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Julich, Germany

Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres and is one of the largest interdisciplinary research centres in Europe. It was founded on 11 December 1956 by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia as a registered association, before it became "Kernforschungsanlage Jülich GmbH" or Nuclear Research Centre Jülich in 1967. In 1990, the name of the association was changed to "Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH". It has close collaborations with RWTH Aachen in the form of Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance . Wikipedia.

Marx M.,Julich Research Center
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) | Year: 2013

Neocortical lamina 6B (L6B) is a largely unexplored layer with a very heterogeneous cellular composition. To date, only little is known about L6B neurons on a systematic and quantitative basis. We investigated the morphological and electrophysiological properties of excitatory L6B neurons in the rat somatosensory barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Subsequent histological processing and computer-assisted 3D reconstructions provided the basis for a classification of excitatory L6B neurons according to their structural and functional characteristics. Three distinct clusters of excitatory L6B neurons were identified: (C1) pyramidal neurons with an apical dendrite pointing towards the pial surface, (C2) neurons with a prominent, "apical"-like dendrite not oriented towards the pia, and (C3) multipolar spiny neurons without any preferential dendritic orientation. The second group could be further subdivided into three categories termed inverted, "tangentially" oriented and "horizontally" oriented neurons. Furthermore, based on the axonal domain two subcategories of L6B pyramidal cells were identified that had either a more barrel-column confined or an extended axonal field. The classification of excitatory L6B neurons provided here may serve as a basis for future studies on the structure, function, and synaptic connectivity of L6B neurons.

Hammer H.-W.,University of Bonn | Nogga A.,Julich Research Center | Schwenk A.,TU Darmstadt | Schwenk A.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

It is often assumed that few- and many-body systems can be accurately described by considering only pairwise two-body interactions of the constituents. We illustrate that three- and higher-body forces enter naturally in effective field theories and are especially prominent in strongly interacting quantum systems. We focus on three-body forces and discuss examples from atomic and nuclear physics. In particular, the importance and the challenges of three-nucleon forces for nuclear structure and reactions, including applications to astrophysics and fundamental symmetries, are highlighted. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Cryogenic air separation is a mature state-of-the-art technology to produce the high tonnage of oxygen required for oxyfuel power plants. However, this technology represents an important burden to the net plant efficiency (losses between 8% and 12%-points). High temperature ceramic membranes, associated with significantly lower efficiency losses, are foreseen as the best candidate to challenge cryogenics for high tonnage oxygen production. Although this technology is still at an embryonic state of development, the three-end membrane operation mode offers important technical advantages over the four-end mode that can be a good technological option in the near future.This paper analyzes the influence of both, the cryogenic and three-end high temperature membrane air separation units on the net oxyfuel plant efficiency considering the same boundary conditions and different equivalent thermal integrations. Moreover, the oxygen permeation rate, heat recovery, and required membrane area are also evaluated at different membrane operating conditions. Using a state-of-the-art perovskite BSCF as membrane material, net plant efficiency losses up to 5.1%-points can be reached requiring around 400,000m2 of membrane area. Applying this membrane-based technology it is possible to improve the oxyfuel plant efficiency over 4%-points (compared with cryogenic technology); however, it is still necessary to develop new ceramic materials to reduce the amount of membrane area required. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Guo X.,Julich Research Center
Scripta Materialia | Year: 2011

Works on nanostructured ZrO 2, including nanocrystalline ceramics, polycrystalline and epitaxial thin films, and heterostructures, are evaluated. Lower total conductivity has been achieved for nanocrystalline ceramics and polycrystalline thin films. Higher conductivity was reported for epitaxial films, but this might be an artefact of the substrate. The colossal ionic conductivity that was claimed for heterostructures has now been demonstrated to be electronic in origin. However, distinctively different properties may appear in ZrO 2 for grain sizes <5 nm. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cherstvy A.G.,Julich Research Center
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

In this perspective article, we focus on recent developments in the theory of charge effects in biological DNA-related systems. The electrostatic effects on different levels of DNA organization are considered, including the DNA-DNA interactions, DNA complexation with cationic lipid membranes, DNA condensates and DNA-dense cholesteric phases, protein-DNA recognition, DNA wrapping in nucleosomes, and inter-nucleosomal interactions. For these systems, we develop a theoretical framework to describe the physical-chemical mechanisms of structure formation and anticipate some biological consequences. General biophysical principles of DNA compaction in chromatin fibers and DNA spooling inside viral capsids are discussed in the end, with emphasis on electrostatic aspects. © 2011 the Owner Societies.

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