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Van Aerde K.I.,Julich Research Center | Van Aerde K.I.,Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and science | Feldmeyer D.,Julich Research Center | Feldmeyer D.,RWTH Aachen | Feldmeyer D.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2015

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in cognitive and executive processes including decision making, working memory and behavioral flexibility. Cortical processing depends on the interaction between distinct neuronal cell types in different cortical layers. To better understand cortical processing in the rat mPFC, we studied the diversity of pyramidal neurons using in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings and biocytin staining of neurons, followed by morphological analysis. Using unsupervised cluster analysis for the objective grouping of neurons, we identified more than 10 different pyramidal subtypes spread across the different cortical layers. Layer 2 pyramidal neurons possessed a unique morphology with wide apical dendritic field spans and a narrow basal field span. Layer 3 contained the only subtype that showed a burst of action potentials upon current injection. Layer 5 pyramidal neurons showed the largest voltage sags. Finally, pyramidal neurons in layer 6 (L6) showed a great variety in their morphology with 39% of L6 neurons possessing tall apical dendrites that extend into layer 1. Future experiments on the functional role of the mPFC should take into account the great diversity of pyramidal neurons. © 2013 The Author. Source

Turkeltaub P.E.,University of Pennsylvania | Eickhoff S.B.,RWTH Aachen | Eickhoff S.B.,Julich Research Center | Eickhoff S.B.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | And 4 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2012

Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) is an objective, quantitative technique for coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) of neuroimaging results that has been validated for a variety of uses. Stepwise modifications have improved ALE's theoretical and statistical rigor since its introduction. Here, we evaluate two avenues to further optimize ALE. First, we demonstrate that the maximum contribution of an experiment makes to an ALE map is related to the number of foci it reports and their proximity. We present a modified ALE algorithm that eliminates these within-experiment effects. However, we show that these effects only account for 2-3% of cumulative ALE values, and removing them has little impact on thresholded ALE maps. Next, we present an alternate organizational approach to datasets that prevents subject groups with multiple experiments in a dataset from influencing ALE values more than others. This modification decreases cumulative ALE values by 7-9%, changes the relative magnitude of some clusters, and reduces cluster extents. Overall, differences between results of the standard approach and these new methods were small. This finding validates previous ALE reports against concerns that they were driven by within-experiment or within-group effects. We suggest that the modified ALE algorithm is theoretically advantageous compared with the current algorithm, and that the alternate organization of datasets is the most conservative approach for typical ALE analyses and other CBMA methods. Combining the two modifications minimizes both within-experiment and within-group effects, optimizing the degree to which ALE values represent concordance of findings across independent reports. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Marx M.,Julich Research Center | Gunter R.H.,Julich Research Center | Hucko W.,Julich Research Center | Radnikow G.,Julich Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2012

In this report, we describe a reliable protocol for biocytin labeling of neuronal tissue and diaminobenzidine (DAB)-based processing of brain slices. We describe how to embed tissues in different media and how to subsequently histochemically label the tissues for light or electron microscopic examination. We provide a detailed dehydration and embedding protocol using Eukitt that avoids the common problem of tissue distortion and therefore prevents fading of cytoarchitectural features (in particular, lamination) of brain tissue; as a result, additional labeling methods (such as cytochrome oxidase staining) become unnecessary. In addition, we provide correction factors for tissue shrinkage in all spatial dimensions so that a realistic neuronal morphology can be obtained from slice preparations. Such corrections were hitherto difficult to calculate because embedding in viscous media resulted in highly nonlinear tissue deformation. Fixation, immunocytochemistry and embedding procedures for light microscopy (LM) can be completed within 42-48 h. Subsequent reconstructions and morphological analyses take an additional 24 h or more. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Khodjasteh K.,Dartmouth College | Bluhm H.,RWTH Aachen | Bluhm H.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | Viola L.,Dartmouth College
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

Dynamically corrected gates are extended to non-Markovian open quantum systems where limitations on the available controls and/or the presence of control noise make existing analytical approaches unfeasible. A computational framework for the synthesis of dynamically corrected gates is formalized that allows sensitivity against non-Markovian decoherence and control errors to be perturbatively minimized via numerical search, resulting in robust gate implementations. Explicit sequences for achieving universal high-fidelity control in a singlet-triplet spin qubit subject to realistic system and control constraint are provided, which simultaneously cancel to the leading order the dephasing due to non-Markovian nuclear-bath dynamics and voltage noise affecting the control fields. Substantially improved gate fidelities are predicted for current laboratory devices. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Palomero-Gallagher N.,Julich Research Center | Palomero-Gallagher N.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | Zilles K.,Julich Research Center | Zilles K.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | Zilles K.,RWTH Aachen
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome with symptoms ranging from subtle neuropsychiatric and motor disturbances to deep coma and death, is thought to be a clinical manifestation of a low-grade cerebral oedema associated with an altered neuron-astrocyte crosstalk and exacerbated by hyperammonemia and oxidative stress. These events are tightly coupled with alterations in neurotransmission, either in a causal or a causative manner, resulting in a net increase of inhibitory neurotransmission. Therefore, research focussed mainly on the potential role of γ-aminobutyric acid-(GABA) or glutamate-mediated neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of HE, though roles for other neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin, dopamine, adenosine and histamine) or for neurosteroids or endogenous benzodiazepines have also been suggested. Therefore, we here review HE-related alterations in neurotransmission, focussing on changes in the levels of classical neurotransmitters and the neuromodulator adenosine, variations in the activity and/or concentrations of key enzymes involved in their metabolism, as well as in the densities of their receptors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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