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New Westminster, Canada

Anderson G.S.,Justice Institute of British Columbia | Gaetz M.,University of the Fraser Valley | Statz C.,University of the Fraser Valley
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction Immediate resuscitation is necessary in order to achieve conscious survival for persons who have lost airways or pulses. However, current literature suggests that even in medically-trained personnel, CPR skills are forgotten shortly after certification. Hypothesis/Problem The purpose of this study was to determine the CPR skill and knowledge decay in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within the workplace. Methods Using an unconscious victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of CPR events were observed and recorded in 244 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. Results A significant negative correlation was observed between days since training and a pre-CPR safety check variable, periodic checks for breathing and positioning. Many of the knowledge-related assessment skills (e.g., scene safety, emergency medical system (EMS) activation) appeared to deteriorate with time, although they could be contaminated by the repetition of training in those who had recertified one or more times. Skill-based components such as landmarking for chest compressions and controlling the airway declined in a more predictable fashion. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that repetition may be more important than days since last trained for skill and knowledge retention, and methods of refreshing skills should be examined. While skills deteriorate rapidly, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the best way to increase retention of skill and knowledge. © 2012 World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine. Source


Kowalski K.,University of Victoria | Tuokko H.,University of Victoria | Tallman K.,Justice Institute of British Columbia
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics | Year: 2010

On-road assessment is an essential component of a comprehensive older driver evaluation. However, based on a systematic review of the older driver literature, it appears that the importance of specific elements within an on-road assessment differs depending on the following intended purpose of the evaluation: (a) the detection of impaired drivers; or (b) driver retraining. Moreover, driving rehabilitation specialists identify additional components as important. Directions for future research include the design of an on-road evaluation protocol that incorporates retraining as an integral part of the evaluation process. Through this approach, it may become clear which driving behaviors are amenable to retraining. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Cox R.S.,Royal Roads University | Perry K.-M.E.,Justice Institute of British Columbia
American Journal of Community Psychology | Year: 2011

In this paper we draw on the findings of a critical, multi-sited ethnographic study of two rural communities affected by a wildfire in British Columbia, Canada to examine the salience of place, identity, and social capital to the disaster recovery process and community disaster resilience. We argue that a reconfiguration of disaster recovery is required that more meaningfully considers the role of place in the disaster recovery process and opens up the space for a more reflective and intentional consideration of the disorientation and disruption associated with disasters and our organized response to that disorientation. We describe a social-psychological process, reorientation, in which affected individuals and communities navigate the psychological, social and emotional responses to the symbolic and material changes to social and geographic place that result from the fire's destruction. The reorientation process emphasizes the critical importance of place not only as an orienting framework in recovery but also as the ground upon which social capital and community disaster resilience are built. This approach to understanding and responding to the disorientation of disasters has implications for community psychologists and other service providers engaged in supporting disaster survivors. This includes the need to consider the complex dynamic of contextual and cultural factors that influence the disaster recovery process. © 2011 Society for Community Research and Action. Source


Turris S.A.,University of British Columbia | Turris S.A.,University of Vic | Lund A.,University of British Columbia | Bowles R.R.,Justice Institute of British Columbia
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness | Year: 2014

Objectives Mass gatherings (MGs) and special events typically involve large numbers of people in unfamiliar settings, potentially creating unpredictable situations. To assess the information available to guide emergency services and onsite medical teams in planning and preparing for potential mass casualty incidents (MCIs), we analyzed the literature for the past 30 years. Methods A search of the literature for MCIs at MGs from 1982 to 2012 was conducted and analyzed. Results Of the 290 MCIs included in this study, the most frequently reported mechanism of injury involved the movement of people under crowded conditions (162; 55.9%), followed by special hazards (eg, airplane crashes, pyrotechnic displays, car crashes, boat collisions: 57; 19.6%), structural failures (eg, building code violations, balcony collapses: 38; 13.1%), deliberate events (26; 9%), and toxic exposures (7; 2.4%). Incidents occurred in Asia (71; 24%), Europe (69; 24%), Africa (48; 17%), North America (48; 27%), South America (27; 9%), the Middle East (25; 9%), and Australasia (2; 1%). A minimum of 12 877 deaths and 27 184 injuries resulted. Conclusions Based on our findings, we recommend that a centralized database be created. With this database, researchers can further develop evidence to guide prevention efforts and mitigate the effects of MCIs during MGs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. Source


Lund A.,Royal Columbian Hospital | Turris S.A.,University of British Columbia | Bowles R.,Justice Institute of British Columbia
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine | Year: 2014

Mass gatherings (MG) impact their host and surrounding communities and with inadequate planning, may impair baseline emergency health services. Mass gatherings do not occur in a vacuum; they have both consumptive and disruptive effects that extend beyond the event itself. Mass gatherings occur in real geographic locations that include not only the event site, but also the surrounding neighborhoods and communities. In addition, the impact of small, medium, or large special events may be felt for days, or even months, prior to and following the actual events. Current MG reports tend to focus on the events themselves during published event dates and may underestimate the full impact of a given MG on its host community. In order to account for, and mitigate, the full effects of MGs on community health services, researchers would benefit from a common model of community impact. Using an operations lens, two concepts are presented, the vortex and the ripple, as metaphors and a theoretical model for exploring the broader impact of MGs on host communities. Special events and MGs impact host communities by drawing upon resources (vortex) and by disrupting normal, baseline services (ripple). These effects are felt with diminishing impact as one moves geographically further from the event center, and can be felt before, during, and after the event dates. Well executed medical and safety plans for events with appropriate, comprehensive risk assessments and stakeholder engagement have the best chance of ameliorating the potential negative impact of MGs on communities. Copyright © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2014. Source

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