Julius Kühn-Institut – Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen is the German Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants. It is a federal research institute and a higher federal authority divided into 15 specialized institutes. The JKI was named after the German agricultural scientist Julius Kühn .It was formed in January 2008 when three research centres in the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture merged: Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry , Federal Institute for Plant Breeding Research on crops and Federal Agricultural Research Centre It has its main office at Quedlinburg and centres at Berlin, Braunschweig, Darmstadt, Dossenheim, Dresden-Pillnitz, Elsdorf, Groß Lüsewitz, Kleinmachnow, Münster and Siebeldingen. Wikipedia.
Schuster M.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012
Sweet cherries are generally self-incompatible, caused by a gametophytic self-incompatibility system. Two genetic factors (S-alleles) determine the fertility of sweet cherry genotypes. Dependent on the S-allele constitution of the cultivars, cross-incompatibility groups of sweet cherry cultivars exist. The knowledge about the S-allele combinations of the cultivars is very important for the fruit growers and breeders. In the last years molecular methods have been developed to distinguish the S-alleles in sweet cherries. An update of the S-genotype of 734 sweet cherries was summarized. The data includes results of 51 new varieties supplemented with data from various published sources and personal information up to 2012. A total of 18 S-alleles were detected in 47 incompatibility groups in sweet cherry. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source
Dietz-Pfeilstetter A.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Plant Science | Year: 2010
The major genetic factors affecting the expression of newly introduced genes in transgenic plants including epigenetic effects are summarized. Examples of (trans)gene silencing and the genetic signals involved are given. Based on current knowledge, several strategies to generate stable transgenic lines can be followed. Although initial laboratory and field tests over few generations allow good predictions about the long-term expression stability of single transgenic lines, the combination of different events by genetic crossing raises new questions. As different transgenic lines often carry the same or similar promoter elements and as coding regions may have sequence homologies, new epigenetic interactions can arise, thus justifying thorough expression testing of stacked transformation events obtained through cross-breeding. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source
Schittenhelm S.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2010
Intercropping represents an alternative to maize (Zea mays L.) monoculture to provide substrate for agricultural biogas production. Maize was intercropped with either sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) or forage sorghum [. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] to determine the effect of seasonal water supply on yield and quality of the above-ground biomass as a fermentation substrate. The two intercrop partners were grown in alternating double rows at plant available soil water levels of 60-80 %, 40-50 % and 15-30 % under a foil tunnel during the years 2006 and 2007 at Braunschweig, Germany. Although the intercrop dry matter yields in each year increased with increasing soil moisture, the partner crops responded quite differently. While maize produced significantly greater biomass under high rather than low water supply in each year, forage sorghum exhibited a significant yield response only in 2006, and sunflower in none of the 2 years. Despite greatly different soil moisture contents, the contribution of sorghum to the intercrop dry matter yield was similar, averaging 43 % in 2006 and 40 % in 2007. Under conditions of moderate and no drought stress, sunflower had a dry matter yield proportion of roughly one-third in both years. In the severe drought treatment, however, sunflower contributed 37 % in 2006 and 54 % in 2007 to the total intercrop dry matter yield. The comparatively good performance of sunflower under conditions of low water supply is attributable to a fast early growth, which allows this crop to exploit the residual winter soil moisture. While the calculated methane-producing potential of the maize/sorghum intercrop was not affected by the level of water supply, the maize/sunflower intercrop in 2006 had a higher theoretically attainable specific methane yield under low and medium than under high water supply. Nevertheless, the effect of water regime on substrate composition within the intercrops was small in comparison with the large differences between the intercrops. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.4-02 | Award Amount: 2.61M | Year: 2014
Europe faces the challenge of responding to the mandatory implementation of the principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as called for by Directive 2009/128/EC on the sustainable use of pesticides. Most European countries are investing in research and extension to face this challenge, reduce reliance on pesticides, and reduce risks associated with their use. Added value and synergies can be created by coordinating such national research and extension efforts and by pooling existing resources. To this end, C-IPM will create a forum for exchange and identification of IPM research and development priorities, provide recommendations on national and European research, connect existing initiatives, and coordinate joint transnational research calls. With stakeholders and researchers, C-IPM will position IPM in the future European innovation landscape. It will provide an overall picture of ongoing and desired R&D efforts and of the resources available for IPM implementation. It will propose a common research agenda on IPM and on sustainable solutions in the context of minor uses. It will rapidly generate European-level added value by sharing outputs of ongoing national and regional research, and by disseminating R&D methods, experience and expertise. It will create knowledge hubs by linking R&D resources in the field of IPM and minor uses. It will develop and implement joint transnational calls. A website, newsletter and final workshop will ensure that C-IPM disseminates widely. To achieve lasting impact, C-IPM will plan its continued activity beyond the funded period. C-IPM realises that innovation and sustainability in crop protection can only come about if funders, researchers and farm advisers are closely associated, if multiple sectors are taken into account, and if all available control tactics and strategies are integrated. This approach is key to enriching the suite of IPM techniques and ensuring a high level of implementation of IPM among European farmers.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.5-03 | Award Amount: 3.77M | Year: 2014
G-TwYST will execute rat feeding trials with GM maize NK 603 based on OECD Test Guidelines and according to EFSA considerations. In the case of maize NK603 two 90-day and a combined 2-year chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study will be performed. By combining the results of the G-TwYST project with those of the GRACE project (90-day and 1-year study with maize MON810) it will be possible for the first time to describe the potential medium term and long term toxic effects of the two above-mentioned events. Partners will strictly comply with international standards and norms concerning feeding trials and closely collaborate with EFSA. Feeding stuff used in the trials will be produced according to the principles of good agricultural practice. The project will analyse and report the results of the feeding trials and develop recommendations on the scientific justification and added value of long-term feeding trials for GMO risk assessment. The project will ensure scientific excellence, independence and transparency of both the research process and the results. Transparency and accessibility of project plans and results is a key characteristic of the project and will be ensured by establishing a project website and by using an open access database set up by GRACE as information hubs. Results will be published as open access journal papers. Dedicated engagement, communication, and dissemination activities will target scientists, policy makers and a broad range of stakeholders. Participatory steps will be included in the planning as well as in the interpretation/conclusion phase. Moreover, the views of risk assessment and regulatory bodies as well as wider societal issues will also be taken into consideration. The results of the project will enable risk managers drawing conclusions with regard to framework of the currently applicable GM food/feed risk assessment requirements and procedures in the EU.