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Zeraati A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Mousavi S.S.B.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Mousavi M.B.,Islamic Azad University
Nephro-Urology Monthly | Year: 2013

Background: The presence of arterio-venous (A-V) fistula recirculation among hemodialysis (HD) patients markedly decrease adequacy of dialysis. Objectives: The present article summarize some of observations about clinical significance, causes, the most common techniques for measurement, and main source of pitfall in calculation of access recirculation. Materials and Methods: A variety of literature sources such as PubMed, Current Content, Scopus, Embase, and Iranmedex; with key words such as inadequate dialysis and arterio-venous fistula access recirculation were used to collect current data. Manuscripts published in English language as full-text articles or as abstract form were included in our review study. Results: Any access recirculation among HD patients should be considered abnormal and if it presents prompt investigation should be performed for its causes. There are two most common techniques for accurate assessment of access recirculation: Urea (or chemical) and nonurea-based method by ultrasound dilution technique. The most common causes of access recirculation are the presence of high-grade venous stenosis, inadequate arterial blood flow rate, close proximity, or misdirection of arterial and venous needles placement by HD staff especially in new vascular accesses due to a lack of familiarity with the access anatomy. Conclusions: The presence of access recirculation among HD patients can lead to significant inadequate dialysis thereby resulting in reducing the survival of these patients. Therefore, periodic assessment of access recirculation should be performed in HD wards. © 2013, Nephrology and Urology Research Center; Published by Kowsar Corp. Source

Mousavi S.S.B.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Faramarzi M.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz E Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Toxoplasmosis can cause serious complications among persons with weakened immune systems and therefore in solid organ transplant patients. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of screening for toxoplasma antibody titers in the donors and recipients candidate for renal transplantation in Ahvaz city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study from March 2010 to April 2012, we evaluated donors and recipients who referred to our kidney transplant center in Naft Hospital, Ahwaz, Iran.Routine pre transplante laboratory testes including liver function and toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibody were performed. Results: A total of 52 people, 30 donors (20 male and 10 Female) and 22 recipients (12 male and 10 female) were included in the study. Mean age of donors and recipients were 30.32 ± 6.75 years and 45.09 ± 10.57 years respectively. The marker of HBV and HCV infection were negative in 100% of recipients and donors. Toxoplasma IgG antibody was positive in 45.45 percent of recipients (N = 10) and 63.33 percent of donors (N = 19) but there was no statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.057) and between males and females (P = 0.74). Toxoplasma IgM antibody was negative in 100 percent of recipients (N = 22) and 93.33 percent of donors (N = 28). Conclusions: According to seropositivity for toxoplasma infection in about half of donors and recipients candidate for kidney transplantation, we should perform screening for this infection to avoid kidney donation from seropositive donor to seronegative recipient. © 2013, Docs Corp. Source

Alemzadeh-Ansari M.H.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Valavi E.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Ahmadzadeh A.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2014

Introduction. Urinary calculi in infants are relatively infrequent, but their incidence has increased in the recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation, metabolic risk factors, and urinary tract abnormalities in infants suffering from kidney calculus. Materials and Methods. A total of 152 infants were admitted between 2009 and 2012 with ultrasonography-proven urolithiasis. A Foley catheter was fixed and 24-hour urine samples were analyzed for calcium, citrate, oxalate, uric acid, and magnesium. For detecting cystinuria, qualitative measurement of urinary cystine was done by nitroprusside test. Urinary tract structural abnormalities were also evaluated. Results. The mean age at the diagnosis of kidney calculus was 5.46 months (range, 15 days to 12 months). The most common clinical findings were restlessness and urinary tract infection. A family history of calculi was found in 67.1% of the patients and 68.4% were born to consanguineous marriages. Metabolic abnormalities and urinary tract abnormalities were found in 96.1% and 15.1% of children, respectively. Urinary tract abnormalities were more common in girls. The most common metabolic risk factors were hypercalciuria (79.6%) and hypocitraturia (40.9%). Hyperoxaluria and hypomagnesuria were found in about 28% of patients, both of which were associated with bilateral urolithiasis. Conclusions. These findings show that urinary metabolic abnormalities are very common in infants with urolithiasis. Appropriate evaluation of urinary metabolic parameters can lead us to proper diagnosis and treatment. Source

Zadeh B.S.M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Hasani M.H.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: To achieve percutaneous delivery of trolamine salicylate to muscle and joints for the treatment of inflammatory muscle, tendon and joint diseases. Methods: Trolamine salicylate permeability parameters through rat skin were evaluated with and without chemical enhancers - Transcutol, eucalyptus oil, oleic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate - using the permeability cell technique. Results: The main barrier for trolamine salicylate permeability was the epidermis layer of the skin. Also, partitioning from the aqueous donor phase into the skin was the rate-limiting step for drug flux. Transcutol and eucalyptus oil were the most effective enhancers as they increased flux 11-fold. Sodium lauryl sulfate disrupted the lipid structure of the skin and thus increased diffusion coefficient 3-fold. Supersaturation technique did not increase flux. Propylene glycol in cosolvent system increased drug solubility in donor phase and partitioning. Conclusion: Trolamine salicylate exhibited less flux and diffusion coefficient through rat skin than salicylic acid due to its hydrophilic property. Partitioning from vehicle into skin was the rate-limiting step for trolamine salicylate permeability through rat skin. © Pharmacotherapy Group. Source

Badavi M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Ali Abedi H.,Jahrom University of Medical Sciences | Reza Sarkaki A.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Dianat M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background: One of the known complications of diabetes mellitus is vascular dysfunction. Inability of the coronary vascular response to cardiac hyperactivity might cause a higher incidence of ischemic heart disease in diabetic subjects. It has been indicated that regular exercise training and antioxidants could prevent diabetic cardiovascular problems enhanced by vascular damage. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed extract (as antioxidant), with and without exercise training on coronary vascular function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats weighing 200 - 232 grams were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, grape seed extract (200 mg/kg) treated sedentary diabetic and, grape seed extract treated trained diabetic. Diabetes was induced by one intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After eight weeks, coronary vascular responses to vasoactive agents were determined. Results: The endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was reduced significantly in diabetic animals; exercise training or grape seed extract administration partially improves this response. However, exercise training in combination with grape seed extract restores endothelial function completely. The endothelium independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside was improved by combination of exercise training and grape seed extract. On the other hand, the basal perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine did not change significantly. Conclusions: The data indicated that co-administration of grape seed extract and exercise training had more significant effects than exercise training or grape seed extract alone; this may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications. © 2013, Kowsar. All Rights Reserved. Source

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