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Caceres, Spain

The Gobierno de Extremadura is the collegial body that performs the functions of the Government of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura. Also, in accordance with the general guidelines of the President, establishes policy and directs the administration of the Autonomous Region exercises the executive and regulatory powers under the Spanish Constitution and the Statute of Extremadura. Its headquarters, according to Article 5 of the Statute of Autonomy, is in Mérida, capital of Extremadura.Extremadura Board comprises the President, Vice President or Vice Presidents, if any, and ministers . Each minister is in charge of a Ministry and are freely appointed and dismissed by the President, reporting to the Assembly of Extremadura.Currently the President of the Junta de Extremadura, José Antonio Monago Terraza was elected after the elections of May 22, 2011. For 24 years the president was Juan Carlos Rodríguez Ibarra. The current government of Extremadura is composed of the following directors. Wikipedia.

Moral F.J.,University of Extremadura | Terron J.M.,Junta de Extremadura | Rebollo F.J.,University of Extremadura
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture

Delineation of management zones (MZ), i.e. areas within the field which represent subfield regions of similar production potential, is the first stage to implement site-specific management. During the last years different algorithms have been proposed to define MZ, with different results. In this work, the use of an objective method, the formulation of the Rasch model, which synthesizes data with different units into a uniform analytical framework, is considered to get representative measures of soil fertility potential which could be used to delimit MZ. To illustrate the method, a case study was conducted in a experimental field using five soil properties: clay, sand and silt content, and deep (ECd) and shallow (ECs) soil apparent electrical conductivity (approximately 0-90 and 0-30. cm depths, respectively). Two main results were obtained after applying this method: (1) a classification of all locations according to the soil fertility potential, which was the value of the Rasch measure and (2) the influence on the soil fertility of each individual soil property, being ECs the most influential and silt content the less influential property.Later, from the measures of soil fertility potential at sampled points, estimates were carried out using the ordinary kriging technique. Consequently, kriged estimates were utilized to map soil fertility potential and MZ were delimited using an equal-size classification method, which practically coincided with the MZ determined by a unsupervised classification. It is also shown the possibility of using probability maps to delimit MZ or provide information for hazard assessment of soil fertility in a field. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

The process followed by Spain to decide whether it should subscribe the International Convention for the Protection of Birds Useful to Agriculture, signed in 1902 is described. The fundamental role played by Mariano de la Paz Graells, one of the foremost Spanish naturalists of the 19th century, in the technical review and acceptance of the draft agreement, drawn up in 1895, is highlighted. Furthermore, a critical analysis of Graells's position in relation to this so-called first international convention for the conservation of certain wildlife species, has been carried out. Source

To determine whether root-to-shoot signalling of soil moisture heterogeneity depended on root distribution, wild-type (WT) and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (Az34) barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were grown in split pots into which different numbers of seminal roots were inserted. After establishment, all plants received the same irrigation volumes, with one pot watered (w) and the other allowed to dry the soil (d), imposing three treatments (1d:3w, 2d:2w, 3d:1w) that differed in the number of seminal roots exposed to drying soil. Root distribution did not affect leaf water relations and had no sustained effect on plant evapotranspiration (ET). In both genotypes, leaf elongation was less and leaf ABA concentrations were higher in plants with more roots in drying soil, with leaf ABA concentrations and water potentials 30% and 0.2MPa higher, respectively, in WT plants. Whole-pot soil drying increased xylem ABA concentrations, but maximum values obtained when leaf growth had virtually ceased (100nm in Az34, 330nm in WT) had minimal effects (<40% leaf growth inhibition) when xylem supplied to detached shoots. Although ABA may not regulate leaf growth in vivo, genetic variation in foliar ABA concentration in the field may indicate different root distributions between upper (drier) and lower (wetter) soil layers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Moriana A.,University of Seville | Perez-Lopez D.,Technical University of Madrid | Prieto M.H.,Junta de Extremadura | Perez-Rodriguez J.M.,Junta de Extremadura
Agricultural Water Management

Irrigation scheduling of fruit trees according to the water balance showed significant differences between locations. In recent years, water status measurements such as leaf water potential have been suggested as irrigation tools in different fruit trees. The aim of this study was to adjust water potential threshold values previously studied and water application approaches that permit the estimation of irrigation requirements of olive trees based on midday stem water potential. The experiments were performed during three seasons (from 2005 to 2007) in two different locations (Badajoz and Ciudad Real) with different weather and cultural conditions. In both locations, the olive orchards were seven years old at the beginning of the experiment but had significantly different canopy development. In Ciudad Real the canopy shaded area at the beginning of the experiment was 15% and the first crop was harvested in 2003. On the other hand, the canopy shaded area of the olive orchard in the Badajoz experiment was 40% and the first crop was harvested in 2001. We therefore considered the Ciudad Real orchard as young and Badajoz as mature. Three different irrigation treatments were compared in both locations: Control treatment with traditional water balance as irrigation scheduling and two treatments in which midday stem water potential (SWP) provided the information about water management. In the midday stem water potential irrigation (WI) treatment the threshold value of SWP was -1.2. MPa before the beginning of the massive pit hardening period and -1.4. MPa after this date. Finally, in the deficit irrigation (DI) treatment the threshold value of SWP was -2.0. MPa throughout the season. In the WI and DI treatments irrigation was applied when SWP reached the threshold value. No significant differences were found between Control and WI in any of the seasons or locations when SWP, leaf conductance, shoot and fruit growth and yield (fruit and oil) were considered. In both locations, the same SWP value in WI treatment resulted in similar water application as the Control treatment. In DI treatment, shoot growth was significantly reduced in both locations in all the seasons. The SWP in DI trees was clearly affected in both locations, while leaf conductance was only reduced in the Badajoz experiment. In the Ciudad Real experiment no significant differences between DI and the other treatments were found in fruit growth, whereas differences were found in Badajoz. However, in Ciudad Real yield in DI treatment was significantly reduced, but not in Badajoz. WI treatment was successful for non-water-stress conditions. On the other hand, DI treatment was a mild water stress treatment which reduced yield only in low covered orchards, but not in the orchards with almost maximum canopy shaded area. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2011-3 | Award Amount: 9.94M | Year: 2012

The building envelope (roof, faade and basements) is the key element to address in order to achieve the energy efficiency in the retrofitting of buildings, where the faade represent the largest part of the heat transmission surface and includes a number of critical components (like windows, balconies, ventilation units,etc) and thermal bridge phenomena. The present project aims to develop an energy efficient integrated system composed by an innovative concept, built on composite materials, and advanced multifunctional panels with technological modules integrated in the faade for building envelope retrofitting. The following solutions will be developed: - Innovative faade concept for retrofitting based on new industrialized constructive system integrating advanced multifunctional panels, technological modules and installations; allowing personalized configurations for each faade typology, orientation and local climate conditions, always using standardized panels and technological modules. It will be cost effective in service life, with low maintenance, easy assembly and disassembly. - Energy Efficient panels and modules integrated in the faade will include a particular technology for reducing energy demand of the building or for supplying energy by means of RES; two new energy efficient modules will be developed: Advanced Passive Solar Protector and Energy Absorption auto mobile unit, Advanced Passive Solar Collector and Ventilation Module. - A set of flexible, lightweight and cost-effective structural panels, easy to be industrialized and assembled, made of composite materials (FRP - Fibre Reinforced Polymer). The solution will be demonstrated in a real building in Spain, in a region with a continental climate, where extreme conditions in summer up to (>35C) and in winter (<0C), covering the different seasons. The building will be monitored before and after the retrofitting with the new Retrofitting system to evaluate the performance solutions.

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