,Kabul University | Venissac N.,Pasteur Hospital | Mouroux J.,Pasteur Hospital
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2011

The postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula (BPF) remains a difficult challenge for the thoracic surgeon. We report the case of a very late-onset (60 years) left BPF managed by video-assisted mediastinoscopy discussing the direct consequences of this complication in the postpneumonectomy period. © 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

Safi Z.,Kabul University | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics | Year: 2011

Little is known about the heavy metal and microbial contamination of vegetables produced in Central Asian cities. We therefore measured the concentration of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) and of faecal pathogens (Coliform bacteria, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Ascaris lubricoides, Entamoeba sp. and pinworms [Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis]) in soil, irrigation water, and marketed vegetables of Kabul City, Afghanistan. Leaf Pb and Zn concentrations of leafy vegetables were with 1-5 and 33-160 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) several-fold above respective international thresholds of 0.3 mg Pb kg -1 and 50 mg Zn kg -1. The tissue concentration of Cu was below threshold limits in all samples except for spinach in one farm. Above-threshold loads of microbes and parasites on vegetables were found in five out of six gardens with coliforms ranging from 0.5-2 × 10 7 ' cells 100g -1 fresh weight (FW), but no Salmonella and Shigella were found. Contamination with 0.2 × 10 7 eggs l00g -1 FW of Ascaris was detected on produce of three farms and critical concentrations of Entamoeba in a single case, while Oxyuris vermicularis, and Enterobius vermicularis were found on produce of three and four farms, respectively. Irrigation water had Ascaris, Coliforms, Salmonella, Shigella, Entamoeba, and Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis ranging from 0.35 × 10 7 to 2 × 10 7 cells l -1 The heavy metal and microbial loads on fresh UPA vegetables are likely the result of contamination from rising traffic, residues of the past decades of war and lacking treatment of sewage which needs urgent attention.

Bayat H.,University of Siegen | Bayat H.,Kabul University | Tranchida D.,University of Siegen | Song B.,University of Siegen | And 3 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2011

The coadsorption of alkanethiols on noble metals has been recognized for a long time as a suitable means of affording surfaces with systematically varied wettability and other properties. In this article, we report on a comparative study of the composition of the mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained (i) by the coadsorption of octadecanethiol (ODT) and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) from ethanol and chloroform onto gold substrates and (ii) by microcontact printing using poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) stamps. SAMs prepared by coadsorption from solution showed a preferential adsorption of ODT for both solvents, but this trend was reversed in microcontact-printed SAMs when using chloroform as a solvent, as evidenced by contact angle and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements. An approximately linear relationship between the static contact angle and the degree of swelling with different solvents was observed, which suggests that the surface composition can be controlled by the interaction of the solvent and the PDMS elastomer. The altered preference is attributed to the different partitioning of the two thiols into solvent-swelled PDMS, as shown by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, molecularly mixed binary SAMs on ODT and MHDA on template-stripped gold were applied to study the effect of surface nanobubbles on wettability by atomic force microscopy (AFM). With a decreasing macroscopic contact angle measured through water, the nanoscopic contact angle was found to decrease as well. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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