Bangera A.,Ks Hegde Medical Academy
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2017
Adenotonsillectomy remains one of the most common surgical procedures carried out in children. Though a commonly performed procedure, it poses a great challenge to the surgeon as well as the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In the post‑operative period, it poses threats such as post‑tonsillectomy bleeding and airway obstruction if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Various recent advances in airway management and early detection of post‑operative complications have been made to reduce the sequelae associated with tonsillectomy. In this article, we have reviewed the various techniques, complications and recent advances, which have evolved in the anaesthetic technique related to adenotonsillectomy. © 2017 Indian Journal of Anaesthesia.
Girisha B.S.,Ks Hegde Medical Academy |
Thomas N.,Ks Hegde Medical Academy
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2017
Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. Metabolic syndrome is a significant forecaster of cardiovascular events. Aim: To assess the association of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis and to compare it with the age and sex matched control group. Materials and Methods: We conducted a hospital based case-control study on 156 adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 156 patients with skin diseases other than psoriasis. Height, weight, BMI, blood pressure and waist circumference were documented in all the subjects. Fasting levels of serum glucose, serum triglycerides and serum HDL were estimated by automated clinical chemistry analyzer. The South Asian modified NCEP ATP criterion was used for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Statistical analysis of the data was done using statistical processing software (SPSS-17). Results: Metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in psoriatic patients than in controls (28.8% vs 16.7%, p=0.01). Hypertriglyceridemia was significantly more prevalent in cases than in controls (34% vs 20.5%, p=0.008). The reduced HDL levels also showed a significantly high occurrence among cases (27.6% vs 13.5%, p=0.002). Moderate increase of blood pressure was seen among cases as compared to controls but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.1). Impaired blood glucose and abdominal obesity were similar in both groups. Smoking and alcoholism did not influence the association of metabolic syndrome with psoriasis. There was no correlation of metabolic syndrome with severity and duration of psoriasis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome as well as dyslipidemia is common in psoriasis patients among urban South Indians. This study highlights the need for screening at diagnosis and regular follow up of the metabolic aspects of the disease along with the skin lesions. © 2017, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.
Sathyanarayana Rao K.N.,KS Hegde Medical Academy |
Subbalakshmi N.K.,Kasturba Medical College
Singapore Medical Journal | Year: 2010
Introduction: The need for the rational development of newer and adjuvant drugs to treat epilepsy has prompted this study of the potential anticonvulsant effect of amlodipine. Methods: The acute effect was studied in mice in single doses of 1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg of amlodipine and the chronic effect was studied in doses of 1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg (administered daily for 21 days) using the maximal electroshock seizure and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure models of epilepsy. Sodium valproate and normal saline were used as the standard and control, respectively. Results: For the acute study, in the maximal electroshock seizure model, the administration of 1 mg/kg of amlodipine resulted in the complete abolition of seizures in 33 percent of the mice, and this was increased to 67 percent with the administration of 4 mg/kg. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model, the administration of 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg amlodipine protected 33 percent of the animals from mortality, and 67 percent were protected with the administration of 4 mg/kg. For the chronic study, in the maximal electroshock seizure model, the administration of 1 mg/kg amlodipine resulted in the complete abolition of seizures in 40 percent of the mice and in 60 percent, with the administration of 4 mg/kg. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model, 50 percent of the mice were protected from mortality with 1 mg/kg amlodipine and 60 percent, with 4 mg/kg amlodipine. Conclusion: These f indings indicate that amlodipine may be a good candidate as an add-on therapy for epilepsy.
Naveena C.S.,Mangalore University |
Naveena C.S.,SeQuent Scientific |
Boja P.,Mangalore University |
Kumari N.S.,Ks Hegde Medical Academy
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010
Disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadaiazoles (4a-z, 4a′-f′), Mannich bases (6a-p) and S-alkylated derivatives (7a-t) have been synthesized from 2-(aryloxymethyl)benzoic acids (1a-d) through a multi-step reaction sequence. The structures of new compounds were established on the basis of their elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity and some of them exhibited good activity. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Prasad R.,UP Rural Institute of Medical science and Research |
Singh A.,University of Lucknow |
Garg R.,University of Lucknow |
Hosmane G.B.,KS Hegde Medical Academy
BioScience Trends | Year: 2012
One half of the world's population relies on biomass fuel as the primary source of domestic energy. Biomass fuel exposure causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality in humans. This is especially true in the context of developing countries, which account for 99% of the world's biomass fuel use. Biomass fuel consists of fire wood, dung cakes, agricultural crop residues such as straw, grass, and shrubs, coal fuels and kerosene. Together, they supply 75% of the domestic energy in India. An estimated three-quarters of Indian households use biomass fuel as the primary means for domestic cooking.Ninety percent of rural households and 32% of urban households cook their meals on a biomass stove. There are wide variations between the rural and urban households regarding the specific type of biomass fuel used. Globally, almost 2 million deaths per year are attributable to solid fuel use, with morethan 99% of these occurring in developing countries. Biomass fuel accounts for 5-6% of the national burden of disease. Burning biomass fuels emits toxic fumes into the air that consist of small solid particles, carbon monoxide, polyorganic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. Exposure to biomass fuels has been found to be associated with many respiratory diseases such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and asthma. Biomass fuel exposure is closely related to the burden of disease in India. Hopes are that future studies will examine the morbidity associated with biomass exposure and seek to prevent it. Concerted efforts to improve stove design and transition to high-efficiency lowemission fuels may reduce respiratory disease associated with biomass fuel exposure.
Ragavan R.V.,Vellore Institute of Technology |
Ragavan R.V.,Biocon |
Vijayakumar V.,Vellore Institute of Technology |
Kumari N.S.,Ks Hegde Medical Academy
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010
Novel 1,5-diaryl pyrazole derivatives viz. 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamides (2a-e, 3, 3a-f), 2-(5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-yl)thiazoles (6a-c,7, 8, 9a-c, 10, 11) were synthesized by varying the active part (amide group) of pyrazole, characterized using IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral data and screened for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATTC-25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATTC-25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC-27853), Klebsiella pneumonia. Similarly all these compounds were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (NCIM No. 524), Aspergillus fumigates (NCIM No. 902), Penicillium marneffei and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Interestingly all the synthesized compounds exhibited good antibacterial (except 2a-c, 8, 9a) and antifungal activity (except 2a-c, 6a, 8, 9a). © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Raveendra U.S.,KS Hegde Medical Academy
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2011
Fibreoptic-guided endotracheal intubation skill is a strongly desirable attribute of an anaesthesiologist, essential to deal with difficult airway situations. Facilities for formal training in this crucial area are limited. Various aspects of the available and desirable training in fibreoptic endoscopic skills are discussed. © 2011.
Fernandes M.S.,KS Hegde Medical Academy |
Bhat R.M.,Fr Muller Medical College
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2015
In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253 cells/mm3. A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with CD4 T cell count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi’s sarcoma in our study, a case of verrucous carcinoma of penis was noted. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav
Upadhyaya V.S.,Ks Hegde Medical Academy |
Uppoor R.,Ks Hegde Medical Academy |
Shetty L.,Ks Hegde Medical Academy
Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging | Year: 2013
Imaging features of fat necrosis vary depending on its stage of evolution and can mimic malignancy in late stages. Imaging may suffice to differentiate fat necrosis in the early stages from malignancy and thus avoid unnecessary biopsy. In this pictorial essay, we present combination of benign features in mammography and/or ultrasonography (USG) that can lead to imaging diagnosis of fat necrosis. The follow-up imaging features of fat necrosis which mirror its pathophysiological evolution have also been demonstrated. To summarize, in the appropriate clinical setting, no mammographic features suspicious for malignancy should be present. When the typical mammographic features are not present, USG can aid with the diagnosis and follow up USG can confirm it.
Rao C.,KS Hegde Medical Academy |
Shetty J.,KS Hegde Medical Academy |
Kishan Prasad H.L.,KS Hegde Medical Academy
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013
Background and Purpose: Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is defined by a lack of expression of the steroid hormone receptors (oestrogen and progesterone), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is characterized by distinct molecular, histological and clinical features. It is a high risk breast cancer that lacks the benefit of a specific therapy. Our study was aimed at pathologically illustrating triple-negative breast carcinoma and at evaluating the expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR),cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6) and Ki-67 among triple-negative breast cancer cases. Further, we aimed to probe whether triple-negative phenotype could be a surrogate marker for the basal phenotype and to correlate the expression of the basal markers (CK 5/6 and EGFR) with the clinico-pathological prognostic parameters. Methods: The expression of EGFR, CK 5/6 and Ki-67 were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 50 triple-negative breast cancer cases. Statistical Analysis: A statistical analysis was implemented by using the SPSS version 20.0. The Chi-square test was conducted to assess the relationship between the immunohistochemical markers and other variables. The Fischer exact test was used when the expected cell counts were less than 5. Results: The women with triple-negative breast cancer were younger, with the adverse pathological characteristics of a high tumour grade, tumour necrosis, frequent nodal metastases and high proliferation. 37 (74%) of the 50 triple-negative breast carcinomas showed the expression of the basal markers (EGFR and /or CK 5/6). We observed a statistically significant association between the basal marker expression and the presence of tumour necrosis. Conclusion: The triple-negative breast cancers in our population harbour adverse pathobiological features and a five marker immunohistochemical panel can be reliably used to define the basal-like cancers. The "Triple-negative" status cannot be used as a surrogate for the "basal marker expression".