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Hamilton, Canada

Pan Q.-J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hu S.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ci P.-W.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Cytopathology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been widely used for cervical cancer screening. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, to the authors' knowledge few large studies to date have focused on biopsy-confirmed cervical lesions and controversy remains concerning its diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the current study was to assess LBC for detecting biopsy-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. METHODS: A pooled analysis of LBC using data from 13 population-based, cross-sectional, cervical cancer screening studies performed in China from 1999 to 2008 was performed. Participants (n526,782) received LBC and human papillomavirus testing. Women found to be positive on screening were referred for colposcopy and biopsy. The accuracy of LBC for detecting biopsy-confirmed CIN of type 2 or worse (CIN21) as well as CIN type 3 or worse (CIN31) lesions was analyzed. RESULTS: Of 25,830 women included in the analysis, CIN21 was found in 107 of 2612 with atypical squamous cells (4.1%), 142 of 923 with lowgrade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (15.4%), 512 of 784 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (65.3%), 29 of 30 with squamous cell carcinoma (96.7%), 4 of 27 with atypical glandular cells (14.8%), and 85 of 21,454 with normal cytology results (0.4%). No invasive cancers were found to have atypical squamous cells, atypical glandular cells, or cytologically normal slides. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of LBC for detecting CIN21 were 81.0%, 95.4%, 38.3%, 99.3 %, and 94.9%, respectively. Although Hybrid Capture 2 was more sensitive than LBC, the specificity, positive predictive value, and overall accuracy of LBC were higher than those of Hybrid Capture2 at 85.2%, 18.6%, and 85.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that the performance of LBC can effectively predict the risk of existing CIN21 and may be a good screening tool for cervical cancer prevention in a developing country. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Ali S.A.,Juravinski Hospital | Jaspan T.,University of Nottingham | Marenah C.,City Hospital Campus | Vyas H.,University of Nottingham
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology | Year: 2012

Hypernatremia has been causally linked with subdural hematoma (SDH), but more recently this has been called into question. Conversely, there is a well-established link between SDH and injury. We wish to examine the evidence base that hypernatremia in infants and young children causes SDH.We present 2 cases of children with severe hypernatremia whose intracranial contents were assessed by imaging in the first case and postmortem examination in the second. Neither demonstrated SDH. The first case was important as the hypernatremia was iatrogenic occurring in a controlled hospital environment.We also searched the literature from 1950 to 2007, collecting data on all reported cases of hypernatremia in children younger than 7 years whose intracranial contents were examined by imaging, surgery, and/or postmortem examination. Of 124 cases reported in 31 articles, 112 cases developed hypernatremia in the community, and 12 in the hospital. Subdural hematoma was demonstrated in 7 cases, all of which had developed hypernatremia in the community under circumstances that would make it difficult to exclude nonaccidental injury. None of the 12 cases that developed hypernatremia in a controlled hospital environment had SDH.The evidence base supporting the hypothesis that hypernatremia causes SDH is poor, depending on isolated reports with uncertain histories. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Leslie K.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Leslie K.,Perioperative and Pain Medicine Unit | Leslie K.,University of Melbourne | Leslie K.,Monash University | And 21 more authors.
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2016

Background. We assessed associations between intraoperative neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia, and a composite primary outcome of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, at 30 days post-randomization in POISE-2 Trial subjects. Methods. 10 010 high-risk noncardiac surgical patients were randomized aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. Neuraxial block was defined as intraoperative spinal anaesthesia, or thoracic or lumbar epidural anaesthesia. Postoperative epidural analgesia was defined as postoperative epidural local anaesthetic and/or opioid administration. We used logistic regression with weighting using estimated propensity scores. Results. Neuraxial block was not associated with the primary outcome [7.5% vs 6.5%; odds ratio (OR), 0.89; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.73-1.08; P=0.24], death (1.0% vs 1.4%; OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.53-1.35; P=0.48), myocardial infarction (6.9% vs 5.5%; OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74-1.12; P=0.36) or stroke (0.3% vs 0.4%; OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.44-2.49; P=0.91). Neuraxial block was associated with less clinically important hypotension (39% vs 46%; OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-1.00; P=0.04). Postoperative epidural analgesia was not associated with the primary outcome (11.8% vs 6.2%; OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.89-2.48; P=0.13), death (1.3% vs 0.8%; OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.35-1.99; P=0.68], myocardial infarction (11.0% vs 5.7%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.90-2.61; P=0.11], stroke (0.4% vs 0.4%; OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.18-2.32; P=0.50] or clinically important hypotension (63% vs 36%; OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.95-2.09; P=0.09). Conclusions. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia were not associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among POISE-2 subjects. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.

Duarte R.F.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Lopez-Jimenez J.,Hospital Ramony Cajal | Comely O.A.,University of Cologne | Laverdiere M.,HOpital Maisonneuve Rosemont | And 10 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Posaconazole tablets, a new oral formulation of posaconazole, can be effective when given as antifungal prophylaxis to neutropenic patients at high risk for invasive fungal infection (e.g., those with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome). Such effectiveness might be specifically important to patients with poor oral intake because of nausea, vomiting, or chemotherapy-associated mucositis. This was a prospective, global study in high-risk patients to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of posaconazole tablets and to identify the dose of posaconazole tablets that would provide exposure within a predefined range of exposures (steady-state average concentration [area under the concentration-time curve/24 h] of 500 ng/ml and 2,500 ng/ml in > 90% of patients). The study evaluated two sequential dosing cohorts: 200 mg posaconazole once daily (n = 20) and 300 mg posaconazole once daily (n = 34) (both cohorts had a twice-daily loading dose on day 1) taken without regard to food intake during the neutropenic period for 28 days. The exposure target was reached (day 8) in 15 of 19 (79%) pharmacokinetic-evaluable patients taking 200 mg posaconazole once daily and in 31 of 32 (97%) patients taking 300 mg posaconazole once daily; 300 mg posaconazole once daily achieved the desired exposure target. Posaconazole tablets were generally well tolerated in high-risk neutropenic patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01777763.) Copyright © 2014 American Society for Microbiology All Rights Reserved.

Murphy J.,A+ Network | Varela N.P.,McMaster University | Elit L.,Juravinski Cancer Center | Lytwyn A.,Juravinski Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Current Oncology | Year: 2015

Objective The purpose of this guideline is to help ensure the provision of high-quality colposcopy practices in the province of Ontario, including those conducted as diagnostic procedures in follow-up to an abnormal cervical screening test. Methods This document updates the recommendations published in the 2008 colposcopy guideline from Cancer Care Ontario, The Optimum Organization for the Delivery of Colposcopy Service in Ontario. A systematic review of guidelines was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence and recommendations concerning these key aspects of colposcopy: Training, qualification, accreditation, and maintenance of competence Practice setting requirements Operational practice Quality indicators and outcomes Results This guideline provides recommendations on training and maintenance of competence for colposcopists in the practice settings in which colposcopic evaluation and treatments are conducted. It also provides recommendations on operational issues and quality indicators for colposcopy. Conclusions This updated guideline is intended to support quality improvement for colposcopy for all indications, including the follow-up of an abnormal cervical screening test and work-up for lower genital tract lesions that are not clearly malignant. The recommendations contained in this document are intended for clinicians and institutions performing colposcopy in Ontario, and for policymakers and program planners involved in the delivery of colposcopy services. © 2015 Multimed Inc.

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