Kabul, Afghanistan

Kabul Medical University

Kabul, Afghanistan

Kabul Medical University formerly known as Kabul Medical Institute) is located in Kabul, Afghanistan on the campus of Kabul University. The medical institution was initially maintained by collaboration with the Turkish and French sponsors. KMF developed into a single autonomous University in 2005. It currently graduates professionals in fields of Curative Medicine, Pediatric, Stomatology, Dental and Nursing. All subjects are taught in Persian but most medical terms are in English.Currently, more than 25 medical schools are known to exist in Afghanistan but KMU is known to be the topest leading medical school in the country. Wikipedia.

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Nayaz A.,Uludag University | Pilicer E.,Uludag University | Joya M.,Kabul Medical University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

The detector response and simulation of radiation environment for the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) baseline detector is estimated to predict its performance over the lifetime of the project. In this work, the geometry of the LHeC detector, as reported in LHeC Conceptual Design Report (CDR), built in FLUKA Monte Carlo tool in order to simulate the detector response and radiation environment. For this purpose, events of electrons and protons with high enough energy were sent isotropically from interaction point of the detector. As a result, the detector response and radiation background for the LHeC detector, with different USRBIN code (ENERGY, HADGT20M, ALL-CHAR, ALL-PAR) in FLUKA, are presented. © 2017 Author(s).

Manaseki-Holland S.,Aga Khan Health Services | Qader G.,Aga Khan Health Services | Isaq Masher M.,Kabul Medical University | Bruce J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether (i) supplementation of oral 100 000 iu of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) along with antibiotics will reduce the duration of illness in children with pneumonia; (ii) supplementation will reduce the risk of repeat episodes. METHODS: Double-blind individually randomised placebo-controlled trial in an inner-city hospital in Kabul, of 453 children aged 1-36 months, diagnosed with non-severe or severe pneumonia at the outpatient clinic. Children with rickets, other concurrent severe diseases, very severe pneumonia or wheeze, were excluded. Children were given vitamin D 3 or placebo drops additional to routine pneumonia treatment. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-four children received vitamin D3; and 229 received placebo. There was no significant difference in the mean number of days to recovery between the vitamin D3 (4.74 days; SD 2.22) and placebo arms (4.98 days; SD 2.89; P = 0.17). The risk of a repeat episode of pneumonia within 90 days of supplementation was lower in the intervention (92204; 45%) than the placebo group [122/211; (58%; relative risk 0.78; 95% CI 0.64, 0.94; P = 0.01]. Children in the vitamin D3 group survived longer without experiencing a repeat episode (72 days vs. 59 days; HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.53-0.95; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: A single high-dose oral vitamin D 3 supplementation to young children along with antibiotic treatment for pneumonia could reduce the occurrence of repeat episodes of pneumonia. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PubMed | Clatterbridge Cancer Center, Kabul Medical University, University of Surrey, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Trust and National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom
Type: | Journal: Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology | Year: 2017

A UK national dosimetry audit was carried out to assess the accuracy of Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) lung treatment delivery.This mail-based audit used an anthropomorphic thorax phantom containing nine alanine pellets positioned in the lung region for dosimetry, as well as EBT3 film in the axial plane for isodose comparison. Centres used their local planning protocol/technique, creating 27 SABR plans. A range of delivery techniques including conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and Cyberknife (CK) were used with six different calculation algorithms (collapsed cone, superposition, pencil-beam (PB), AAA, Acuros and Monte Carlo).The mean difference between measured and calculated dose (excluding PB results) was 0.41.4% for alanine and 1.43.4% for film. PB differences were -6.1% and -12.9% respectively. The median of the absolute maximum isodose-to-isodose distances was 3mm (-6mm to 7mm) and 5mm (-10mm to +19mm) for the 100% and 50% isodose lines respectively.Alanine and film is an effective combination for verifying dosimetric and geometric accuracy. There were some differences across dose algorithms, and geometric accuracy was better for VMAT and CK compared with conformal techniques. The alanine dosimetry results showed that planned and delivered doses were within 3.0% for 25/27 SABR plans.

Aluisio A.R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Aluisio A.R.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | Maroof Z.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chandramohan D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the incidence and risk for first and recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methods: This double-blind placebo-controlled trial randomized 3046high-risk 1- to 11-month-old infants to receive 6 quarterly doses of oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol 100 000 IU) or placebo in inner city Kabul. Data on diarrheal episodes (≤3 loose/liquid stools in 24 hours) was gathered through active and passive surveillance over 18 months of follow-up. Time to first diarrheal illness was analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier plots. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by using recurrent event Poisson regression models. Results: No significant difference existed in survival time to first diarrheal illness (log rank P = .55). The incidences of diarrheal episodes were 3.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.28-3.59) and 3.59 per childyear (95% CI, 3.44-3.76) in the placebo and intervention arms, respectively. Vitamin D3 supplementation was found to have no effect on the risk for recurrent diarrheal disease in either intention-to-treat (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.17; P = .15) or per protocol (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.12; P = .14) analyses. The lack of preventive benefit remained when the randomized population was stratified by age groups, nutritional status, and seasons. Conclusions: Quarterly supplementation with vitamin D3 conferred no reduction on time to first illness or on the risk for recurrent diarrheal disease in this study. Similar supplementation to comparable populations is not recommended. Additional research in alternative settings may be helpful in elucidating the role of vitamin D3 supplementation for prevention of diarrheal diseases. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Manaseki-Holland S.,University of Birmingham | Maroof Z.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bruce J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mughal M.Z.,Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background: Vitamin D has a role in regulating immune function, and its deficiency is a suggested risk factor for childhood pneumonia. Our aim was to assess whether oral supplementation of vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) will reduce the incidence and severity of pneumonia in a high-risk infant population. Methods: We did a randomised placebo-controlled trial to compare oral 100 000 IU (2·5 mg) vitamin D 3 with placebo given to children aged 1-11 months in Kabul, Afghanistan. Randomisation was by use of a computer-generated list. Vitamin D or placebo was given by fieldworkers once every 3 months for 18 months. Children presenting at the study hospital with signs of pneumonia had their diagnosis confirmed radiographically. Our primary outcome was the first or only episode of radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Our analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00548379. Findings: 1524 children were assigned to receive vitamin D 3 and 1522 placebo. There was no significant difference between the incidence of first or only pneumonia between the vitamin D (0·145 per child per year, 95 CI 0·129-0·164) and the placebo group (0.137, 0·121-0·155); the incidence rate ratio was 1·06 (95 CI 0·89-1·27). From 652 children during five separate periods of testing serum calcifediol, only one child in each of two testing periods had results greater than 375 nmol/L in the intervention group - a toxic level. Interpretations: Quarterly bolus doses of oral vitamin D 3 supplementation to infants are not an effective intervention to reduce the incidence of pneumonia in infants in this setting. Funding: Wellcome Trust and British Council. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Speakman E.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Shafi A.,Rumi Consultancy | Sondorp E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Sondorp E.,Royal Tropical Institute KIT | And 2 more authors.
BMC Women's Health | Year: 2014

Background: Political transition in Afghanistan enabled reconstruction of the destroyed health system. Maternal health was prioritised due to political will and historically high mortality. However, severe shortages of skilled birth attendants - particularly in rural areas - hampered safe motherhood initiatives. The Community Midwifery Education (CME) programme began training rural midwives in 2002, scaling-up nationally in 2005.Methods: This case study analyses CME development and implementation to help determine successes and challenges. Data were collected through documentary review and key informant interviews. Content analysis was informed by Walt and Gilson's policy triangle framework.Results: The CME programme has contributed to consistently positive indicators, including up to a 1273/100,000 reduction in maternal mortality ratios, up to a 28% increase in skilled deliveries, and a six-fold increase in qualified midwives since 2002. Begun as a small pilot, CME has gained support of international donors, the Afghan government, and civil society.Conclusion: CME is considered by stakeholders to be a positive model for promoting women's education, employment, and health. However, its future is threatened by insecurity, corruption, lack of regulation, and funding uncertainties. Strategic planning and resource mobilisation are required for it to achieve its potential of transforming maternal healthcare in Afghanistan. © 2014 Speakman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Japan National Institute of Public Health, University of Michigan and Kabul Medical University
Type: | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Sustained civil and military conflict, resulting in large numbers of internally displaced persons (IDP), in combination with rapid urbanization has strained public health and sanitation within cities in Afghanistan. In order to examine the association between preventive sanitary behaviors and diarrhea within two high risk settings located within Kabul, Afghanistan, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hygienic practices and diarrheal illness in an IDP camp and an urban slum.In this cross sectional study, a convenience sample of residents of an IDP camp and an urban slum in Kabul, Afghanistan, was used. Participants were asked to describe their hygienic practices and interviewers independently documented household sanitation. The knowledge and attitudes about and practice of hygienic activities to prevent diarrhea were compared between the two settings.Two hundred participants, 100 from each setting, were enrolled. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding hygienic activities to prevent diarrhea were greater among the slum dwellers than the IDP. Fewer than half of participants washed their hands with soap before eating or after eating: 31% of slum dwellers washed before eating compared to 11% of IDPs (P=0.0050), and 25% of slum dwellers washed after defecating compared to 4% of IDPs (P=0.0020). The IDPs were more likely to share a latrine (P=0.0144) and less likely to disinfect their latrine than slum dwellers. Diarrhea in the household within the past 3months was more common in the IDP camp (54%) than the slum (20%) (P=0.0020).Even though certain sanitary and hygienic practices were more common among slum dwellers than IDPs, the lack of hygienic activities in both setting indicates that interventions to change behavior, like increasing the availability of soap and encouraging hand washing, are needed. Any initiative will have to be developed in the context of pervasive illiteracy among persons in both of these settings.

Alam T.,Northwest General Hospital PeshawarKPK | Hamidi H.,Kabul Medical University | Hoshang M.M.S.,Kabul Medical University
Radiology Case Reports | Year: 2016

Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is a rare congenital anomaly of the pulmonary veins drainage. In this entity, the pulmonary veins, instead of draining to left atrium, connect abnormally to the systemic venous circulation. A right-to-left shunt is obligatory for survival. Based on its type and degree of pulmonary venous obstruction, TAPVC may result in pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure. In severe cases, urgent diagnosis and surgical correction is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography as the first and safest imaging modality for cardiovascular abnormalities may fail in complete depiction of some complex feature of TAPVC. Computed tomography angiography is then a noninvasive and sensitive choice for mapping the pulmonary veins without the need for invasive cardiac catheterization. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography can be a radiation-free alternative. Authors present a computed tomography–detected supracardiac TAPVC with small patent ductus arteriosus in a 2 months cyanotic infant. © 2016 The Authors

Tariq T.M.,Kabul Medical University
Pakistan Paediatric Journal | Year: 2013

Introduction: Giardia lamblia, the causative agent for giardiasis, is ubiquitous throughout the world. It is one of the first enteric pathogens to infect children in the developing world. Objective: To determine the prevalence of G. lamblia infestation in Afghan population. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Clinical Laboratory of French Medical Institute for Children (FMIC) Kabul, from January 2008 to June 2012. Methods: An analysis of data was done on the results of 20,040 stool specimens which were submitted to the Department of Clinical Laboratory of FMIC Kabul during the study period. Each patient was provided a disposable screw-capped plastic container for collection of fresh stool sample and the same was submitted without delay to the microbiology laboratory for macroscopic and microscopic examination. Results: Out of 20,040 stool samples, 1,804 were positive for either cysts or trophozoite or both forms of G. lamblia, showing an overall 9.0% prevalence of giardiasis. The rate of infestation in the age group of up to 10 years was the highest i.e., 834/1704 (48.94%). Conclusion: A significant proportion of Afghan population is infestated with G. lamblia. Majority of cases belongs to children up to 10 years of age.

PubMed | Kabul Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP | Year: 2016

To determine the frequency of pathogens causing bloodstream infections and evaluate their trends and antibiogram patterns among in-patients in a paediatric tertiary care centre.Descriptive study.French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC), Kabul, Afghanistan in two phases, from January 2010 to December 2015.Results of blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis admitted in the FMIC, from January 2010 to December 2012 (Period-1), and from January 2013 to December 2015 (Period-2) were completed. Standard microbiological methods were followed for blood culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing.Out of total 1,040 cases of culture proven sepsis, 528 (50.77%) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), 474 (45.58%) Gram-positive cocci (GPC), and 38 (3.65%) Candida species were isolated during the entire study period. Out of 528 GNB isolates, 373 (70.64%) belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and 155 (29.36%) were non-fermenters. Among Enterobacteriaceae, 168 (31.82%) were Klebsiella species (K. pneumoniae=124, K. oxytoca=44), 70 (13.26%) were Enterobacter species (E. cloacae=52, E. aerogenes=18), 65 (12.31%) were E. coli, 37 (7.01%) were Serratia marcescens and 31 (5.87%) were others. Out of 155 non-fermenters, 88 (16.67%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 39 (7.39%) were Burkholderia cepacia and 18 (3.41%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. There was a drop in the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae from 85% in Period-1 to 58.68% in Period-2. There was an increase in the frequency of nonfermenters from 15% to 41.32%, particularly 18 new cases of sepsis caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia during Period-2. Among GPC, there was an overall rise of 16.14% in the prevalence of Staphylococcus epidermidis during Period-2 and a drop of 9.64% in the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus during Period-2. The majority of Gram-negative isolates were multidrug-resistant to commonly used antibiotics. However, most of the isolates were sensitive to amikacin and imipenem (except S. maltophilia). The frequency of those producing ESBL reduced by 11.22% during the Period-2. Among Gram-positive cocci, the pattern of antibiogram did not show a significant change during both periods, and majority remained resistant to commonly used antibiotics. All Staphylococci were sensitive to vancomycin but resistant to penicillin. There was a substantial decline of 18.87% in the frequency of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRSA/MRSE) during Period-2.Staphylococci and Klebsiellae remain the most important bacteria responsible for bloodstream infections in a tertiary healthcare facility in Kabul. Yet, there has been an increase in the prevalence of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia cepacia. Moreover, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia emerged as a new hospital acquired pathogen. This study could possibly help in suggesting choices eluding the misuse of appropriate antibiotics.

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