Würzburg, Germany
Würzburg, Germany

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Veyhl-Wichmann M.,University of Würzburg | Friedrich A.,University of Würzburg | Vernaleken A.,University of Würzburg | Singh S.,University of Barcelona | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Cellular uptake adapts rapidly to physiologic demands by changing transporter abundance in the plasma membrane. The human gene RSC1A1 codes for a 67-kDa protein named RS1 that has been shown to induce downregulation of the sodium-Dglucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and of the concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1) in the plasma membrane by blocking exocytosis at the Golgi. Injecting RS1 fragments into Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing SGLT1 or CNT1 and measuring the expressed uptake of a-methylglucoside or uridine 1 hour later, we identified a RS1 domain (RS1-Reg) containing multiple predicted phosphorylation sites that is responsible for this post-translational downregulation of SGLT1 and CNT1. Dependent on phosphorylation, RS1-Reg blocks the release of SGLT1-containing vesicles from the Golgi in a glucosedependent manner or glucose-independent release of CNT1-containing vesicles. We showed that upregulation of SGLT1 in the small intestine after glucose ingestion is promoted by glucose-dependent disinhibition of the RS1-Reg-blocked exocytotic pathway of SGLT1 between meals. Mimicking phosphorylation of RS1-Reg, we obtained a RS1-Reg variant that downregulates SGLT1 in the brush-border membrane at high luminal glucose concentration. Because RS1 mediates shortterm regulation of various transporters, we propose that the RS1-Reg-navigated transporter release from Golgi represents a basic regulatory mechanism of general importance, which implies the existence of receptor proteins that recognize different phosphorylated forms of RS1-Reg and of complex transporterspecific sorting in the trans-Golgi. RS1-Reg-derived peptides that downregulate SGLT1 at high intracellular glucose concentrations may be used for downregulation of glucose absorption in small intestine, which has been proposed as strategy for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


van Dinther M.,Leiden University | Zhang J.,Leiden University | Weidauer S.E.,Julius von Sachs Institute | Boschert V.,Julius von Sachs Institute | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Sclerosteosis is a rare high bone mass disease that is caused by inactivating mutations in the SOST gene. Its gene product, Sclerostin, is a key negative regulator of bone formation and might therefore serve as a target for the anabolic treatment of osteoporosis. The exact molecular mechanism by which Sclerostin exerts its antagonistic effects on Wnt signaling in bone forming osteoblasts remains unclear. Here we show that Wnt3a-induced transcriptional responses and induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, require the Wnt co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6. Unlike Dickkopf1 (DKK1), Sclerostin does not inhibit Wnt-3a-induced phosphorylation of LRP5 at serine 1503 or LRP6 at serine 1490. Affinity labeling of cell surface proteins with [125I]Sclerostin identified LRP6 as the main specific Sclerostin receptor in multiple mesenchymal cell lines. When cells were challenged with Sclerostin fused to recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) this was internalized, likely via a Clathrin-dependent process, and subsequently degraded in a temperature and proteasome-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of LRP6 greatly enhanced binding and cellular uptake of Sclerostin-GFP, which was reduced by the addition of an excess of non-GFP-fused Sclerostin. Finally, an anti-Sclerostin antibody inhibited the internalization of Sclerostin-GFP and binding of Sclerostin to LRP6. Moreover, this antibody attenuated the antagonistic activity of Sclerostin on canonical Wnt-induced responses. © 2013 van Dinther et al.

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