Junagadh Agricultural University

Junagadh, India

Junagadh Agricultural University is an agricultural university at Junagadh in the Indian state of Gujarat. Junagadh Agricultural University offers education in agriculture and allied science, i.e., agriculture, agricultural engineering and fisheries. It is among top 10 universities in India for biological research. The teaching in the university consists of four faculties: agriculture, agricultural engineering, fisheries and postgraduate studies. The graduate programmes have an intake capacity of 75 in agriculture, 70 in agricultural engineering and 30 in fisheries faculty. The postgraduate level studies are offered in agriculture and agricultural engineering according to the intake capacity of the various faculties.There are seven multidisciplinary Main Research Stations; five Main Research Stations for various crops; and eleven sub-Research Stationshybrids of crops, vegetables and fruits. These centres also work for the development of economical and sustainable production technology packages for newly developed varieties/hybrids with modification every year. The first hybrid bajra and hybrid castor were developed by scientists of this university. Wikipedia.

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Tiwari V.K.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Pandey K.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Pranav P.K.,NERIST
Journal of Terramechanics | Year: 2010

A variety of methods, ranging from theoretical to empirical, which have been proposed for predicting and measuring soil-vehicle interaction performance are reviewed. A single wheel tyre testing facility at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, was used to check the applicability of the most widely used traction models, for tyres used in Indian soil conditions. Finally, the coefficients of traction prediction equations developed by Brixius [16] were modified to fit traction data obtained from the testing of the tyres in the Indian soil conditions. © 2010 ISTVS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Bosamia T.C.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Bosamia T.C.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Mishra G.P.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Thankappan R.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Dobaria J.R.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

With the aim to increase the number of functional markers in resource poor crop like cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), large numbers of available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public databases, were employed for the development of novel EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 16424 unigenes, 2784 (16.95%) SSRs containing unigenes having 3373 SSR motifs were identified. Of these, 2027 (72.81%) sequences were annotated and 4124 gene ontology terms were assigned. Among different SSR motif-classes, tri-nucleotide repeats (33.86%) were the most abundant followed by dinucleotide repeats (27.51%) while AG/CT (20.7%) and AAG/CTT (13.25%) were the most abundant repeat-motifs. A total of 2456 EST-SSR novel primer pairs were designed, of which 366 unigenes having relevance to various stresses and other functions, were PCR validated using a set of 11 diverse peanut genotypes. Of these, 340 (92.62%) primer pairs yielded clear and scorable PCR products and 39 (10.66%) primer pairs exhibited polymorphisms. Overall, the number of alleles per marker ranged from 1-12 with an average of 3.77 and the PIC ranged from 0.028 to 0.375 with an average of 0.325. The identified EST-SSRs not only enriched the existing molecular markers kitty, but would also facilitate the targeted research in marker-trait association for various stresses, inter-specific studies and genetic diversity analysis in peanut. © 2015 Bosamia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Gajera H.P.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Vakharia D.N.,Junagadh Agricultural University
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to examine the genetic variability among twelve isolates of Trichoderma representing three species and their ability to antagonize Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in peanut using dual culture assay for correlation among RAPD products and their hardness to A. niger. One hundred and three of the 108 bands, using random decamer fungal primers, were polymorphic with an average frequency of 11.4 bands. The calculated Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values for RAPD markers ranged from 0.172 to 0.401 and RAPD primer index (RPI) ranged from 0.99 to 6.01. RPI showed that RFu C-5 gave best results of polymorphism among the primer used in the experiment. RAPD analysis showed 10 marker loci for diagnosis of Trichoderma viride 60 and/or Trichoderma harzianum 2J, first two highest inhibitory acting antagonists. A UPGMA dendrogram constructed on the basis of Jaccard's similarity coefficient using NTSYS 2.2 program which illustrated two distinct clusters of 12 isolates of Trichoderma and A. niger pathogen, and shared only 19% similarity. However, the in vitro highest A. niger growth inhibitory Trichoderma isolates - T. viride 60 (86.2%) and T. harzianum 2J (80.4%) were in same out group and shared 63% similarity. Relationship was found between the polymorphism showed by the Trichoderma isolates and their hardness to A. niger, in terms of in vitro production of cell wall degrading enzymes- chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase and protease, during antagonism. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gontia N.K.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Patil P.Y.,Junagadh Agricultural University
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

Water harvesting works had been conducted at Jamka micro-watershed of Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India for augmenting artificial groundwater recharge in hard rock aquifers of the semi arid region. In present study groundwater recharge of Jamka micro-watershed was estimated. The natural groundwater recharge through rainfall in the study area was estimated using empirical equations and the artificial groundwater recharge through water harvesting structures which was estimated using remote sensing and GIS. The area under submergence due to water harvesting structures is estimated using remote sensing images. The groundwater recharge in study area was also estimated using water table fluctuation method and compared with total recharge through rainfall and water harvesting structures. The natural groundwater recharge through rainfall in the study area was found varying from 11 to 16 per cent of annual rainfall. The total groundwater recharge in the study area was estimated 390.29 ha m, in which the contribution of recharge through water harvesting structures was about 38.53%; this revealed that the water harvesting structures played an important role in increasing the groundwater recharge in the region. © 2011 Indian Society of Remote Sensing.

Vaghela J.G.,Junagadh Agricultural University
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2013

Mini tractor was operated on test tracks duly connected with vibration analyzer sensor at particular component and to prepare the database of vibration spectrum analysis on tar macadam road. Initially, the work was started on mini tractor vibration measurement on different components. The instrument for vibration analysis used SENDIG-911 portable vibration analyzer. The MCMe2.H software was used for data recording and analysis work. The experiment comprising three speed treatments i.e. low speed as 4.17 km h-1, medium speed as 10.46 km h-1 and high speed as 14.13 km h-1. Experimental statistical analysis was made from completely randomized design (CRD). The results on tar macadam road revealed that the maximum vibration (peak) with frequency of seat, foot rest, brake, clutch and steering was found as 2.97 m s-2 (85-102.5 Hz) to 4.14 m s-2 (77.5-80.5 Hz), 4.19 m s-2 (77.5-935 Hz) to 6.98 m s-2 (47.5-755 Hz), 3.15 m s-2 (110-497 Hz) to 6.26 m s-2 (95-820 Hz), 2.69 m s-2 (374.5-985 Hz) to 4.07 m s-2 (82.5-467.9 Hz) and 10.34 m s-2 (5-77.5 Hz) to 14.49 m s-2 (77.5-80 Hz), respectively under different operating speeds of mini tractor. The data, trend and percentage variation revealed that vibration on seat and clutch of mini tractor was found increased as forward speed of mini tractor increased and on foot rest, steering and brake, vibration was found decreased as forward speed of mini tractor increased. Data was compiled and database of vibration characteristics of mini tractor was prepared.

Gontia N.K.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Tiwari K.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Water Resources Management | Year: 2010

Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were used to estimate actual crop evapotranspiration of wheat crop grown in Tarafeni South Main Canal (TSMC) irrigation command of West Bengal State in India. The area under wheat crop was clipped from landuse/land cover map generated from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite P6 (IRS P6) image of January, 2004 for winter season 2003-04. The IRS P6 image and four wide field sensor (WiFS) images for different months of winter season were used to determine the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) for area under wheat crop. The relationship between vegetation indices and crop coefficients (Kc) of wheat for corresponding months were developed. Based on these developed regression equations crop coefficient maps were generated for each month of wheat crop season. Monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) was estimated based on FAO-56, Penman-Monteith method. ETo was combined with spatially distributed Kc maps of different months of wheat crop season to generate crop evapotranspiration (ETc) maps of each month. The crop water demand of wheat estimated using spatially distributed ETc maps for months of December 2003, January 2004, February 2004, March 2004 (1st Fortnight) and March 2004 (2nd Fortnight) were found to be 3.98, 8.14, 4.66, 2.49, and 1.21 million cubic meter (MCM) respectively. Based on crop evapotranspiration the total crop water demand of wheat crop in irrigation command of TSMC was estimated as 20.48 MCM. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Vekariya P.B.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Subbaiah R.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Mashru H.H.,Junagadh Agricultural University
Irrigation Science | Year: 2011

Dimensional analysis is a simple, clear and intuitive method for determining the functional dependence of physical quantities that are of importance to a certain process. Buckingham's pi theorem is used to derive a dimensionally homogeneous equation for predicting the discharge of the microtube as a function of gravitational acceleration (g), microtube diameter (D), operating pressure head (H) and microtube length (L). Experimental investigations were conducted at College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh, to determine (a) the variation in Q with L, D and H and (b) the coefficients (K, y and z) of the developed model. The L and D of microtube were varied from 5 to 250 cm and 1.2 to 2 mm. The operating pressure was varied from 0 to 1.5 m. The L, H and D combinations selected in the study suit most of the manufacturer's recommendations for microtube drip irrigation systems. The discharge of microtube decreased with increase in microtube length for particular microtube diameter and operating pressure. The discharge increased with increase in the microtube diameter for a particular operating pressure and microtube length. The values of K, y and z are 4.476, 1 and 0.5, respectively. Goodness of fit and efficiency coefficient reduced with increase in the microtube diameter. The dimensionally homogeneous equation (Eq.25) developed for all flow regimes can predict discharge with good accuracy for less than 2-mm microtube diameter. The microtube diameter was found to be 1.2 mm based on the dominance of viscous forces over inertial forces. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Kumar G.D.S.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Popat M.N.,Junagadh Agricultural University
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Aflatoxins, produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare, are the major toxins affecting the quality of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) meant for human consumption. Groundnuts can be infected with aflatoxin-producing fungi pre-harvest, at harvest and post-harvest. This survey was conducted in Gujarat province in India in order to assess farmers' and other stakeholders' (extension staff and traders) perceptions and knowledge of aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts and to evaluate the agronomic and market practices used to manage it. The survey investigated the effects of the socioeconomic background of the farmers. The results showed that the socioeconomic and psychological characteristics, viz. education, caste, farm size, social participation, extension participation, market orientation, economic motivation, innovativeness and perception had positive and significant associations with farmers' knowledge. The extension staff and traders had a good understanding of the problem and of the importance of managing aflatoxin contamination but farmers did not. Farmers' who practised effective crop husbandry in order to increase production were unwittingly managing aflatoxin contamination to some extent. Their marketing practises showed that the problem of aflatoxin contamination was neglected at both the production and marketing stages. We suggest that extension agencies need to train farmers in the use of biological control agents, post-harvest management and identification of aflatoxin contamination. Partnerships need to be forged between research institutions, the departments of agriculture of various states, marketing agencies, NGOs, farmers' groups, consumer groups, agrochemical manufacturers and other stakeholders in order to develop strategies for addressing the problem of aflatoxin contamination. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kathad U.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Gajera H.P.,Junagadh Agricultural University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

The study was to determine the synthesis of copper nanoparticle by green chemistry and biological synthesis. In both method copper source remain same i.e. Copper Sulphate. Synthesis of the copper nanoparticles by green chemistry takes normal time in synthesis by using reducing agent ascorbic acid and size controlling by CTAB. The synthesis of copper nanoparticles by biological method was done using the plant (Artabotrys odoratissimus). It belongs to Annonaceae family. The local name is "Nag champo". Size comparision of particles synthesized via two different techniques were done by Particle Size Analyser (PSA). Which indicate that between both method synthesis by Green Chemistry method gives average size particles of 35nm. While in case of Biological, it gives 135nm.

Subbaiah R.,Junagadh Agricultural University
Irrigation Science | Year: 2013

Designing drip irrigation systems involve selection of an appropriate combination of emitter discharge rate and spacing between emitters for any given set of soil, crop, and climatic conditions, as well as understanding the wetted zone pattern around the emitter. The exact shape of the wetted volume and moisture distribution will depend on many factors, including soil hydraulic characteristics, initial conditions, emitter discharge rate, application frequency, root characteristics, evaporation, and transpiration. Multi-dimensional nature of water flow, plant uptake and high frequency of water application increase the complexity in modelling soil moisture dynamics from trickle irrigation. Researchers used analytical methods, semi-analytical methods and numerical methods to Richards' equation using certain boundary conditions to model the infiltration from point source irrigation for use in design, install, and manage of drip irrigation systems due to their merits over direct measurements. Others developed models based on Green-Ampt equation, empirical models using regression techniques/dimensional analysis techniques/moment approach techniques/artificial neural networks on this topic to describe infiltration from a point/line sources. A review on these models developed under each category is presented in this study. Other knowledge gaps identified include (a) effect of variations in initial moisture content and packing conditions, (b) precision in observing the wetting front and soil-water content, (c) validity of soil surface boundary conditions, (d) effect of crop root architecture and its withdrawal pattern for different input parameters, (e) effects of gravitational gradients, (f) stratification in the soils, and (g) impact of soil hysteresis. The review promotes better understanding of the soil water dynamics under point source trickle emitters and helps to identify topics for more emphasis in future modelling activity. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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