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Quedlinburg, Germany

Ali K.,Leiden University | Maltese F.,Leiden University | Toepfer R.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Choi Y.H.,Leiden University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular NMR

1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) has been used for metabolomic analysis of 'Riesling' and 'Mueller-Thurgau' white wines from the German Palatinate region. Diverse two-dimensional NMR techniques have been applied for the identification of metabolites, including phenolics. It is shown that sensory analysis correlates with NMR-based metabolic profiles of wine. 1H NMR data in combination with multivariate data analysis methods, like principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS), and bidirectional orthogonal projections to latent structures (O2PLS) analysis, were employed in an attempt to identify the metabolites responsible for the taste of wine, using a non-targeted approach. The high quality wines were characterized by elevated levels of compounds like proline, 2,3-butanediol, malate, quercetin, and catechin. Characterization of wine based on type and vintage was also done using orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) analysis. 'Riesling' wines were characterized by higher levels of catechin, caftarate, valine, proline, malate, and citrate whereas compounds like quercetin, resveratrol, gallate, leucine, threonine, succinate, and lactate, were found discriminating for 'Mueller-Thurgau'. The wines from 2006 vintage were dominated by leucine, phenylalanine, citrate, malate, and phenolics, while valine, proline, alanine, and succinate were predominantly present in the 2007 vintage. Based on these results, it can be postulated the NMR-based metabolomics offers an easy and comprehensive analysis of wine and in combination with multivariate data analyses can be used to investigate the source of the wines and to predict certain sensory aspects of wine. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Rollins J.A.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Habte E.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Templer S.E.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Colby T.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany

The objective of this study was to identify barley leaf proteins differentially regulated in response to drought and heat and the combined stresses in context of the morphological and physiological changes that also occur. The Syrian landrace Arta and the Australian cultivar Keel were subjected to drought, high temperature, or a combination of both treatments starting at heading. Changes in the leaf proteome were identified using differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The drought treatment caused strong reductions of biomass and yield, while photosynthetic performance and the proteome were not significantly changed. In contrast, the heat treatment and the combination of heat and drought reduced photosynthetic performance and caused changes of the leaf proteome. The proteomic analysis identified 99 protein spots differentially regulated in response to heat treatment, 14 of which were regulated in a genotype-specific manner. Differentially regulated proteins predominantly had functions in photosynthesis, but also in detoxification, energy metabolism, and protein biosynthesis. The analysis indicated that de novo protein biosynthesis, protein quality control mediated by chaperones and proteases, and the use of alternative energy resources, i.e. glycolysis, play important roles in adaptation to heat stress. In addition, genetic variation identified in the proteome, in plant growth and photosynthetic performance in response to drought and heat represent stress adaption mechanisms to be exploited in future crop breeding efforts. © The Author [2013]. Source

Yang P.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Habekuss A.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Ordon F.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Stein N.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Key message Unlocking allelic diversity of the bymovirus resistance generym11located on proximal barley chromosome 4HL and diagnostic markers provides the basis for precision breeding for BaMMV/BaYMV resistance. The recessive resistance gene rym11 on barley chromosome 4HL confers broad-spectrum and complete resistance to all virulent European isolates of Barley mildmosaic virus and Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaMMV/BaYMV). As previously reported, rym11-based resistance is conferred by a series of alleles of naturally occurring deletions in the gene HvPDIL5-1, encoding a protein disulfide isomerase-like protein. Here, a novel resistance-conferring allele of rym11 is reported that, in contrast to previously identified resistance-conferring variants of the gene HvPDIL5-1, carries a single non-synonymous amino acid substitution. Allelism was confirmed by crossing to genotypes carrying previously known rym11 alleles. Crossing rym11 genotypes with a cultivar carrying the recessive resistance gene rym1, which was reported to reside on the same chromosome arm 4HL like rym11, revealed allelism of both loci. This allelic state was confirmed by re-sequencing HvPDIL5-1 in the rym1 genotype, detecting the haplotype of the rym11-d allele. Diagnostic PCR-based markers were established to differentiate all seven resistance-conferring alleles of the rym11 locus providing precise tools for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of rym11 in barley breeding. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Gamsjaeger S.,University of Salzburg | Gamsjaeger S.,Hanusch Hospital of and Trauma Center Meidling | Baranska M.,Jagiellonian University | Baranska M.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) has been applied for the non-destructive in-situ analysis of pigments on differently colored flower petals of pansy cultivars (Viola x wittrockiana). The main target of the present study was to investigate how far the Raman mapping technique through FT-Raman spectroscopy and cluster analysis of the Raman spectra is a potential method for the direct, in-situ discrimination of flavonoids (flavonols against anthocyanins) and of carotenoids occurring in flowers, using intact and differently colored flower petal of Viola x wittrockiana for this case study. In order to get more information about the reliability of the direct in-situ flavonoid detection by the Raman method, pigments extracts of the petals were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the Raman spectra from reference pigments (carotenoids, anthocyanins and flavonols), from areas of the flower petals, and from the TLC extracts allowed discriminating the various pigments, in particular flavonoids (flavonols against anthocyanins) and carotenoids. With a two-dimensional Raman mapping technique, which provides a chemical image of the sample under investigation, we determined by cluster analysis the distribution of carotenoids, anthocyanins and flavonols from the outer layer of the petals, and by integrating through suitable spectral regions selected as characteristic markers for particular pigments their relative concentration could approximately be determined. We found a satisfactory correlation between the patterns seen on the visible images and the patterns on the chemical images obtained by Raman mapping. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Mikona C.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI | Jelkmann W.,Julius Kuehn Institute JKI
Plant Disease

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-7 (GLRaV-7) was transmitted from an Albanian grapevine accession to Tetragonia expansa by the parasitic dodder Cuscuta reflexa and to Nicotiana occidentalis by Cuscuta europea. Cuscuta campestris was infected by GLRaV-7 but could not transfer the virus to an experimental host. Transmission of the virus was verified by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from total nucleic acid (TNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extracts from all five plant species. DsRNA extractions separated on agarose gels showed strong visible bands corresponding to high-molecular-weight virus genome and to subgenomic RNA. GLRaV-7 was maintained in C. reflexa, C. campestris, T. expansa, and N. occidentalis for more than 4 years. Infected T. expansa and the Cuscuta species remained symptomless while N. occidentalis showed severe symptoms leading to stunting and decline of the plants. Quantitative PCR showed great differences in the titer of GLRaV-7 between the tissues of its natural and experimental host plants. This is the first report on a virus of the Closteroviridae that was successfully transmitted to an herbaceous plant by dodder. Virus replication could be demonstrated in Cuscuta. Both the new experimental hosts of GLRaV-7 and Cuscuta allowed extraction of dsRNA for further characterization of the viral genome, which previously required grapevine scraping of phloem. This is time-consuming and does not always lead to satisfactory results. These alternative hosts of GLRaV-7 facilitate nucleic acid extractions and could be used as model plants for etiological studies. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

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