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Virtanen S.M.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Virtanen S.M.,University of Tampere | Kaila M.,University of Tampere | Pekkanen J.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | And 15 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition

The evidence of the effect of the age at introduction of new foods during infancy on the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis is inconsistent and scarce. We set out to study these associations. A prospective birth cohort of infants with increased HLA-DQB1-conferred risk for type 1 diabetes was recruited in 1996-2000. The families completed at home a record on the age at introduction of new foods. Persistent asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed at the age of 5 years with an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood-type questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were adjusted for parental asthma and allergic diseases, and several perinatal and sociodemographical factors. Out of the 1293 children, 77 (60%) developed persistent asthma; and out of the 1288 children, 185 (144%) developed allergic rhinitis by the age of 5 years. Early age at introduction of oats was associated with a reduced risk of persistent asthma (hazard ratio (HR; 95% CI) for the first and mid-tertiles compared with the latest tertile was 036 (015, 085) and 037 (022, 062), respectively, P<0001). Early age at introduction of fish was dose dependently associated with a decreased risk of allergic rhinitis (HR (95% CI) for the first and mid-tertiles compared with the latest tertile was 034 (022, 054) and 045 (028, 070), respectively, P<0001). The present finding that age at introduction of oats is inversely and independently associated with development of persistent asthma is novel. We confirmed the earlier observation that the age at introduction of fish is inversely related to the risk of allergic rhinitis. Clinical implications remain to be determined. © 2009 The Authors. Source

Giongo A.,University of Florida | Gano K.A.,University of Florida | Crabb D.B.,University of Florida | Mukherjee N.,University of Florida | And 22 more authors.
ISME Journal

Several studies have shown that gut bacteria have a role in diabetes in murine models. Specific bacteria have been correlated with the onset of diabetes in a rat model. However, it is unknown whether human intestinal microbes have a role in the development of autoimmunity that often leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disorder in which insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cells are destroyed. High-throughput, culture-independent approaches identified bacteria that correlate with the development of T1D-associated autoimmunity in young children who are at high genetic risk for this disorder. The level of bacterial diversity diminishes overtime in these autoimmune subjects relative to that of age-matched, genotype-matched, nonautoimmune individuals. A single species, Bacteroides ovatus, comprised nearly 24% of the total increase in the phylum Bacteroidetes in cases compared with controls. Conversely, another species in controls, represented by the human firmicute strain CO19, represented nearly 20% of the increase in Firmicutes compared with cases overtime. Three lines of evidence are presented that support the notion that, as healthy infants approach the toddler stage, their microbiomes become healthier and more stable, whereas, children who are destined for autoimmunity develop a microbiome that is less diverse and stable. Hence, the autoimmune microbiome for T1D may be distinctly different from that found in healthy children. These data also suggest bacterial markers for the early diagnosis of T1D. In addition, bacteria that negatively correlated with the autoimmune state may prove to be useful in the prevention of autoimmunity development in high-risk children. Source

Virtanen S.M.,University of Tampere | Virtanen S.M.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Uusitalo L.,University of Tampere | Uusitalo L.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | And 18 more authors.
Pediatric Diabetes

Background: Evidence for a putative role of maternal diet during pregnancy in the development of β-cell autoimmunity in the child is scarce. The authors study the association of food consumption during pregnancy and the development of β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring. Subjects and methods: A prospective Finnish birth cohort of 4297 infants with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and their mothers. Blood samples were collected from the children at 3-12 months intervals to measure type 1 diabetes-associated antibodies: antibodies against islet cells (ICA), insulin, glutamate dehydroxylase, and islet antigen 2. The mothers completed a validated food frequency questionnaire. The end-point was repeated positivity for ICA together with at least one of the other three antibodies. Piecewise-exponential survival models were used. The effective sample size was 3723, with 138 end-points. The median follow-up time was 4.4 years. Results: Maternal consumption of butter, low-fat margarines, berries, and coffee were inversely associated with the development of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring, adjusted for genetic risk group and familial diabetes. These associations for low-fat margarines (use vs. non-use HR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38-0.93, p = 0.02), berries (continuous variable HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98, p = 0.02) and coffee (highest quarter vs. lowest HR 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40-0.97, p = 0.04), remained significant when adjusting for potential confounding sociodemographic, perinatal, and other dietary factors. Conclusions: In this study assessing total food consumption of the mother during pregnancy, only few among the 27 food groups tested were weakly related to the development of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in Finnish children. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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