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Kabul, Afghanistan

Kabul Medical University formerly known as Kabul Medical Institute) is located in Kabul, Afghanistan on the campus of Kabul University. The medical institution was initially maintained by collaboration with the Turkish and French sponsors. KMF developed into a single autonomous University in 2005. It currently graduates professionals in fields of Curative Medicine, Pediatric, Stomatology, Dental and Nursing. All subjects are taught in Persian but most medical terms are in English.Currently, more than 25 medical schools are known to exist in Afghanistan but KMU is known to be the topest leading medical school in the country. Wikipedia.

Jafari S.M.,University of Surrey | Jafari S.M.,Kabul Medical University | Bradley D.A.,University of Surrey | Bradley D.A.,University of Malaya | And 8 more authors.
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2014

Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size (<5mm), low cost, reusability and inert nature. This study investigated the dosimetric characteristics of glass beads. The beads were irradiated by 6MV photons using a medical linear-accelerator and 60Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500cGy, with an R2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Manaseki-Holland S.,University of Birmingham | Maroof Z.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bruce J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mughal M.Z.,Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background: Vitamin D has a role in regulating immune function, and its deficiency is a suggested risk factor for childhood pneumonia. Our aim was to assess whether oral supplementation of vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) will reduce the incidence and severity of pneumonia in a high-risk infant population. Methods: We did a randomised placebo-controlled trial to compare oral 100 000 IU (2·5 mg) vitamin D 3 with placebo given to children aged 1-11 months in Kabul, Afghanistan. Randomisation was by use of a computer-generated list. Vitamin D or placebo was given by fieldworkers once every 3 months for 18 months. Children presenting at the study hospital with signs of pneumonia had their diagnosis confirmed radiographically. Our primary outcome was the first or only episode of radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Our analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00548379. Findings: 1524 children were assigned to receive vitamin D 3 and 1522 placebo. There was no significant difference between the incidence of first or only pneumonia between the vitamin D (0·145 per child per year, 95 CI 0·129-0·164) and the placebo group (0.137, 0·121-0·155); the incidence rate ratio was 1·06 (95 CI 0·89-1·27). From 652 children during five separate periods of testing serum calcifediol, only one child in each of two testing periods had results greater than 375 nmol/L in the intervention group - a toxic level. Interpretations: Quarterly bolus doses of oral vitamin D 3 supplementation to infants are not an effective intervention to reduce the incidence of pneumonia in infants in this setting. Funding: Wellcome Trust and British Council. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Di Cristofaro J.,Aix - Marseille University | Pennarun E.,University of Tartu | Mazieres S.,Aix - Marseille University | Myres N.M.,Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci. © 2013 Di Cristofaro et al.

Aluisio A.R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Aluisio A.R.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | Maroof Z.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chandramohan D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the incidence and risk for first and recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methods: This double-blind placebo-controlled trial randomized 3046high-risk 1- to 11-month-old infants to receive 6 quarterly doses of oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol 100 000 IU) or placebo in inner city Kabul. Data on diarrheal episodes (≤3 loose/liquid stools in 24 hours) was gathered through active and passive surveillance over 18 months of follow-up. Time to first diarrheal illness was analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier plots. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by using recurrent event Poisson regression models. Results: No significant difference existed in survival time to first diarrheal illness (log rank P = .55). The incidences of diarrheal episodes were 3.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.28-3.59) and 3.59 per childyear (95% CI, 3.44-3.76) in the placebo and intervention arms, respectively. Vitamin D3 supplementation was found to have no effect on the risk for recurrent diarrheal disease in either intention-to-treat (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.17; P = .15) or per protocol (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.12; P = .14) analyses. The lack of preventive benefit remained when the randomized population was stratified by age groups, nutritional status, and seasons. Conclusions: Quarterly supplementation with vitamin D3 conferred no reduction on time to first illness or on the risk for recurrent diarrheal disease in this study. Similar supplementation to comparable populations is not recommended. Additional research in alternative settings may be helpful in elucidating the role of vitamin D3 supplementation for prevention of diarrheal diseases. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Howard N.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Woodward A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Woodward A.,Kings College London | Patel D.,Duke University | And 8 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2014

Background: Contracting-out non-state providers to deliver a minimum package of essential health services is an increasingly common health service delivery mechanism in conflict-affected settings, where government capacity and resources are particularly constrained. Afghanistan, the longest-running example of Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) contracting in a conflict-affected setting, enables study of how implementation of a national intervention influences access to prioritised health services. This study explores stakeholder perspectives of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services delivered through the BPHS in Afghanistan, using Bamyan Province as a case study.Methods: Twenty-six in-depth interviews were conducted with health-system practitioners (e.g. policy/regulatory, middle management, frontline providers) and four focus groups with service-users. Inductive thematic coding used the WHO Health System Framework categories (i.e. service delivery, workforce, medicines, information, financing, stewardship), while allowing for emergent themes.Results: Improvements were noted by respondents in all health-system components discussed, with significant improvements identified in service coverage and workforce, particularly improved gender balance, numbers, training, and standardisation. Despite improvements, remaining weaknesses included service access and usage - especially in remote areas, staff retention, workload, and community accountability.Conclusions: By including perspectives on SRH service provision and BPHS contracting across health-system components and levels, this study contributes to broader debates on the effects of contracting on perceptions and experiences among practitioners and service-users in conflict-affected countries. © 2014 Howard et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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