Ebert M.,Jura Museum Eichstatt |
Kolbl-Ebert M.,Jura Museum Eichstatt |
Lane J.A.,American Museum of Natural History
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
The newly recognized Konservat-Lagerstätte of Ettling (Bavaria), field site of the Jura-Museum Eichstätt (JME), is unique among Late Jurassic plattenkalk basins (Solnhofen region) in its abundant, extremely well preserved fossil vertebrates, almost exclusively fishes. We report actinopterygians (ginglymodins, pycnodontiforms, halecomorphs, aspidorynchiforms, "pholidophoriforms," teleosts); turtles; and non-vertebrates (echinoderms, arthropods, brachiopods, mollusks, jellyfish, sponges, biomats, plants) in a current faunal list. Ettling has yielded several new fish species (Bavarichthys incognitus; Orthogonikleithrus hoelli; Aspidorhynchus sanzenbacheri; Macrosemimimus fegerti). Upper and lower Ettling strata differ in faunal content, with the lower dominated by the small teleost Orthogonikleithrus hoelli (absent from the upper layers, where other prey fishes, Leptolepides sp. and Tharsis sp., occur instead). Pharyngeal and stomach contents of Ettling fishes provide direct evidence that Orthogonikleithrus hoelli was a primary food source during early Ettling times. Scarcity of ammonites and absence of vampyromorph coleoids at Ettling differ markedly from the situation at other nearby localities in the region (e.g., Eichstätt, Painten, Schamhaupten, the Mörnsheim beds), where they are more common. Although the exact biochronological age of Ettling remains uncertain (lack of suitable index fossils), many Ettling fishes occur in other plattenkalk basins of Germany (e.g., Kelheim) and France (Cerin) dated as Late Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian (eigeltingense horizon), suggesting a comparable geologic age. The Ettling deposits represent an independent basin within the larger Upper Jurassic "Solnhofen Archipelago", a shallow subtropical sea containing scattered islands, sponge-microbial and coral reefs, sandbars, and deeper basins on a vast carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean. © 2015 Ebert et al.
Lane J.A.,Jura Museum Eichstatt |
Lane J.A.,American Museum of Natural History |
Ebert M.,Jura Museum Eichstatt
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2014
Although the type species of Ophiopsis was long considered O. procera, the genus originally included the single species Ophiopsis muensteri, which subsequent authors moved to Furo. Following the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature code, Furo muensteri is here recognized as the type species of Ophiopsis by monotypy (Article 68.3). Ophiopsiella, gen. nov., is erected to include all remaining previously described 'Ophiopsis' species. Exceptionally well preserved new Ophiopsiella attenuata from the Upper Jurassic plattenkalk of Ettling (Bavaria, Germany) represents the first record of this species from Ettling, allowing for a partial revision of it and Ophiopsiella procera. New evidence allows for an emended diagnosis of Ophiopsiella attenuata, which differs from all other Ophiopsidae in the following combination of features: 27-28 dorsal fin rays, 42 vertical scale rows, and a long, low, posteroventrally inclined dorsal fin lacking elongate anterior fin rays or a strongly concave posterior border. A neotype for O. attenuata is designated, as the type is lost. 'Ophiopsis' attenuata actually contains two anatomically different morphotypes corresponding to distinct species, one of which is indistinguishable from 'Ophiopsis' procera. Exceptional preservation of the new material provides new morphological information, particularly regarding the dermal cranial bones. This revision changes the known distribution of ophiopsids in the Upper Jurassic of southern Germany and France, with possible broader paleobiogeographic and paleoecological implications for this region during the Late Jurassic. Ophiopsids remain poorly known compared with other halecomorphs (e.g., Amiidae), and closer investigation of their morphology and taxonomic relationships is therefore important to understanding broader patterns of halecomorph evolution. © by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.
Vallon L.H.,Geomuseum Faxe Ostsjaellands Museum |
Schweigert G.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde |
Bromley R.G.,Ronnevej 97 |
Roper M.,Burgermeister Muller Museum Solnhofen |
Ebert M.,Jura Museum Eichstatt
Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae | Year: 2015
The shedding of exoskeletons is an important aspect of the lifecycle of some invertebrates (mainly arthropods). To rid themselves of the old cuticula (= exuvia), these animals often have to thrash about, twist around or rub themselves against the sediment or other more or less solid objects. In softgrounds, this behaviour may create distinctive patterns that have to be regarded as trace fossils. Accordingly, some ichnospecies of Rusophycus have recently been interpreted as traces made during ecdysis. Most of the so-called “Schwoimarken” from the Solnhofen lithographic limestones (Upper Jurassic, SE Germany), usually interpreted as structures made by dead organisms swaying in response to water movements, must be understood as traces of arthropod ecdysis. In this context, we erect Harpichnus bartheli igen. et isp. nov. and propose the new ethological category, ecdysichnia, for moulting traces. In most “Schwoimarken” containing body-fossil remains other than arthropods, we see sediment displacement by scavenging arthropods rather than mortichnia (sensu Seilacher, 2007). We further propose inclusion of the recently erected category pupichnia for pupation chambers as a subcategory of ecdysichnia. In our opinion, pupation is a special form of moulting that does not justify the splitting of categories, as briefly noted by Vallon et al. (2013). © 2015, Geological Society of Poland. All rights reserved.
Grundel J.,Free University of Berlin |
Ebert M.,Jura Museum Eichstatt |
Furze R.,Bachweg 1
Zitteliana Reihe A: Mitteilungen der Bayerischen Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Year: 2011
In this paper 23 gastropod species are described from the Upper Aalenian of the clay pit Geisingen (southern Germany), mostly under open nomenclature. New is Parvulactaeon inusitata n. sp. From the Upper Aalenian of southern Germany gastropods were nearly unknown until today. Therefore this fauna close the gap between the well known gastropod faunas from the Upper Toarcian/Lower Aalenian on the one side and the Bajocian on the other side.
Schrder K.M.,Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie |
Lopez-Arbarello A.,Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie |
Ebert M.,Jura Museum Eichstatt
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2012
We describe a new semionotiform genus, which was recognized while studying Macrosemimimus fegerti, gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Archipelago, Germany. Macrosemimimus (Lepidotes) lennieri from the early Kimmeridgian of Cap de la Hève, France, including Lepidotes toombsi from the Lower Kimmeridge Clay in Cambridgeshire, England, as a junior synonym, also belong to the new genus. Though different species, the presence of the same fish genus in different biodiversity zones suggests that semionotiforms might have been less sensible to the ecological and physical factors that caused the endemisms recognized in the invertebrate faunas. Macrosemimimus is mainly distinguished by the peculiar shape of the antorbital portion of the frontal bones, a single pair of extrascapular bones that do not reach the dorsal midline, anteriorly open circumborbital ring, only two suborbital bones, edentulous maxilla, a large quadratojugal involved in the jaw articulation, four postcleithra, and the pectoral fins placed very low and joining ventrally. The two included species differ in the ornamentation of the skull bones, the morphology of the scales, the relative size and position of the extrascapular bones, the dorsal extension of the preoperculum, and the kind of dentition. Although the phylogenetic relationships of Macrosemimimus are not yet established, the particular shape of the antorbital portion of the frontals and the patterns of the extrascapular and suborbital bones indicate possible systematic affinity with the macrosemiids, Lepidotes gloriae from the Oxfordian of Cuba, and Lepidotes microrhis and Lepidotes tanyrhis from the Barremian of Las Hoyas, Spain. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Kolbl-Ebert M.,Jura Museum Eichstatt
Earth Sciences History | Year: 2010
The physicist Damian Kreichgauer entered the German Missionary Order Societas Verbi Divini (SVD) in 1892. From 1895 onwards, he taught natural sciences to future missionaries at the Order's seminary St Gabriel (Austria). In 1902, he published a book called Die Äquatorfrage in der Geologie (The Question of the Equator in Geology) with the Order's publishing outlet, in which he advocated the idea of a mobilistic Earth, where the Earth's crust as a whole moved with respect to the fluid core and the Earth's rotational axis. The main evidence for this idea he found in the changing of climate zones during geological epochs. Due to a small database, which was basically restricted to European plate localities, Kreichgauer did not notice discrepancies between polar wander on different continents. Nevertheless, the book was later cited and discussed as one of his precursors by Alfred Wegener in his book on the origin of continents and oceans. Kreichgauer also introduced his ideas to parallel the events of the biblical Genesis with geological epochs. He later expanded this 'concordance theory' in a separate book Das Sechstagewerk (The Work of the Six Days). He eventually abandoned scientific work, possibly due to censorship wielded by the Superior of his Order, unlike his contemporary, the Jesuit Erich Wasmann, a respected entomologist, who defended evolutionary ideas despite adverse Church politics and censorship.