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Bormanis J.,The Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Center | Quirt I.,University of Toronto | Chang J.,ughlin Durham Regional Cancer Center | Kouroukis C.T.,Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2013

Purpose: Anemia in cancer patients can be a result of the underlying cancer or related to treatment. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are an important option for many patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia, but are immersed in controversy. This article aims to reconcile conflicting opinions and provide expert guidance for appropriate ESA use. Methods: Teleconference, email, and a face-to-face meeting were used to assess ESA therapy "interpretive" data, which included two current meta-analyses, expert guidelines, and regulatory approved indications from Canada, Europe, and the USA. Results: Risks and benefits are associated with both red blood cell transfusions and ESA therapy, including improvements in hemoglobin levels and quality of life. ESAs have been associated with concerns regarding survival and progression of cancer, particularly when used in patients with cancer-related anemia. Conclusion: Although safety concerns do exist, ESA therapy can be considered for use in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia in accordance with Health Canada labeling. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Wood T.J.,McMaster University | Racano A.,McMaster University | Yeung H.,McMaster University | Farrokhyar F.,McMaster University | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Surgical management of metastatic bone disease (MBD) is typically reserved for lesions with the highest risk of fracture. However, the high risk of perioperative complications associated with surgery may outweigh the benefits of improved pain and/or function. The goal of this study was to (1) assess the quality of current evidence in this domain; (2) confirm that surgical management of metastases to the long bones and pelvis/acetabulum provides pain relief and improved function; and (3) assess perioperative morbidity and mortality rates.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature for clinical studies that reported pain relief and function outcomes, as well as perioperative complications and mortality, in patients with MBD to the long bones and/or pelvis/acetabulum treated surgically. Multiple databases were searched up to January 2012. Pooled weighted proportions are reported.Results: Forty-five studies were included in the final analysis, with 807 patients. All included studies were level IV with ‘moderate’ overall quality of evidence using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies scale. Pain relief following surgical management of metastases was 93, 91, and 93 % in the humerus, femur, and pelvis/acetabulum, respectively. Maintained or improved function after surgery was seen in 94, 89, and 94 % in the humerus, femur, and pelvis/acetabulum, respectively. Perioperative complications and mortality were 17 and 4 %, respectively.Conclusions: Despite the inherent limitations of the current evidence, a benefit for the surgical management of bone metastases to the long bones and pelvis/acetabulum is evident; however, there is still substantial risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality that should be considered. © 2014, Society of Surgical Oncology. Source

Hay A.E.,Queens University | Meyer R.M.,Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Center
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America | Year: 2014

Because long-term survival of patients with nonbulky stage IA to IIA Hodgkin lymphoma is dependent on disease control and avoidance of late toxic effects associated with the treatment received, the initial choice of treatment can be associated with trade-offs that balance optimum disease control with avoidance of these late effect risks. Health professionals and patients face the dilemma of making treatment decisions without the benefit of completely understanding the risk-benefit balances associated with how current treatments affect all outcomes of interest. Optimum management of these patients requires careful multidisciplinary evaluation and communication strategies that account for patient preferences. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Leber B.,Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Center
Current Oncology | Year: 2011

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a model disease in oncology: it is the first human cancer linked to a distinct chromosomal abnormality, ultimately causing constitutive overactivity of a known oncogenic tyrosine kinase that represents a drug target. The introduction of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib into clinical practice has far exceeded expectations and resurrected hope that the fundamental insights from the "war on cancer" can lead to significant therapeutic advances. Nevertheless,the current perception among clinicians is that imatinib and its newer more potent cousins offer superb long-term disease control for most patients, but that cure without transplantation has remained elusive. However, several important laboratory-based observations over the last few years have changed those perceptions. Several of those developments are discussed here, including direct manipulation of the apoptosis pathway in cancer cells and prevention of disease progression with the use of antioxidants. Intriguing results from a French study indicate that, if disease progression is halted, a small but significant group of patients may be able to stop imatinib therapy without disease recurrence. And for patients whose disease, because of resistant stem cells,needs a more direct attack than tyrosine kinase inhibitors alone, several approaches investigated in laboratory and animal models seem promising, and some are ripe for clinical testing, including inhibitors of Smoothened and 5-lipoxygenase, and suppression of autophagy. Thus,there is realistic hope that true cure of cml, without transplantation, may be a feasible goal in the near future.©2011 Multimed Inc. Source

Kavsak P.A.,McMaster University | Kavsak P.A.,Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Center | Worster A.,McMaster University
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy | Year: 2012

Evaluation of: Collinson P, Goodacre S, Gaze D et al. Very early diagnosis of chest pain by point-of-care testing: comparison of the diagnostic efficiency of a panel of cardiac biomarkers compared with troponin measurement alone in the RATPAC trial. Heart 98(4), 312-318 (2012). An early diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the emergency setting would be advantageous for both patients and the physicians treating these patients. Guidelines currently recommend serial samples that are drawn at presentation and 6-9 h later to be measured for cardiac troponin to aid in this diagnosis. However, much effort has been directed to decrease the time to make a diagnosis in this setting, and there has been renewed interest in shortening the time between serial measurements as well as the turnaround time for reporting the results. By eliminating the blood sample transit time to the central laboratory, point-of-care testing or near-patient testing can reduce the turnaround time for reporting the results, however this is possibly at the cost of decreased diagnostic performance. In this article, we discuss the recent results from the RATPAC study, which evaluated whether the combination of myoglobin, the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CKMB) and a sensitive troponin assay would be superior to troponin alone. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

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