Julius Von Sachs Institute For Biowissenschaften

Würzburg, Germany

Julius Von Sachs Institute For Biowissenschaften

Würzburg, Germany
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Kreuzwieser J.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Scheerer U.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Kruse J.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Burzlaff T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Does Dionaea muscipula, the Venus flytrap, use a particular mechanism to attract animal prey? This question was raised by Charles Darwin 140 years ago, but it remains unanswered. This study tested the hypothesis that Dionaea releases volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to allure prey insects. For this purpose, olfactory choice bioassays were performed to elucidate if Dionaea attracts Drosophila melanogaster. The VOCs emitted by the plant were further analysed by GC-MS and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The bioassays documented that Drosophila was strongly attracted by the carnivorous plant. Over 60 VOCs, including terpenes, benzenoids, and aliphatics, were emitted by Dionaea, predominantly in the light. This work further tested whether attraction of animal prey is affected by the nutritional status of the plant. For this purpose, Dionaea plants were fed with insect biomass to improve plant N status. However, although such feeding altered the VOC emission pattern by reducing terpene release, the attraction of Drosophila was not affected. From these results it is concluded that Dionaea attracts insects on the basis of food smell mimicry because the scent released has strong similarity to the bouquet of fruits and plant flowers. Such a volatile blend is emitted to attract insects searching for food to visit the deadly capture organ of the Venus flytrap. © © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

Freschi L.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Domingues D.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Purgatto E.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Genotypic, developmental, and environmental factors converge to determine the degree of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression. To characterize the signaling events controlling CAM expression in young pineapple (Ananas comosus) plants, this photosynthetic pathway was modulated through manipulations in water availability. Rapid, intense, and completely reversible up-regulation in CAM expression was triggered by water deficit, as indicated by the rise in nocturnal malate accumulation and in the expression and activity of important CAM enzymes. During both up - and down-regulation of CAM, the degree of CAM expression was positively and negatively correlated with the endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins, respectively. When exogenously applied, ABA stimulated and cytokinins repressed the expression of CAM. However, inhibition of water deficit-induced ABA accumulation did not block the up-regulation of CAM, suggesting that a parallel, non-ABA-dependent signaling route was also operating. Moreover, strong evidence revealed that nitric oxide (NO) may fulfill an important role during CAM signaling. Up-regulation of CAM was clearly observed in NO-treated plants, and a conspicuous temporal and spatial correlation was also evident between NO production and CAM expression. Removal of NO from the tissues either by adding NO scavenger or by inhibiting NO production significantly impaired ABA-induced up-regulation of CAM, indicating that NO likely acts as a key downstream component in the ABA-dependent signaling pathway. Finally, tungstate or glutamine inhibition of the NO-generating enzyme nitrate reductase completely blocked NO production during ABA-induced up-regulation of CAM, characterizing this enzyme as responsible for NO synthesis during CAM signaling in pineapple plants. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Schneider S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Hulpke S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Hulpke S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Schulz A.,Julius Von Sachs Institute For Biowissenschaften | And 9 more authors.
Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Arabidopsis thaliana has seven genes for functionally active sucrose transporters. Together with sucrose transporters from other dicot and monocot plants, these proteins form four separate phylogenetic groups. Group-IV includes the Arabidopsis protein SUC4 (synonym SUT4) and related proteins from monocots and dicots. These Group-IV sucrose transporters were reported to be either tonoplast- or plasma membrane-localised, and in heterologous expression systems were shown to act as sucrose/H+ symporters. Here, we present comparative analyses of the subcellular localisation of the Arabidopsis SUC4 protein and of several other Group-IV sucrose transporters, studies on tissue specificity of the Arabidopsis SUC4 promoter, phenotypic characterisations of Atsuc4.1 mutants and AtSUC4 overexpressing (AtSUC4-OX) plants, and functional comparisons of Atsuc4.1 and AtSUC4-OX vacuoles. Our data show that SUC4-type sucrose transporters from different plant families (Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae) localise exclusively to the tonoplast, demonstrating that vacuolar sucrose transport is a common theme of all SUC4-type proteins. AtSUC4 expression is confined to the stele of Arabidopsis roots, developing anthers and meristematic tissues in all aerial parts. Analyses of the carbohydrate content of WT and mutant seedlings revealed reduced sucrose content in AtSUC4-OX seedlings. This is in line with patch-clamp analyses of AtSUC4-OX vacuoles that characterise AtSUC4 as a sucrose/H+ symporter directly in the tonoplast membrane. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

Cantrel C.,University of Paris Descartes | Vazquez T.,University of Paris Descartes | Puyaubert J.,University of Paris Descartes | Reze N.,University of Paris Descartes | And 6 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2011

Chilling triggers rapid molecular responses that permit the maintenance of plant cell homeostasis and plant adaptation. Recent data showed that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in plant acclimation and tolerance to cold. The participation of NO in the early transduction of the cold signal in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The production of NO after a short exposure to cold was assessed using the NO-sensitive fluorescent probe 4, 5-diamino fluoresceine diacetate and chemiluminescence. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to analyze NO sources and NO-mediated changes in cold-regulated gene expression, phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) synthesis and sphingolipid phosphorylation. NO production was detected after 1-4 h of chilling. It was impaired in the nia1nia2 nitrate reductase mutant. Moreover, NO accumulation was not observed in H7 plants overexpressing the A. thaliana nonsymbiotic hemoglobin Arabidopsis haemoglobin 1 (AHb1). Cold-regulated gene expression was affected in nia1nia2 and H7 plants. The synthesis of PtdOH upon chilling was not modified by NO depletion. By contrast, the formation of phytosphingosine phosphate and ceramide phosphate, two phosphorylated sphingolipids that are transiently synthesized upon chilling, was negatively regulated by NO. Taken together, these data suggest a new function for NO as an intermediate in gene regulation and lipid-based signaling during cold transduction. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

Bruinsma M.,Wageningen University | Bruinsma M.,Leiden University | van Broekhoven S.,Wageningen University | Poelman E.H.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Oecologia | Year: 2010

Herbivore-induced plant defences influence the behaviour of insects associated with the plant. For biting-chewing herbivores the octadecanoid signal-transduction pathway has been suggested to play a key role in induced plant defence. To test this hypothesis in our plant-herbivore-parasitoid tritrophic system, we used phenidone, an inhibitor of the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX), that catalyses the initial step in the octadecanoid pathway. Phenidone treatment of Brussels sprouts plants reduced the accumulation of internal signalling compounds in the octadecanoid pathway downstream of the step catalysed by LOX, i. e. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and jasmonic acid. The attraction of Cotesia glomerata parasitoids to host-infested plants was significantly reduced by phenidone treatment. The three herbivores investigated, i. e. the specialists Plutella xylostella, Pieris brassicae and Pieris rapae, showed different oviposition preferences for intact and infested plants, and for two species their preference for either intact or infested plants was shown to be LOX dependent. Our results show that phenidone inhibits the LOX-dependent defence response of the plant and that this inhibition can influence the behaviour of members of the associated insect community. © The Author(s) 2009.

Klepek Y.-S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Volke M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Konrad K.R.,Julius Von Sachs Institute For Biowissenschaften | Wippel K.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains six genes, AtPMT1 to AtPMT6 (Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER 1-6), which form a distinct subfamily within the large family of more than 50 monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) genes. So far, only AtPMT5 [formerly named AtPLT5 (At3g18830)] has been characterized and was shown to be a plasma membrane-localized H+-symporter with broad substrate specificity. The characterization of AtPMT1 (At2g16120) and AtPMT2 (At2g16130), two other, almost identical, members of this transporter subfamily, are presented here. Expression of the AtPMT1 and AtPMT2 cDNAs in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that these proteins catalyse the energy-dependent, high-capacity transport of fructose and xylitol, and the transport of several other compounds with lower rates. Expression of their cRNAs in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that both proteins are voltage-dependent and catalyse the symport of their substrates with protons. Fusions of AtPMT1 or AtPMT2 with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to Arabidopsis plasma membranes. Analyses of reporter genes performed with AtPMT1 or AtPMT2 promoter sequences showed expression in mature (AtPMT2) or germinating (AtPMT1) pollen grains, as well as in growing pollen tubes, hydathodes, and young xylem cells (both genes). The expression was confirmed with an anti-AtPMT1/AtPMT2 antiserum (αAtPMT1/2) raised against peptides conserved in AtPMT1 and AtPMT2. The physiological roles of the proteins are discussed and related to plant cell wall modifications.

PubMed | Julius Von Sachs Institute For Biowissenschaften
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2011

Considerable evidence has appeared over the past few years that nitric oxide (NO) is an important anoxic metabolite and a potent signal molecule in plants. Several pathways operative in different cell compartments, lead to NO production. Mitochondria, being a major NO producing compartment, can generate it by either nitrite reduction occurring at nearly anoxic conditions or by the oxidative route via nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Recently we compared both pathways by ozone collision chemiluminescence and by DAF fluorescence. We found that nitrite reduction to NO is associated with the mitochondrial membrane fraction but not with the matrix. In case of the nitric oxide synthase pathway, an L-arginine dependent fluorescence was detected but its response to NOS inhibitors and substrates was untypical. Therefore the existence of NOS or NOS-like activity in barley root mitochondria is very doubtful. We also found that mitochondria scavenge NO. In addition, we found indirect evidence that mitochondria are able to convert NO to gaseous intermediates like NO2, N2O and N2O3.

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