Julich Aachen Research Alliance

Jülich, Germany

Julich Aachen Research Alliance

Jülich, Germany
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Amunts K.,Jülich Research Center | Amunts K.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Amunts K.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | Zilles K.,Jülich Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2015

Brodmann has pioneered structural brain mapping. He considered functional and pathological criteria for defining cortical areas in addition to cytoarchitecture. Starting from this idea of structural-functional relationships at the level of cortical areas, we will argue that the cortical architecture is more heterogeneous than Brodmann's map suggests. A triple-scale concept is proposed that includes repetitive modular-like structures and micro- and meso-maps. Criteria for defining a cortical area will be discussed, considering novel preparations, imaging and optical methods, 2D and 3D quantitative architectonics, as well as high-performance computing including analyses of big data. These new approaches contribute to an understanding of the brain on multiple levels and challenge the traditional, mosaic-like segregation of the cerebral cortex. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Van Aerde K.I.,Jülich Research Center | Van Aerde K.I.,Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science | Feldmeyer D.,Jülich Research Center | Feldmeyer D.,RWTH Aachen | Feldmeyer D.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2015

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in cognitive and executive processes including decision making, working memory and behavioral flexibility. Cortical processing depends on the interaction between distinct neuronal cell types in different cortical layers. To better understand cortical processing in the rat mPFC, we studied the diversity of pyramidal neurons using in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings and biocytin staining of neurons, followed by morphological analysis. Using unsupervised cluster analysis for the objective grouping of neurons, we identified more than 10 different pyramidal subtypes spread across the different cortical layers. Layer 2 pyramidal neurons possessed a unique morphology with wide apical dendritic field spans and a narrow basal field span. Layer 3 contained the only subtype that showed a burst of action potentials upon current injection. Layer 5 pyramidal neurons showed the largest voltage sags. Finally, pyramidal neurons in layer 6 (L6) showed a great variety in their morphology with 39% of L6 neurons possessing tall apical dendrites that extend into layer 1. Future experiments on the functional role of the mPFC should take into account the great diversity of pyramidal neurons. © 2013 The Author.

Marx M.,Jülich Research Center | Gunter R.H.,Jülich Research Center | Hucko W.,Jülich Research Center | Radnikow G.,Jülich Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2012

In this report, we describe a reliable protocol for biocytin labeling of neuronal tissue and diaminobenzidine (DAB)-based processing of brain slices. We describe how to embed tissues in different media and how to subsequently histochemically label the tissues for light or electron microscopic examination. We provide a detailed dehydration and embedding protocol using Eukitt that avoids the common problem of tissue distortion and therefore prevents fading of cytoarchitectural features (in particular, lamination) of brain tissue; as a result, additional labeling methods (such as cytochrome oxidase staining) become unnecessary. In addition, we provide correction factors for tissue shrinkage in all spatial dimensions so that a realistic neuronal morphology can be obtained from slice preparations. Such corrections were hitherto difficult to calculate because embedding in viscous media resulted in highly nonlinear tissue deformation. Fixation, immunocytochemistry and embedding procedures for light microscopy (LM) can be completed within 42-48 h. Subsequent reconstructions and morphological analyses take an additional 24 h or more. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Turkeltaub P.E.,University of Pennsylvania | Eickhoff S.B.,RWTH Aachen | Eickhoff S.B.,Jülich Research Center | Eickhoff S.B.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | And 4 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2012

Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) is an objective, quantitative technique for coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) of neuroimaging results that has been validated for a variety of uses. Stepwise modifications have improved ALE's theoretical and statistical rigor since its introduction. Here, we evaluate two avenues to further optimize ALE. First, we demonstrate that the maximum contribution of an experiment makes to an ALE map is related to the number of foci it reports and their proximity. We present a modified ALE algorithm that eliminates these within-experiment effects. However, we show that these effects only account for 2-3% of cumulative ALE values, and removing them has little impact on thresholded ALE maps. Next, we present an alternate organizational approach to datasets that prevents subject groups with multiple experiments in a dataset from influencing ALE values more than others. This modification decreases cumulative ALE values by 7-9%, changes the relative magnitude of some clusters, and reduces cluster extents. Overall, differences between results of the standard approach and these new methods were small. This finding validates previous ALE reports against concerns that they were driven by within-experiment or within-group effects. We suggest that the modified ALE algorithm is theoretically advantageous compared with the current algorithm, and that the alternate organization of datasets is the most conservative approach for typical ALE analyses and other CBMA methods. Combining the two modifications minimizes both within-experiment and within-group effects, optimizing the degree to which ALE values represent concordance of findings across independent reports. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ibach H.,Jülich Research Center | Ibach H.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance
Surface Science | Year: 2012

Motivated by rather similar behavior of the Helmholtz capacitances of stepped Au(11n) and Ag(11n) electrodes we have extended a previous study on the vibration spectrum of water adsorbed at low temperatures on stepped gold surfaces to Ag(100), Ag(115) and Au(111) surfaces. On Ag(100) surfaces, the spectra show the presence of the typical H-bonded network of water molecules. The rather weak intensity, the absence of non-hydrogen bonded hydrogen atoms, the similarity to the infrared spectrum of ice crystallites, and the increase in the angular spread of the elastic peak are indicative of adsorption in form of three-dimensional clusters. This is stark contrast to Au(100) and Au(111) where the spectra match to a model involving stacks of water bilayers. The low coverage spectra on Ag(115) resemble the results on Au(115): A considerable fraction of the H-atoms remains in the non-H-bonded state and spectral features of water adsorbed at step-sites are identified. The first layer of water on Ag(115) surfaces should therefore have a similar structure as recently proposed in a theoretical study concerning water on Au(115). For larger doses, the experimental results on Ag(115) suggests the formation of three-dimensional clusters. This is contrary to Au(115) where the layered structure with a constant fraction of non-hydrogen-bonded H-atoms persists at higher doses. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Khodjasteh K.,Dartmouth College | Bluhm H.,RWTH Aachen | Bluhm H.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | Viola L.,Dartmouth College
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

Dynamically corrected gates are extended to non-Markovian open quantum systems where limitations on the available controls and/or the presence of control noise make existing analytical approaches unfeasible. A computational framework for the synthesis of dynamically corrected gates is formalized that allows sensitivity against non-Markovian decoherence and control errors to be perturbatively minimized via numerical search, resulting in robust gate implementations. Explicit sequences for achieving universal high-fidelity control in a singlet-triplet spin qubit subject to realistic system and control constraint are provided, which simultaneously cancel to the leading order the dephasing due to non-Markovian nuclear-bath dynamics and voltage noise affecting the control fields. Substantially improved gate fidelities are predicted for current laboratory devices. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Lencer D.,RWTH Aachen | Salinga M.,RWTH Aachen | Wuttig M.,RWTH Aachen | Wuttig M.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

Phase-change materials can rapidly and reversibly be switched between an amorphous and a crystalline phase. Since both phases are characterized by very different optical and electrical properties, these materials can be employed for rewritable optical and electrical data storage. Hence, there are considerable efforts to identify suitable materials, and to optimize them with respect to specific applications. Design rules that can explain why the materials identified so far enable phase-change based devices would hence be very beneficial. This article describes materials that have been successfully employed and dicusses common features regarding both typical structures and bonding mechanisms. It is shown that typical structural motifs and electronic properties can be found in the crystalline state that are indicative for resonant bonding, from which the employed contrast originates. The occurence of resonance is linked to the composition, thus providing a design rule for phase-change materials. This understanding helps to unravel characteristic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity which are discussed in the subsequent section. Then, turning to the transition kinetics between the phases, the current understanding and modeling of the processes of amorphization and crystallization are discussed. Finally, present approaches for improved high-capacity optical discs and fast non-volatile electrical memories, that hold the potential to succeed present-day's Flash memory, are presented. Phase-change materials enable optical and electrical data storage applications. They can rapidly and reversibly be switched between an amorphous and a crystalline phase. Thus, the difference in reflectivity or conductivity, respectively, allows one to distinguish between logical states. Here, the most important properties of this class of materials and how they relate to the composition are reviewed. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Waag W.,RWTH Aachen | Waag W.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | Fleischer C.,RWTH Aachen | Fleischer C.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2014

Lithium-ion battery packs in hybrid and pure electric vehicles are always equipped with a battery management system (BMS). The BMS consists of hardware and software for battery management including, among others, algorithms determining battery states. The continuous determination of battery states during operation is called battery monitoring. In this paper, the methods for monitoring of the battery state of charge, capacity, impedance parameters, available power, state of health, and remaining useful life are reviewed with the focus on elaboration of their strengths and weaknesses for the use in on-line BMS applications. To this end, more than 350 sources including scientific and technical literature are studied and the respective approaches are classified in various groups. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The paper reports on recent considerable improvements in electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of spin waves in ultra-thin films. Spin wave spectra with 4meV resolution are shown. The high energy resolution enables the observation of standing modes in ultra-thin films in the wave vector range of 0.15Å-1

Waag W.,RWTH Aachen | Waag W.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance | Sauer D.U.,RWTH Aachen | Sauer D.U.,Julich Aachen Research Alliance
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

The online estimation of battery states and parameters is one of the challenging tasks when battery is used as a part of the pure electric or hybrid energy system. For the determination of the available energy stored in the battery, the knowledge of the present state-of-charge (SOC) and capacity of the battery is required. For SOC and capacity determination often the estimation of the battery electromotive force (EMF) is employed. The electromotive force can be measured as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery when a significant time has elapsed since the current interruption. This time may take up to some hours for lithium-ion batteries and is needed to eliminate the influence of the diffusion overvoltages. This paper proposes a new approach to estimate the EMF by considering the OCV relaxation process within only some first minutes after the current interruption. The approach is based on an online fitting of an OCV relaxation model to the measured OCV relaxation curve. This model is based on an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source (represents the EMF) in series with the parallel connection of the resistance and a constant phase element (CPE). Based on this fitting the model parameters are determined and the EMF is estimated. The application of this method is exemplarily demonstrated for the state-of-charge and capacity estimation of the lithium-ion battery in an electrical vehicle. In the presented example the battery capacity is determined with the maximal inaccuracy of 2% using the EMF estimated at two different levels of state-of-charge. The real-time capability of the proposed algorithm is proven by its implementation on a low-cost 16-bit microcontroller (Infineon XC2287). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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