Julius Kuehn Institute JKI

Quedlinburg, Germany

Julius Kuehn Institute JKI

Quedlinburg, Germany
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Rollins J.A.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Habte E.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Templer S.E.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Colby T.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to identify barley leaf proteins differentially regulated in response to drought and heat and the combined stresses in context of the morphological and physiological changes that also occur. The Syrian landrace Arta and the Australian cultivar Keel were subjected to drought, high temperature, or a combination of both treatments starting at heading. Changes in the leaf proteome were identified using differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The drought treatment caused strong reductions of biomass and yield, while photosynthetic performance and the proteome were not significantly changed. In contrast, the heat treatment and the combination of heat and drought reduced photosynthetic performance and caused changes of the leaf proteome. The proteomic analysis identified 99 protein spots differentially regulated in response to heat treatment, 14 of which were regulated in a genotype-specific manner. Differentially regulated proteins predominantly had functions in photosynthesis, but also in detoxification, energy metabolism, and protein biosynthesis. The analysis indicated that de novo protein biosynthesis, protein quality control mediated by chaperones and proteases, and the use of alternative energy resources, i.e. glycolysis, play important roles in adaptation to heat stress. In addition, genetic variation identified in the proteome, in plant growth and photosynthetic performance in response to drought and heat represent stress adaption mechanisms to be exploited in future crop breeding efforts. © The Author [2013].

Konig J.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Konig J.,Free University of Berlin | Kopahnke D.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Steffenson B.J.,University of Minnesota | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei Otth, is an important disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in many areas of the world. The appearance of new virulent races necessitates the identification of new resistance genes in barley. Screening of spring barley landraces from former Yugoslavia led to the identification of an accession (MBR1012) carrying resistance to the most widespread virulent leaf rust pathotypes in Europe. Ninety-one doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between landrace MBR1012 and the susceptible German cultivar Scarlett were evaluated for resistance to P. hordei isolate I-80 and segregated 48 resistant: 43 susceptible (χ 2 1:1p = 0. 6), indicating a monogenic inheritance of resistance. Using simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, the resistance gene in MBR1012 was mapped to the telomeric region of chromosome 1HS. This gene is assigned the temporary locus designation of Rph MBR1012 until it can be unequivocally determined to be different from all previously reported resistance genes. The closest flanking markers for Rph MBR1012 are located 0. 8 cM distal (SNP marker GBS546 and SSR marker GBMS187) and 6. 0 cM proximal (SSR marker GMS21). The diagnostic value of the closest linked markers was assessed in a genetically diverse collection of 51 susceptible and resistant barley lines and cultivars. The SSR GBMS187 predicted the presence of Rph MBR1012 with 100% accuracy. However, this marker could not be used singly for the rapid incorporation of resistance into high yielding barley cultivars, since it detects a null allele in MBR1012. Therefore, simultaneous use of the markers closely linked to Rph MBR1012 is needed for transferring Rph MBR1012 into adapted cultivars. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Yang P.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Habekuss A.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Ordon F.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Stein N.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message Unlocking allelic diversity of the bymovirus resistance generym11located on proximal barley chromosome 4HL and diagnostic markers provides the basis for precision breeding for BaMMV/BaYMV resistance. The recessive resistance gene rym11 on barley chromosome 4HL confers broad-spectrum and complete resistance to all virulent European isolates of Barley mildmosaic virus and Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaMMV/BaYMV). As previously reported, rym11-based resistance is conferred by a series of alleles of naturally occurring deletions in the gene HvPDIL5-1, encoding a protein disulfide isomerase-like protein. Here, a novel resistance-conferring allele of rym11 is reported that, in contrast to previously identified resistance-conferring variants of the gene HvPDIL5-1, carries a single non-synonymous amino acid substitution. Allelism was confirmed by crossing to genotypes carrying previously known rym11 alleles. Crossing rym11 genotypes with a cultivar carrying the recessive resistance gene rym1, which was reported to reside on the same chromosome arm 4HL like rym11, revealed allelism of both loci. This allelic state was confirmed by re-sequencing HvPDIL5-1 in the rym1 genotype, detecting the haplotype of the rym11-d allele. Diagnostic PCR-based markers were established to differentiate all seven resistance-conferring alleles of the rym11 locus providing precise tools for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of rym11 in barley breeding. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Riedel C.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Habekuss A.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Schliephake E.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Niks R.,Wageningen University | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an economically important pathogen of barley, which may become even more important due to global warming. In barley, several loci conferring tolerance to BYDV-PAV-ASL-1 are known, e. g. Ryd2, Ryd3 and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2H. The aim of the present study was to get information whether the level of tolerance against this isolate of BYDV in barley can be improved by combining these loci. Therefore, a winter and a spring barley population of doubled haploid (DH) lines were genotyped by molecular markers for the presence of the susceptibility or the resistance encoding allele at respective loci (Ryd2, Ryd3, QTL on chromosome 2H) and were tested for their level of BYDV-tolerance after inoculation with viruliferous (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) aphids in field trials. In DH-lines carrying the combination Ryd2 and Ryd3, a significant reduction of the virus titre was detected as compared to lines carrying only one of these genes. Furthermore, spring barley DH-lines with this allele combination also showed a significantly higher relative grain yield as compared to lines carrying only Ryd2 or Ryd3. The QTL on chromosome 2H had only a small effect on the level of tolerance in those lines carrying only Ryd2, or Ryd3 or a combination of both, but the effect in comparison to lines carrying no tolerance allele was significant. Overall, these results show that the combination of Ryd2 and Ryd3 leads to quantitative resistance against BYDV-PAV instead of tolerance. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Yang P.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Perovic D.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Habekuss A.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Zhou R.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) disease seriously affects winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production. Improvement of resistance to this disease can prevent yield losses. Based on previous reports, the gene rym7 (rmm7), conferring partial resistance to BaMMV, was assigned to chromosome 1H, closely linked to the centromere. In this study, newly developed barley genomic resources were applied to saturate the genetic map at the rym7 locus. Out of a set of 350 gene-based markers of chromosome 1H, we genetically assigned 23 to the rym7 region, delimiting the resistance locus to a 9.9-cM interval close to the centromere by genetic mapping in 53 doubled haploid progeny of a bi-parental mapping population. Nine gene-derived co-dominant markers co-segregated with the resistance locus. Among these, we identified the eukaryotic translation initiation factor Hv-eIF(iso)4E. Its homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana confers resistance to potyviruses. However, sequencing the entire open reading frame of resistant and susceptible genotypes could not reveal any sequence variation in exons of the gene. These results demonstrate how to combine newly developed barley genomic resources for rapid gene-based marker saturation. As a result, several easy-to-handle co-dominant markers have been identified for marker-assisted selection of rym7 in barley breeding. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Gamsjaeger S.,University of Salzburg | Gamsjaeger S.,Hanusch Hospital of and Trauma Center Meidling | Baranska M.,Jagiellonian University | Baranska M.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) has been applied for the non-destructive in-situ analysis of pigments on differently colored flower petals of pansy cultivars (Viola x wittrockiana). The main target of the present study was to investigate how far the Raman mapping technique through FT-Raman spectroscopy and cluster analysis of the Raman spectra is a potential method for the direct, in-situ discrimination of flavonoids (flavonols against anthocyanins) and of carotenoids occurring in flowers, using intact and differently colored flower petal of Viola x wittrockiana for this case study. In order to get more information about the reliability of the direct in-situ flavonoid detection by the Raman method, pigments extracts of the petals were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the Raman spectra from reference pigments (carotenoids, anthocyanins and flavonols), from areas of the flower petals, and from the TLC extracts allowed discriminating the various pigments, in particular flavonoids (flavonols against anthocyanins) and carotenoids. With a two-dimensional Raman mapping technique, which provides a chemical image of the sample under investigation, we determined by cluster analysis the distribution of carotenoids, anthocyanins and flavonols from the outer layer of the petals, and by integrating through suitable spectral regions selected as characteristic markers for particular pigments their relative concentration could approximately be determined. We found a satisfactory correlation between the patterns seen on the visible images and the patterns on the chemical images obtained by Raman mapping. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ali K.,Leiden University | Maltese F.,Leiden University | Toepfer R.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Choi Y.H.,Leiden University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular NMR | Year: 2011

1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) has been used for metabolomic analysis of 'Riesling' and 'Mueller-Thurgau' white wines from the German Palatinate region. Diverse two-dimensional NMR techniques have been applied for the identification of metabolites, including phenolics. It is shown that sensory analysis correlates with NMR-based metabolic profiles of wine. 1H NMR data in combination with multivariate data analysis methods, like principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS), and bidirectional orthogonal projections to latent structures (O2PLS) analysis, were employed in an attempt to identify the metabolites responsible for the taste of wine, using a non-targeted approach. The high quality wines were characterized by elevated levels of compounds like proline, 2,3-butanediol, malate, quercetin, and catechin. Characterization of wine based on type and vintage was also done using orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) analysis. 'Riesling' wines were characterized by higher levels of catechin, caftarate, valine, proline, malate, and citrate whereas compounds like quercetin, resveratrol, gallate, leucine, threonine, succinate, and lactate, were found discriminating for 'Mueller-Thurgau'. The wines from 2006 vintage were dominated by leucine, phenylalanine, citrate, malate, and phenolics, while valine, proline, alanine, and succinate were predominantly present in the 2007 vintage. Based on these results, it can be postulated the NMR-based metabolomics offers an easy and comprehensive analysis of wine and in combination with multivariate data analyses can be used to investigate the source of the wines and to predict certain sensory aspects of wine. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Serfling A.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Kramer I.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Lind V.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Schliephake E.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Ordon F.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Breeding for resistance is an efficient strategy to manage wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina f. sp. tritici. However, a prerequisite for the directed use of Lr genes in breeding and the detection of new races virulent to these Lr genes is a detailed knowledge on Lr genes present in wheat cultivars. Therefore, respective molecular markers for 18 Lr genes were tested for specificity and used to determine Lr genes in 115 wheat cultivars. Results obtained were compared to available pedigree data. Using respective molecular markers, genes Lr1, Lr10, Lr26, Lr34 and Lr37 were detected, but data were not always in accordance with pedigree data. However, leaf rust scoring data of field trials confirmed the reliability of DNA markers. These reliable marker data facilitated the analyses of the development of virulent leaf rust races from 2002 to 2009 based on released cultivars. A sudden change from low infection rates to susceptibility was observed for Lr1, Lr3, Lr10, Lr13, Lr14, Lr16, Lr26 and Lr37 since 2006. Cultivars carrying several leaf rust resistance genes showed no significant shift to susceptibility except one cultivar which revealed an increasing infection rate at a low level. In summary, it turned out that pedigree data are often not reliable and a detection of Lr genes by diagnostic markers is fundamental to combine Lr genes in cultivars for a durable resistance against leaf rust, and to conduct reliable surveys based on released cultivars, instead of 'Thatcher' NILs. © 2011 KNPV.

Mikona C.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Jelkmann W.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI
Plant Disease | Year: 2010

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-7 (GLRaV-7) was transmitted from an Albanian grapevine accession to Tetragonia expansa by the parasitic dodder Cuscuta reflexa and to Nicotiana occidentalis by Cuscuta europea. Cuscuta campestris was infected by GLRaV-7 but could not transfer the virus to an experimental host. Transmission of the virus was verified by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from total nucleic acid (TNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extracts from all five plant species. DsRNA extractions separated on agarose gels showed strong visible bands corresponding to high-molecular-weight virus genome and to subgenomic RNA. GLRaV-7 was maintained in C. reflexa, C. campestris, T. expansa, and N. occidentalis for more than 4 years. Infected T. expansa and the Cuscuta species remained symptomless while N. occidentalis showed severe symptoms leading to stunting and decline of the plants. Quantitative PCR showed great differences in the titer of GLRaV-7 between the tissues of its natural and experimental host plants. This is the first report on a virus of the Closteroviridae that was successfully transmitted to an herbaceous plant by dodder. Virus replication could be demonstrated in Cuscuta. Both the new experimental hosts of GLRaV-7 and Cuscuta allowed extraction of dsRNA for further characterization of the viral genome, which previously required grapevine scraping of phloem. This is time-consuming and does not always lead to satisfactory results. These alternative hosts of GLRaV-7 facilitate nucleic acid extractions and could be used as model plants for etiological studies. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society.

Ochssner I.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Hausmann L.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Topfer R.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2016

A biparental population segregating for downy mildew resistance was studied to identify resistance linked molecular markers. The progeny of 202 individuals from a cross of V3125 (susceptible breeding line) with 'Börner' (resistant rootstock) was phenotyped in the field in four seasons and by evaluating artificially infected leaf discs. QTL mapping revealed a major resistance locus on chromosome 5 that explained up to 17.4 % of the phenotypic variance. This new resistance locus was named Rpv14. It was transmitted from the male grandparent V. cinerea Arnold to 'Börner' and is associated with the marker GF05-13. © The author(s).

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