Ide T.,Jumonji University
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition | Year: 2012
We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil at a level of 80 g/kg strongly stimulated the physiological activity of a sesame sesamin preparation containing sesamin and episesamin at equal amounts to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. This study was conducted to clarify whether fish oil at lower dietary levels enhances the physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g sesamin/kg, and containing 0, 15 or 30 g fish oil/kg for 15 days. Among rats fed sesamin-free diets, diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg slightly increased the activity of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin increased these values irrespective of the presence or absence of fish oil in diets; however, the extent of the increase of many parameters was much greater in rats given fish oil-containing diets than in those fed a fish oil-free diet. Diets simultaneously containing sesamin and fish oil increased the gene expression of various peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes in a synergistic manner; but they were ineffective in causing a synergistic increase in mRNA levels of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. The extent of the synergistic increase in the activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes and mRNA levels of the peroxisomal enzymes was indistinguishable between diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg and appeared comparable to that observed previously with a diet containing 80 g fish oil/kg. ©2012 JCBN.
Shinoda S.,Tokyo Metroplitan University |
Yoshizawa S.,Tokyo Metroplitan University |
Nozaki E.,Tokyo Metroplitan University |
Tadai K.,Tokyo Metroplitan University |
Arita A.,Jumonji University
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2014
Regular "mucosal block" is characterized by decreased uptake of a normal iron load 3-72 h after the administration of excess iron (generally 10 mg) to iron-deficient animals. We found that shortacting mucosal block could be induced by much lower iron concentration and much shorter induction time than previously reported, without affecting levels of gene expression. A rapid endocytic mechanism was reported to decrease intestinal iron absorption after a high iron load, but the activating iron load and the time to decreased absorption were undetermined. We assessed the effects of 30-2,000 Μg iron load on iron uptake in the duodenal loop of iron-deficient and iron-sufficient rats under anesthesia. One hour later, mucosal cellular iron uptake in iron-deficient rats administered 30 μg iron was 76.1%, decreasing 25% to 50.7% in rats administered 2,000 Μg iron. In contrast, iron uptake by iron-sufficient rats was 63% (range 60.3- 65.5%) regardless of iron load. Duodenal mucosal iron concentration was significantly lower in iron-deficient than in iron-sufficient rats. Iron levels in portal blood were consistently higher in iron-deficient rats regardless of iron load, in contrast to the decreased iron uptake on the luminal side. Iron loading blocked mucosal uptake of marginally excess iron (1,000 μg), with a greater effect at 15 min than at 30 min. The rapid induction of short-acting mucosal block only in irondeficient rats suggests DMT1 internalization. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Sumi K.,Future University Hakodate |
Nagata M.,Jumonji University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013
This paper describes an experiment on conveying the messages of stories to users. We investigated what kind of story and what kind of character, in terms of the level of abstraction, should be applied to convey a story's message. The animated stories used in the experiment were created using WordsAnime, a software tool for creating animation content easily from an input scenario. The experiment was then conducted by showing subjects animated stories with varying levels of abstraction for the story and the central character. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Yasuda T.,Jumonji University |
Kobayashi H.,Tokyo Denki University
Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication | Year: 2015
To construct mind-reading robots, it is important to correctly identify the communicative intention of humans. In human environments, there are usually an enormous number of objects, and each object has many different parts. Therefore, referring to an object or an object part in current communication is not an easy task. We use both linguistic and nonlinguistic information to specify such referential intentions, but exactly how nonlinguistic information is used has not been examined in detail. In this study, video data from eight pairs of adult addressers and addressees who communicated about whole-object or object-part labels were analyzed. The addressers' utterances were transcribed, and nouns and demonstrative words were extracted. Hand motions were divided into five categories: showing, pointing, stroking, functional action, and other. Gaze data obtained using eye movement recordings were also coded using the following categories: gaze on object, face, or body of the experimenter and other. Gaze on object was further divided into two categories; critical and noncritical object parts. The results showed that participants used different patterns of hand motions and gaze to refer to whole-object and object-part labels. When they taught whole-object labels, they showed the object and looked at the addressee's face. When they taught object-part labels, they pointed at, stroked, and looked at the object part. Based on the results, we propose the concept of action contrast in human communication of referential intention. We propose that the need for specification and the use of actions in a contrasting manner are related. Nonlinguistic cues, such as pointing and showing, and timing of utterances are important sources of information that specify human referential intentions in the environment. Action contrast is an important source of information specifying addressers' referential intentions, which can be utilized to construct mind-reading robots. © 2014 IEEE.
Ide T.,Japan National Food Research Institute |
Ide T.,Jumonji University
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014
In the present study, the mRNA levels of hepatic proteins involved in the drug metabolism of rats fed α-lipoic acid were evaluated by DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses. Experimental diets containing 0, 0·1, 0·25 and 0·5 % (w/w) α-lipoic acid were fed to four groups of rats consisting of seven animals each for 21 d. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the diet containing 0·5 % α-lipoic acid significantly (P< 0·05) increased the mRNA levels of various phase I drug-metabolising enzymes up to 15-fold and phase II enzymes up to 52-fold in an isoenzyme-specific manner. α-Lipoic acid also up-regulated the mRNA levels of some members of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, presumed to be involved in the exportation of xenobiotics, up to 6·6-fold. In addition, we observed that α-lipoic acid increased the mRNA levels of many proteins involved in antioxidation, such as members of the thiol redox system (up to 5·5-fold), metallothioneins (up to 12-fold) and haeme oxygenase 1 (1·5-fold). These results were confirmed using real-time PCR analysis, and α-lipoic acid dose dependently increased the mRNA levels of various proteins involved in drug metabolism and antioxidation. Consistent with these observations, α-lipoic acid dose dependently increased the hepatic concentration of glutathione and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione transferase measured using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene as substrates, but decreased the hepatic and serum concentrations of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, the present study unequivocally demonstrated that α-lipoic acid increases the mRNA expression of proteins involved in drug metabolism and antioxidation in the liver. Copyright © The Author 2014.