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Burgos, Spain

Delibes-Mateos M.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC | Delibes A.,Junta de Castilla y Leon
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2013

Vietnamese potbellied (VPB) pigs (Sus scrofa) are a common pet in North America and Europe, but their recent decrease in popularity has increased their abandonment. Our main aim was to identify potential cases of free-living VPB pigs in Spain through an in-depth Google search. We identified 42 cases of free-living VPB pigs distributed throughout the country. The number of free-living VPB pigs reported increased by year but the species abundance still seems to be low. Signs of VPB pig reproduction and possible hybrids between VPB pigs and wild boar or feral pigs have been also reported. Free-living VPB pigs could erode the gene pool of the Spanish wild boar population and exacerbate the damage (e.g. crop damage or spread of diseases) already caused by wild board. Urgent evaluation and adequate management of wild VPB pig sightings is needed to prevent their establishment in natural habitats. Source

A new approach to the definition of physio-graphic and climatic potential areas for forest species, based on the ecological field theory, is outlined in this paper. The proposed formulation is tested on the Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera L.), using data from 883 permanent and temporary plots throughout its distribution area in the Spanish autonomous region of Castilla y León. The suitability of the territory for the species is assessed by previously studying its habitat, which in turn is analyzed through physiographic and climatic parameters. This new method is rooted in an additive index that depends on the Mahalanobis distance in the parametric space that evaluates the ecological resemblance between the studied site and each of the points defining the parametric habitat. Thereby the ecological potential of any site within the territory can be established, integrated in a geographical information systems and accordingly charted. The results are compared with those obtained with the methodology traditionally used by Spanish foresters (factorial index), showing that the overall potential area is similar in size but quite different in its distribution. © Springer-Verlag 2008. Source

Mutke S.,CIFOR INIA | Calama R.,CIFOR INIA | Gonzalez-Martinez S.C.,CIFOR INIA | Montero G.,CIFOR INIA | And 3 more authors.
Horticultural Reviews | Year: 2012

The seeds of Mediterranean stone pine, Pinus pinea, have been consumed by humans since the Paleolithic era. Similarly to edible seeds from other Eurasiatic or American pines, Mediterranean pine nuts and cones assumed early cultural, symbolic, and spiritual attributes by local cultures. They were represented in Neolithic rock paintings and sacred in the ancient high cultures, especially relevant in Greco-Roman cults. Although stone pine is well known and has been planted since antiquity, pine nuts still are gathered mainly in natural forests, and only recently has the crop taken the first steps from wild harvested to domestication. Stone pine is a good candidate for conversion to a horticultural crop. Its pine nuts are among the most expensive nuts, whose high price has made them an attractive opportunity as alternative crop on rain-fed farmland in Mediterranean climates. The species performs well on poor soils and needs reduced cultural practices in comparison with alternative crops, it is affected by few pests or diseases, and it resists climate adversities such as drought and extreme or late frosts. The current knowledge about stone pine as a plantation nut crop in specific plantations is still limited. At shoot level, vegetative and reproductive vigor are associated in the same axes. This imposes an "expanding crown"ideotype that limits the potential selection of highly productive dwarf cultivars for a modern, intensive, high-density horticultural system. The managed grafted trials with selected genotypes indicate that productivity of the forest land where these are located can be increased several-fold in comparison with yields in traditional stone pine forests. The stone pine has potential as a crop in agroforestry systems; in tree lines, such as shelterbelts adjacent to farmland or pastures; or in proper low-density orchard plantations. The ongoing standardization of the processing and the finished product might extend its use as a crop in Mediterranean climate zones around the world. © 2012 Wiley-Blackwell. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Source

Garcia-Lopez J.M.,Junta de Castilla y Leon | Allue C.,Junta de Castilla y Leon
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

We assess the potential inherent responsitivity of the European forests to climate change, as a measure of the degree to which a forest ecosystem is responsive to a climatic stimulus, through an indicator that combines the concepts of resilience and plasticity without involving exposure. The derivatives of two phytoclimatic functions of resilience and plasticity adjusted for 12 climatic variables and 25 European forest types allow evaluating the responsitivity amount and sign of these forest types to likely situations of increased temperature and decreased precipitation. The results show a clear contrast between central and northern European countries. The highest values of positive responsitivity are found in the Scandinavian countries, as well as in the high mountain ranges, while the most negative values are found in the areas of southern Europe located around the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, climate change will tend to have the highest potential beneficial effects on the boreal forests and the most adverse on the Mediterranean ones (particularly on Thermo-Mediterranean forests). A total of 17% of forest lands covered by this study have negative responsitivity to climate change, being the mean value of the indicator negative for Italy, Spain, Greece, Malta and Portugal. Finland and Sweden are the countries with the greatest favorable potentialities facing climate change. Our results suggest that the inherent responsitivity of Mediterranean forests is mainly driven by the summer drought while in boreal forests the key factors are the low temperatures and the short growing season. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Garcia-Lopez J.M.,Junta de Castilla y Leon | Allue Carmen C.,Junta de Castilla y Leon
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2011

CLIMPAIR is a new phytoclimatic model, correlative and niche-based, which simultaneously assesses non-linear, non-statistical and dual measurements of proximity/potentiality of a site with respect to a number of climatic ranges of species, defined by convex hulls, within a suitability space. This set of phytoclimatic distances makes it possible to evaluate the degree to which each species is suitable for that site. Considering not only the number of species compatible (expected species richness), but also all those compatible covers presenting a high level of suitability evenness and finally applying an indicator derived from Shannon's classic entropy index to the set of standardized phytoclimatic coordinates in the suitability hyperspace, we can evaluate the phytoclimatic entropy which may be considered as a means of estimating the phytoclimatic versatility of the site. A site with high phytoclimatic entropy would promise versatile future behaviour, characterized by a wide range of possibilities of adaptation to climate change, and hence versatility can be used as an index of resilience and ability of a forest ecosystem to adapt to climate change. The model has been applied to peninsular Spain for 18 forest tree species and 12 climatic variables between the current mean climate (period 1951-1999) and a future climatic scenario (period 2040-2069). The results generally point to a significant decrease in the versatility of forest tree formations in the area studied, which is not homogeneous owing to a dual altitudinal/latitudinal decoupling. The decrease in versatility is greater in Mediterranean biogeographical areas than in Euro-Siberian ones, where in some cases it actually increases. In altitudinal terms, areas at elevations of less than 1500. m tend to become less versatile than areas situated at higher elevations, where versatility increases partly as a result of enrichment of alpine conifer forests with broadleaf species. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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