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Li J.,Hebei United University | Li J.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Xu Y.,Hebei United University | Shen P.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | And 4 more authors.
Scientia Geologica Sinica | Year: 2015

The ore body of skarn type deposit in Sayak is located in the contact zone between Carboniferous limestone and granite, surrounded by skarn. The skarn minerals in Sayak mainly include garnet, pyroxene, epidote and chlorite. Metallic minerals are mainly chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, cobaltite. The mineralization of Sayak deposit can be divided into five metallogenic stages: Diopside-garnet skarn stage, garnet skarn stage, epidote-magnetite stage, quartz-sulfide stage and carbonate stage. Electron microprobe analyses show that skarns in Sayak belong to typical calcic skarns. There are three types of garnet in skarn, and they all belong to andradite-grossularite solid solution series. The garnet shifted from andradite towards andradite-grossularite with time, and the andradite-grossularite is most relevant to the mineralization besides. The content is changing with the zone rhythmically, which means that its growth is discontinuity indicating multi-stages of fluid. The pyroxenes are mainly composed by diopside with a small amount of hedenbergite. The epidote is almost epidote with a little clinozoisite. The magnetite is composed by a high TFeO content with a negative correlation with other oxide. Chalcopyrite-pyrite-pyrrhotite-marcasite and chalcopyrite-cobaltite are developed in early quartz-sulfide stage, while compact massive chalcopyrite formed in the later main stages. The chalcopyrite and pyrite are both lean sulfur and rich metallic element, and pyrrhotite is lean cobalt but rich nickel. The mineralogical features such as paragenetic association of skarn minerals and the composition evolution of garnet indicated that the ore-forming hydrothermal evolved from alkalescence to acidity as the decrease in temperature and oxygen fugacity. Meanwhile the chalcopyrite-based metal sulfides occurred enrichment and precipitation with the neutralization in the contact zone. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Tolmacheva T.Y.,Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute VSEGEI | Degtyarev K.E.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Ryazantsev A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Nikitina O.I.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science
Paleontological Journal | Year: 2010

Several conodont localities of the upper Sandbian Stage are known in siliceous deposits of Central Kazakhstan. All of them produced similar assemblages overwhelmingly dominated by Periodon grandis with insignificant admixture of Scabbardella altipes, Hamarodus europaeus, Pygodus anserinus, Protopanderodus sp., and Drepanodus sp. The main feature of this fauna is in the co-occurrence of H. europaeus and P. grandis, forms characteristic for deep-water facies at shelf or microcontinents margins of temperate and warm-water paleobiogeographic provinces. The Ordovician paleo-oceanic basin of Kazakhstan and southern Urals were parts of the uniform biogeographic area as indicated by similarity of Ordovician conodont assemblages in siliceous deposits of these regions. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.

Shen P.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Pan H.,Chang'an University | Seitmuratova E.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Yuan F.,Hefei University of Technology | Jakupova S.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science
Lithos | Year: 2015

The Bozshakol area is one of the most important copper resource concentrations in Central Kazakhstan. We report in situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope data, whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the volcanics and intrusions from the Bozshakol area.Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the volcanics erupted at 501.8±3.2Ma and the intrusions emplaced at 489.5±3.3Ma. The volcanics are subdivided into two types. Type I are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalt and calc-alkaline andesite and dacite, which are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) with a marked negative Nb anomaly and Th/Yb-enrichment. They also have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7026-0.7048), high zircon εHf(t) and whole-rock εNd(t) values (+9.7 to +17.0 and +5.4 to +6.7, respectively). Type II are Nb-enriched basalts (NEBs, Nb=6-7ppm), which are sodium-rich (Na2O/K2O=3-10) and differ from the vast majority of arc basalts in their higher Nb, Zr, and TiO2 contents and Nb/U ratio. NEBs also have low whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7040) and high εNd(t) values (+5.6). Therefore Bozshakol volcanics were formed by partial melting of the mantle wedge and subducted slab.The Bozshakol ore-bearing intrusive rocks include the fine- and medium-grained tonalite porphyry. They belong to the medium-K calc-alkaline series and are strongly enriched in LREE with a marked negative Nb anomaly and Th/Yb-enrichment. The fine-grained tonalite porphyries exhibit element characteristics similar to normal arc granitoids. They have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7036-0.7039), high zircon εHf(t) values (+10.7 to +17.2) and whole-rock εNd(t) values (+4.9 to +5.7). Compared with the fine-grained tonalite porphyries, the medium-grained tonalite porphyries have high Al2O3 and Sr contents (16-17wt.% and 565-569ppm, respectively) and low Yb and Y concentrations (0.9-1.1ppm and 9.3-12.1ppm, respectively), showing a geochemical affinity to adakites. Therefore, Bozshakol intrusive rocks were also derived from the mantle wedge and minor slab melts. We propose a model of intra-oceanic subduction for the Middle to Late Cambrian magmatic evolution of magmatic arcs in northwestern central Kazakhstan. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Shen P.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Pan H.,Chang'an University | Seitmuratova E.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Jakupova S.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

Nurkazgan, located in northeastern Kazakhstan, is a super-large porphyry Cu-Au deposit with 3.9 Mt metal copper and 229 tonnage gold. We report in situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotope data, whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan deposit. The ore-bearing intrusions include the granodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry, quartz diorite, and diorite.Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry emplaced at 440 ± 3 Ma and 437 ± 3 Ma, respectively. All host rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70338-0.70439), high whole-rock εNd(t) values (+5.9 to +6.3) and very high zircon εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +16.5), young whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf model ages, and consistent and slightly high zircon O values (+5.7 to +6.7), indicating that the ore-bearing magmas derived from the mantle without old continental crust involvement and without marked sediment contamination during magma emplacement. The granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) and depleted in high-field strength elements (HFSE), Eu, Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The diorite and quartz diorite have also LILE and LREE enrichment and HFSE, Nb and Ti depletion, but have not negative Eu, Ba, Sr, and P anomalies. These features suggest that the parental magma of the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry originated from melting of a lithospheric mantle and experienced fractional crystallization, whereas the diorite and quartz diorite has a relatively deeper lithospheric mantle source region and has not experienced strong fractional crystallization. Based on these, together with the coeval ophiolites in the area, we propose that a subduction of the Balkhash-Junggar oceanic plate took place during the Early Silurian and the ore-bearing intrusions and associated Nurkazgan porphyry Cu-Au deposit occurred in an intra-oceanic arc setting. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Camara F.,CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources | Hawthorne F.C.,University of Manitoba | Ball N.A.,University of Manitoba | Bekenova G.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | And 2 more authors.
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2010

Fluoroleakeite, NaNa2(Mg2Fe3+ 2Li)Si8O22F2, is a new mineral of the amphibole group from the Verkhnee Espe deposit, Akjailyautas mountains, eastern Kazakhstan district, Kazakhstan. The granites and their host rocks have been intensely reworked by post-magmatic and host-rock fluids, resulting in intense recrystallization, enrichment in F, Li and rare elements, and replacement of primary biotite and sodic-calcic amphiboles by Li-bearing riebeckite, aegirine, astrophyllite and other sodic minerals including fluoroleakeite. Crystals are prismatic parallel to [001] with {100} and {110} faces and cleavage surfaces, and the prism direction is terminated by irregular fractures. Grains are up to 3 mm long, and occur as isolated crystals, as small aggregates, and as inclusions in cámaraite. Crystals are black with a very pale grey to colourless streak. Fluoroleakeite is brittle, has a Mohs hardness of 6 and a splintery fracture; it is non-fluorescent with perfect {110} cleavage, no observable parting, and has a calculated density of 3.245 g cm-3. In plane-polarized light, it is pleochroic, X = pale grey-green, Y = medium grey, Z = grey-brown; Xa = 14.1° (in β obtuse), Y b, Zc = 75.9° (in β acute). Fluoroleakeite is biaxial negative, α = 1.663(2), β = 1.673(2), γ = 1.680(2); 2Vobs = 80.9(6)°, 2Vcalc = 79.4° Fluoro-leakeite is monoclinic, space group C2/m, a = 9.8927(3), b = 17.9257(6), c = 5.2969(2) Å, β = 103.990(1)°, V = 905.7(1) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest ten X-ray diffraction lines in the powder pattern are [d in Å (I)(hkl)]: 2.718(100)(151), 8.434(40)(110), 4.464(30)(021), 3.405(30)(131), 3.137(20)(310), 2.541(20)(202), 2.166(20)(261), 2.325(15)(351), 2.275(15)(312) and 2.806(10)(330). Analysis by a combination of electron microprobe and crystal-structure refinement gives SiO2 53.34, Al2O 3 0.62, TiO2 1.27, V2O3 0.05, Fe2O3 15.10, FeO 6.00, MnO 2.04, ZnO 0.18, MgO 6.40, CaO 0.13, Na2O 9.08, K2O 1.98, Li2O 1.10, F 3.33, H2Ocalc 0.16, sum 99.39 wt.%. The formula unit, calculated on the basis of 23 O, is A(Na0.64K0.38) (Na1.98Ca0.02)(Li0.66Mg1.42Fe 2+ 0.75Mn2+ 0.26Zn 0.02Fe3+ 1.69V3+ 0.01Ti4+ 0.14Al0.03)(Si 7.93Al0.07)O22(F1.57OH 0.16O0.27). Crystal-structure refinement shows Li to be completely ordered at the M(3) site. Fluoroleakeite, ideally NaNa 2(Mg2Fe3+ 2Li)Si8O 22F2, is related to end-member leakeite, NaNa 2(Mg2Fe3+ 2Li)Si8O 22(OH)2 by the substitution F → (OH). © 2010 The Mineralogical Society.

Stepanov A.V.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Bekenova G.K.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Levin V.L.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Hawthorne F.C.,University of Manitoba
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2012

Natrotitanite, ideally (Na 0.5Y 0.5)Ti(SiO 4)O, is a new mineral from the Verkhnee Espe rare-element deposit at the northern exo-contact of the Akjailyautas granite massif in the northern part of the Tarbagatai mountain range, Eastern Kazakhstan. Both the mineral and the name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA 2010-033). Star-shaped aggregates of small short prisms of yellow or yellowish white (Na,Y,REE)-bearing titanite rimmed by thin (∼2 μm) rims of natrotitanite are embedded in yttrium-bearing fluorite and replace narsarsukite. Associated minerals are microcline, albite, quartz, riebeckite, aegirine, biotite, astrophyllite, rutile, zircon and elpidite. Natrotitanite is milky white to yellowish grey, transparent to translucent, and has a white streak and a vitreous lustre. It shows pale orange cathodoluminescence but does not fluoresce under ultraviolet light. It shows no cleavage or parting, and is brittle; the calculated density is 3.833 g cm -3. The indices of refraction, measured with the Bloss spindle stage for the wavelength 590 nm using a gel filter, are α = 1.904, γ = 2.030, and these values are in accord with the mean refractive index, 1.988, calculated from the Gladstone-Dale relation. Natrotitanite is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 6.5691(2), b = 8.6869(3), c = 7.0924(2) Å, β = 114.1269(4)°, V = 369.4(2) Å 3, Z = 4, a:b:c = 0.7562:1: 0.8164. The seven strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [in the order d (Å), I, (hkl)] are as follows: 2.597, 10, (130); 3.248, 8, (112); 2.994, 6, (200); 1.641, 4, (330); 4.941, 3, (110); 1.498, 3, (400); 2.273, 3, (113). Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb 2O 5 1.28, SiO 2 27.83, TiO 2 35.00, SnO 2 0.57, V 2O 3 0.36, Fe 2O 3 0.23, Y 2O 3 7.87, Ce 2O 3 0.83, Sm 2O 3 0.26, Gd 2O 3 0.46, Tb 2O 3 0.17, Dy 2O 3 2.45, Ho 2O 3 0.16, Er 2O 3 2.24, Tm 2O 3 0.50, Yb 2O 3 2.53, Nd 2O 3 0.35, Lu 2O 3 0.28, MnO 0.33, CaO 8.16, Na 2O 5.55, F 1.52 O F -0.64, sum 98.71 wt.%. The resulting empirical formula is (Na 0.39Ca 0.32Y 0.15Dy 0.03Yb 0.03Er 0.03Ce 0.01Ho 0.01Tm 0.01Gd 0.01Nd 0.01) Σ1.00(Ti 0.95Nb 0.02Sn 0.01Fe 3+ 0.01Mn 0.01V 0.01) Σ1.01Si 1.01O 4.00(O 0.83F 0.17), calculated on the basis of 3 cations per formula unit. The general formula is written as (Na,Ca,Y,REE)TiSiO 4(O,F), and the endmember formula is (Na 0.5Y 0.5)Ti(SiO 4)O. The crystal structure of a composite optically continuous crystal of natrotitanite and (Na, Y)-bearing titanite was mounted on a Bruker D8 three-circle diffractometer equipped with a rotating anode generator (MoKα radiation), a multi-layer optics incident-beam path and an APEX-II CCD detector. The crystal structure was refined in space group C2/c to a final R 1 index of 1.8%. Natrotitanite is isostructural with titanite, (Na + Y + REE) replacing Ca at the Ca site in the titanite structure. © 2012 Mineralogical Society.

Stepanov A.V.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Bekenova G.K.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Levin V.L.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Sokolova E.,University of Manitoba | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Mineralogist | Year: 2012

Tarbagataite, (K,□) 2(Ca,Na)(Fe 2+,Mn) 7Ti 2(Si 4O 12) 2O 2(OH) 4(OH,F), is a new Ca- and Fe 2+-dominant astrophyllite-group mineral discovered in a pegmatite in the Verkhnee Espe deposit, Akjailyautas Mountains, Kazakhstan. Tarbagataite occurs as intimate intergrowths of tarbagataite and astrophyllite flakes. Dimensions of these intergrowths range up to 10 × 3 × 0.2 mm. Flakes are elastic, brown or pale golden brown, with a colorless to very pale yellow streak and a vitreous to pearly lustre. Tarbagataite is opaque in large grains, transparent in thin flakes, with a Mohs hardness of 3, and does not fluoresce under cathode or ultraviolet light. Cleavage is perfect parallel to {001} and moderate parallel to {010}; no parting was observed. Its calculated density is 3.263 g/cm 3. The mineral is biaxial positive with α 1.710, β 1.715, γ 1.745 (all ± 0.003, l 589 nm), 2V meas. = 37(3)°, 2V calc. = 45°. It is pleochroic according to the scheme X < Z < Y, where X = yellow brown, Y = orange red, Z = yellow orange. Tarbagataite is triclinic, space group P1, a 5.3863(3), b 11.9141(6), c 11.7171(6) Å, α 112.978(2), β 94.641(2), γ 103.189(2)°, V 661.84(9) Å3, Z = 1. The strongest lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d(Å)(I)(hkl)] are: 3.258(100)(1̄1̄3), 4.095(80)(021), 2.858(80)(014), 2.761(70)(142,1̄3̄1), 3.497(50)(030), 2.560(50)(130,143). 3.735(30)(023), 2.646(30)(211,004), 3.005(20)(013). Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb 2O 5 2.98, SnO 2 1.20, ZrO 2 0.32, TiO 2 9.29, SiO 2 36.11, Al 2O 3 0.12, ZnO 0.12, FeO 18.71, MnO 15.48, CaO 2.58, MgO 0.83, Cs 2O 0.38, Rb 2O 1.28, K 2O 2.67, Na 2O 1.14, F 0.49, H 2O 3.11, O=F -0.21, sum 96.60 wt.%; H 2O was determined from structure refinement, OH + F = 5 apfu. The empirical formula, calculated on 31 anions (O + F) pfu, is (K 0.76Rb 0.18Na 0.12Cs 0.04□ 0.90) S2(Ca 0.62Na 0.38) S1(Fe 2+ 3.51Mn 2.94Mg 0.28Zr 0.02 Zn 0.02□ 0.23) S7(Ti 1.57Nb 0.30Sn 0.11Zr 0.02) S2(Si 8.09Al 0.03) S8.12O 30.65H 4.65F 0.35, Z =1. The simplified and endmember formulae are (K,□) 2(Ca,Na)(Fe 2+,Mn)7Ti 2(Si 4O 12) 2O 2(OH) 4(OH,F) and (K□)CaFe 2+ 7Ti 2(Si 4O 12) 2O 2(OH) 4(OH), respectively. The infrared spectrum of the mineral contains the following absorption bands: 455, 531, 570, 656, 698, 950 with shoulders at 1078 and 1064, 1637, 3656 to 3277 cm -1. The crystal structure of tarbagataite was refined to an R 1 index of 5.82 %. Tarbagataite is isostructural with astrophyllite, ideally K 2NaFe 2+ 7Ti 2(Si 4O 12) 2 O 2(OH) 4F. Tarbagataite differs from astrophyllite in the composition of the interstitial A and B sites and the X site: (K,□) 2 (A), (Ca,Na) (B), and (OH,F) (X). Tarbagataite and astrophyllite are related by the substitution A□ + BCa 2+ + X(OH) - ↔ AK + + BNa + + XF -. The name is for the locality where the mineral was discovered: the Verkhnee Espe deposit is located in the northern part of the Tarbagatai mountain range in the Akjailyautas Mountains of Kazakhstan.

Mansurov Z.A.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Shabanova T.A.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Mofa N.N.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Glagolev V.A.,Satpaev Institute of geological science
Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal | Year: 2012

The concept morphostructure formations nanosized individuals on the basis of carbon and quartz is offered. Under offered circuit in "the first stage" substances are generated by atoms - "elementary individuals". They - form "simple morphostructures", for example, fullerenes, film and a one-wall carbon tube. They have, at the best the two-dimensional structural order. The second stage of growth morphostructures is connected to formation of more complex of "elementary particles" on the basis of the approximated rounded molecules. They - form "simple morphostructures", for example, fullerenes, film and carbon tube also. The third stage - clusters. Clusters, similarly to atoms and molecules, can form cyclic formations (oligomer/polymers), crystals and can enter structure of the mixed constructions of a layer. They can form also simple morphostructures, for example, fullerenes, film and carbon tube. The fourth stage - compact formations of polymer and so on. © 2012 al-Farabi Kazakh National University.

Nikitina O.I.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Nikitin I.F.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science | Olenicheva M.A.,Orel State University | Palets L.M.,Satpaev Institute of Geological science
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation | Year: 2015

New data on the stratigraphy and faunal assemblages of the Lower Silurian of the Chingiz region are presented. Owing to the discovery of Ruddanian brachiopods in the basal Alpeis Formation, the position of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary has been revised. The stratigraphic range of the Alpeis Formation has been revised to correspond to the range of the Alpeis Horizon in the stratotype and is limited to the beds with the brachiopod Eospirifer cinghizicus and the beds with the graptolites of the Coronograptus gregarius Zone. Beds with Pentamerus longiseptatus of the Donenzhal Horizon are assigned to the Zhumak Formation. A new Ruddanian brachiopod assemblage (ten species) is recognized in the lower part of the beds with E. cinghizicus. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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