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Valavi E.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Valavi E.,Abuzar Childrens Hospital | Hakimzadeh M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Shamsizadeh A.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Objective: To compare the clinical outcome of children having severe pneumonia, with and without zinc supplementation by a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Methods: In this study, 128 children (3-60 months old) admitted to the hospital with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into 2 groups (64 in each) that received either zinc sulfate (2 mg/kg/d, maximum 20 mg in 2 divided doses, for 5 days) or a placebo, along with the standard antimicrobial therapy. Primary outcome measurements included the time taken for clinical symptoms of severe pneumonia such as fever and respiratory distress symptoms to resolve, and the secondary outcome included the duration of hospital stay. Results: The time taken for all the symptoms to resolve in the zinc-supplemented group was significantly lesser then that in the placebo group (42.26 [6.66] vs. 47.52 [7.15] h respectively, p<0.001). The zinc-treated group had a significantly shorter duration of fever (23.29 [6.67] vs. 26.6 [6.26] h, p=0.024), respiratory distress (32.87 [7.85] vs. 37.37 [4.43] h, p=0.001), required a shorter hospital stay (126.74 [12.8] vs. 137.74 [11.52] h, p<0.001) than did the controls. The zinc supplement was well tolerated by the children. Conclusions: The results suggest that adjuvant treatment with zinc accelerates recovery from severe pneumonia in young children and significantly reduces the duration of hospital stay. Further studies are required to develop appropriate recommendations for the use of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia in other populations. © 2011 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.


Zeraati A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Mousavi S.S.B.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Mousavi M.B.,Islamic Azad University
Nephro-Urology Monthly | Year: 2013

Background: The presence of arterio-venous (A-V) fistula recirculation among hemodialysis (HD) patients markedly decrease adequacy of dialysis. Objectives: The present article summarize some of observations about clinical significance, causes, the most common techniques for measurement, and main source of pitfall in calculation of access recirculation. Materials and Methods: A variety of literature sources such as PubMed, Current Content, Scopus, Embase, and Iranmedex; with key words such as inadequate dialysis and arterio-venous fistula access recirculation were used to collect current data. Manuscripts published in English language as full-text articles or as abstract form were included in our review study. Results: Any access recirculation among HD patients should be considered abnormal and if it presents prompt investigation should be performed for its causes. There are two most common techniques for accurate assessment of access recirculation: Urea (or chemical) and nonurea-based method by ultrasound dilution technique. The most common causes of access recirculation are the presence of high-grade venous stenosis, inadequate arterial blood flow rate, close proximity, or misdirection of arterial and venous needles placement by HD staff especially in new vascular accesses due to a lack of familiarity with the access anatomy. Conclusions: The presence of access recirculation among HD patients can lead to significant inadequate dialysis thereby resulting in reducing the survival of these patients. Therefore, periodic assessment of access recirculation should be performed in HD wards. © 2013, Nephrology and Urology Research Center; Published by Kowsar Corp.


Badavi M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Ali Abedi H.,Jahrom University of Medical Sciences | Reza Sarkaki A.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Dianat M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background: One of the known complications of diabetes mellitus is vascular dysfunction. Inability of the coronary vascular response to cardiac hyperactivity might cause a higher incidence of ischemic heart disease in diabetic subjects. It has been indicated that regular exercise training and antioxidants could prevent diabetic cardiovascular problems enhanced by vascular damage. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed extract (as antioxidant), with and without exercise training on coronary vascular function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats weighing 200 - 232 grams were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, grape seed extract (200 mg/kg) treated sedentary diabetic and, grape seed extract treated trained diabetic. Diabetes was induced by one intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After eight weeks, coronary vascular responses to vasoactive agents were determined. Results: The endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was reduced significantly in diabetic animals; exercise training or grape seed extract administration partially improves this response. However, exercise training in combination with grape seed extract restores endothelial function completely. The endothelium independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside was improved by combination of exercise training and grape seed extract. On the other hand, the basal perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine did not change significantly. Conclusions: The data indicated that co-administration of grape seed extract and exercise training had more significant effects than exercise training or grape seed extract alone; this may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications. © 2013, Kowsar. All Rights Reserved.


Alemzadeh-Ansari M.H.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Valavi E.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Ahmadzadeh A.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2014

Introduction. Urinary calculi in infants are relatively infrequent, but their incidence has increased in the recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation, metabolic risk factors, and urinary tract abnormalities in infants suffering from kidney calculus. Materials and Methods. A total of 152 infants were admitted between 2009 and 2012 with ultrasonography-proven urolithiasis. A Foley catheter was fixed and 24-hour urine samples were analyzed for calcium, citrate, oxalate, uric acid, and magnesium. For detecting cystinuria, qualitative measurement of urinary cystine was done by nitroprusside test. Urinary tract structural abnormalities were also evaluated. Results. The mean age at the diagnosis of kidney calculus was 5.46 months (range, 15 days to 12 months). The most common clinical findings were restlessness and urinary tract infection. A family history of calculi was found in 67.1% of the patients and 68.4% were born to consanguineous marriages. Metabolic abnormalities and urinary tract abnormalities were found in 96.1% and 15.1% of children, respectively. Urinary tract abnormalities were more common in girls. The most common metabolic risk factors were hypercalciuria (79.6%) and hypocitraturia (40.9%). Hyperoxaluria and hypomagnesuria were found in about 28% of patients, both of which were associated with bilateral urolithiasis. Conclusions. These findings show that urinary metabolic abnormalities are very common in infants with urolithiasis. Appropriate evaluation of urinary metabolic parameters can lead us to proper diagnosis and treatment.


Bagherani N.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Yaghoobi R.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Omidian M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Vitiligo is a common depigmenting skin disorder (prevalence 0.1-2%), still represents a cause of stigmatization and quality of life impairment in a large population. Several theories on vitiligo etiopathogenesis have been suggested including in trauma, stress, and autoimmune and genetic predisposition, accumulation of toxic compounds, altered cellular environment, imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant system, impaired melanocyte migration and/or proliferation, infection, and psychological factors. Zinc, as a trace element, has many vital functions in human. It is antiapoptotic factor and needed as a cofactor for antioxidant defense system. It plays an important role in the process of melanogenesis. It may be effective in prevention and treatment of vitiligo via some mechanism. Herein, we suggested some probable protective mechanism for zinc in association with vitiligo.


Mousavi S.S.B.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Sametzadeh M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Hayati F.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Fatemi S.M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2010

Introduction. Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) occurs in patients with prolonged uremia, and early detection is important, because clinically significant complications, especially renal cell carcinoma, are associated with ACKD. Materials and Methods. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated our patients on hemodialysis, in Ahvaz, Iran, using ultrasonography. The criteria for the diagnosis of ACKD were the presence of at least 4 bilateral renal cysts in patients with noncystic primary kidney diseases as the leading cause of kidney failure. Results. A total of 148 patients (95 men and 53 women) were included in the study. The prevalence of ACKD was 20.3% (18.9% in men and 22.6% in women). The mean age in patients with and without ACKD was 60.6 ± 16.8 years and 53.6 ± 14.9 years, and the mean hemodialysis duration was 44.2 ± 18.7 months and 34.3 ± 23.5 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in the frequency of ACKD in the men and the women (P =.59) and in the etiology of end-stage renal disease (P =.64). It was significantly more likely to see ACKD in patients with a history of 3 years or longer being on hemodialysis than in those with a shorter dialysis duration (P =.001). Conclusions. Acquired cystic kidney disease is common in patients on hemodialysis, and we suggest that renal ultrasonography be performed in patients with 3 years or more history of being on renal replacement therapy.


Mousavi S.S.B.,Jundishapour University of medical science | Faramarzi M.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz E Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Toxoplasmosis can cause serious complications among persons with weakened immune systems and therefore in solid organ transplant patients. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of screening for toxoplasma antibody titers in the donors and recipients candidate for renal transplantation in Ahvaz city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study from March 2010 to April 2012, we evaluated donors and recipients who referred to our kidney transplant center in Naft Hospital, Ahwaz, Iran.Routine pre transplante laboratory testes including liver function and toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibody were performed. Results: A total of 52 people, 30 donors (20 male and 10 Female) and 22 recipients (12 male and 10 female) were included in the study. Mean age of donors and recipients were 30.32 ± 6.75 years and 45.09 ± 10.57 years respectively. The marker of HBV and HCV infection were negative in 100% of recipients and donors. Toxoplasma IgG antibody was positive in 45.45 percent of recipients (N = 10) and 63.33 percent of donors (N = 19) but there was no statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.057) and between males and females (P = 0.74). Toxoplasma IgM antibody was negative in 100 percent of recipients (N = 22) and 93.33 percent of donors (N = 28). Conclusions: According to seropositivity for toxoplasma infection in about half of donors and recipients candidate for kidney transplantation, we should perform screening for this infection to avoid kidney donation from seropositive donor to seronegative recipient. © 2013, Docs Corp.


Valavi E.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Rekabi F.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Mousavi M.B.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2015

Although the life expectancy of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has improved in recent years, it is still far below that of the general population. In this retrospective study, we compared the survival of patients with ESRD receiving hemodialysis (HD) versus those on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The study was conducted on patients referred to the HD and PD centers of the Emam Khomini Hospital and the Aboozar Children's Hospital from January 2007 to May 2012 in Ahvaz, Iran. All ESRD patients on maintenance HD or PD for more than two months were included in the study. The survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between HD and PD patients were tested by the log-rank test. Overall, 239 patients, 148 patients on HD (61.92%) and 91 patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) (38.55%) with mean age of 54.1 ± 17 years were enrolled in the study. Regardless of the causes of ESRD and type of renal replacement therapy (RRT), one-, two- and three-year survival of patients was 65%, 51% and 35%, respectively. There was no significant difference between type of RRT in one- (P-value = 0.737), two- (P-value = 0.534) and three- (P-value = 0.867) year survival. There was also no significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic patients under HD and CAPD in the one-, two- and three-year survival. Although the three-year survival of diabetic patients under CAPD was lower than that of non-diabetic patients (13% vs. 34%), it was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.50). According to the results of the current study, there is no survival advantage of PD during the first years of initiation of dialysis, and the one-, two- and three-year survival of HD and PD patients is also similar.


Zadeh B.S.M.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Hasani M.H.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: To achieve percutaneous delivery of trolamine salicylate to muscle and joints for the treatment of inflammatory muscle, tendon and joint diseases. Methods: Trolamine salicylate permeability parameters through rat skin were evaluated with and without chemical enhancers - Transcutol, eucalyptus oil, oleic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate - using the permeability cell technique. Results: The main barrier for trolamine salicylate permeability was the epidermis layer of the skin. Also, partitioning from the aqueous donor phase into the skin was the rate-limiting step for drug flux. Transcutol and eucalyptus oil were the most effective enhancers as they increased flux 11-fold. Sodium lauryl sulfate disrupted the lipid structure of the skin and thus increased diffusion coefficient 3-fold. Supersaturation technique did not increase flux. Propylene glycol in cosolvent system increased drug solubility in donor phase and partitioning. Conclusion: Trolamine salicylate exhibited less flux and diffusion coefficient through rat skin than salicylic acid due to its hydrophilic property. Partitioning from vehicle into skin was the rate-limiting step for trolamine salicylate permeability through rat skin. © Pharmacotherapy Group.


Valavi E.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Ansari M.-J.A.,Jundishapour University of Medical science | Zandian K.,Jundishapour University of Medical science
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Objective: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a common hereditary disease in Iran. In developed countries, newborn screening programs have been established to ensure early diagnosis, but in most developing countries, screening is not performed and the diagnosis is often delayed. The aim of the present work was to investigate the clinical presentation of SCD in Iran and comparison of its hematologic indices with normal children. Methods: The study included 44 pediatric patients (26 boys and 18 girls) with sickle cell anemia (SS), 27 sickle /β° thalassemia (Sβ° ), and 21 sickle /β+ thalassemia (Sβ+). Fifty seven healthy individuals matched with the patients were randomly selected as controls. Findings: Mean age at diagnosis in SS group was 4.3 years. At the time of diagnosis all patients were anemic, 89% complained of painful crises. Hemoglobin(Hb) concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count and Hb×RBC product in SS group was significantly lower than in control group (P<0.001), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) showed no significant differences. Hb×RBC product below 45 and MCH/RBC above 7 have the best sensitivity and specificity for differenting SS group and the control normal group (91 and 98% for Hb×RBC and 89 and 100% for MCH/RBC respectively). Mean age at diagnosis in Sβ+ group was higher than in SS and Sβ° groups (7.45 year vs 4.26 and 4.25 year) (P<0.001). In addition, Sβ° and Sβ+ groups had significantly lower MCV, MCH, and Hb×RBC indices compared with control group. Conclusion: We suggest that in an anemic patient with history of pain crises, normochrome normocytic anemia, Hb×RBC <45 and MCH/RBC 7, SCD should be considered and the patient evaluated accordingly to confirm the diagnosis. © 2010 by Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, All rights reserved.

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