Jules Stein Eye Institute
Jules Stein Eye Institute
Taban M.R.,Jules Stein Eye Institute
Aesthetic surgery journal | Year: 2017
BACKGROUND: Internal eyelid spacer graft is routinely placed during lower eyelid retraction surgery, which may be unnecessary.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of lower eyelid retraction surgery without internal graft in select cases.METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing reconstructive lower eyelid retraction surgery without internal graft, by one surgeon from 2013 to 2015. Surgical technique included transconjunctival lower eyelid retractor lysis, canthoplasty, and temporary tarsorrhaphy, with or without subperiosteal midface-sub oribularis oculi fat (SOOF) lifting and scar lysis. Eyelids with true lower eyelid middle-lamella shortage were excluded. Analysis included 17 surgeries (11 patients). Eight of 11 patients had undergone at least one previous lower eyelid surgery with resultant lower eyelid retraction and sclera show. Preoperative and postoperative photographs at longest follow-up visit were analyzed with standardized measurements. Patient satisfaction was recorded using questionnaire.RESULTS: Etiologies of lower eyelid retraction included prior lower blepharoplasty, thyroid eye disease, and chronic facial palsy. All 11 patients (17 procedures) demonstrated improvement of lower eyelid position. The mean improvement of marginal reflex distance was 2.2 mm (range, 1.6-2.8 mm). There was one case of mild overcorrection. The average follow-up was 7 months (range, 6 months-2 years). Midface lift was performed for 14 of 17 eyelids.CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates improvement of lower lid position after lower eyelid retraction surgery without internal eyelid spacer graft in select patients. Most patients in our study had undergone previous lower eyelid blepharoplasty and required midface-SOOF lifting. The author proposes that "routine" placement of lower eyelid internal spacer/graft may not be necessary during lower eyelid retraction surgery. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Kaylor J.J.,Jules Stein Eye Institute |
Cook J.D.,Jules Stein Eye Institute |
Makshanoff J.,Jules Stein Eye Institute |
Bischoff N.,Jules Stein Eye Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
Absorption of a photon by a rhodopsin or cone-opsin pigment isomerizes its 11-cis-retinaldehyde (11-cis-RAL) chromophore to all-trans-retinaldehyde (all-trans-RAL), which dissociates after a brief period of activation. Light sensitivity is restored to the resulting apo-opsin when it recombines with another 11-cis-RAL. Conversion of all-trans-RAL to 11-cis-RAL is carried out by an enzyme pathway called the visual cycle in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium. A second visual cycle is present in Müller cells of the retina. The retinol isomerase for this noncanonical pathway is dihydroceramide desaturase (DES1), which catalyzes equilibrium isomerization of retinol. Because 11-cis-retinol (11-cis-ROL) constitutes only a small fraction of total retinols in an equilibrium mixture, a subsequent step involving selective removal of 11-cis-ROL is required to drive synthesis of 11-cis-retinoids for production of visual chromophore. Selective esterification of 11-cis-ROL is one possibility. Crude homogenates of chicken retinas rapidly convert all-trans-ROL to 11-cis-retinyl esters (11-cis-REs) with minimal formation of other retinyl-ester isomers. This enzymatic activity implies the existence of an 11-cis-specific retinyl-ester synthase in Müller cells. Here, we evaluated multifunctional O-Acyltransferase (MFAT) as a candidate for this 11-cis-RE-synthase. MFAT exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency as a synthase of 11-cis-REs versus other retinyl-ester isomers. Further, we show that MFAT is expressed in Müller cells. Finally, homogenates of cells coexpressing DES1 and MFAT catalyzed the conversion of all-trans-ROL to 11-cis-RP, similar to what we observed with chicken-retina homogenates. MFAT is therefore an excellent candidate for the retinyl-ester synthase that cooperates with DES1 to drive synthesis of 11-cis-retinoids by mass action.
Mirpour K.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Bisley J.W.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Bisley J.W.,Jules Stein Eye Institute
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012
It has been suggested that one way we may create a stable percept of the visual world across multiple eye movements is to pass information from one set of neurons to another around the time of each eye movement. Previous studies have shown that some neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) exhibit anticipatory remapping: these neurons produce a visual response to a stimulus that will enter their receptive field after a saccade but before it actually does so. LIP responses during fixation are thought to represent attentional priority, behavioral relevance, or value. In this study, we test whether the remapped response represents this attentional priority by examining the activity of LIP neurons while animals perform a visual foraging task. We find that the population responds more to a target than to a distractor before the saccade even begins to bring the stimulus into the receptive field. Within 20 ms of the saccade ending, the responses in almost one-third of LIP neurons closely resemble the responses that will emerge during stable fixation. Finally, we show that, in these neurons and in the population as a whole, this remapping occurs for all stimuli in all locations across the visual field and for both long and short saccades. We conclude that this complete remapping of attentional priority across the visual field could underlie spatial stability across saccades. © 2012 the authors.
Gorin M.B.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Gorin M.B.,Jules Stein Eye Institute
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2012
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common condition among the elderly population that leads to the progressive central vision loss and serious compromise of quality of life for its sufferers. It is also one of the few disorders for whom the investigation of its genetics has yielded rich insights into its diversity and causality and holds the promise of enabling clinicians to provide better risk assessments for individuals as well as to develop and selectively deploy new therapeutics to either prevent or slow the development of disease and lessen the threat of vision loss. The genetics of AMD began initially with the appreciation of familial aggregation and increase risk and expanded with the initial association of APOE variants with the disease. The first major breakthroughs came with family-based linkage studies of affected (and discordant) sibs, which identified a number of genetic loci and led to the targeted search of the 1q31 and 10q26 loci for associated variants. Three of the initial four reports for the CFH variant, Y402H, were based on regional candidate searches, as were the two initial reports of the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus variants. Case-control association studies initially also played a role in discovering the major genetic variants for AMD, and the success of those early studies have been used to fuel enthusiasm for the methodology for a number of diseases. Until 2010, all of the subsequent genetic variants associated with AMD came from candidate gene testing based on the complement factor pathway. In 2010, several large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified genes that had not been previously identified. Much of this historical information is available in a number of recent reviews (Chen et al.; 2010b; Deangelis et al.; 2011; Fafowora and Gorin, 2012b; Francis and Klein, 2011; Kokotas et al.; 2011). Large meta analysis of AMD GWAS has added new loci and variants to this collection (Chen et al.; 2010a; Kopplin et al.; 2010; Yu et al.; 2011). This paper will focus on the ongoing controversies that are confronting AMD genetics at this time, rather than attempting to summarize this field, which has exploded in the past 5 years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mccannel C.A.,Jules Stein Eye Institute |
Mccannel C.A.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Reed D.C.,Jules Stein Eye Institute |
Goldman D.R.,Jules Stein Eye Institute
Ophthalmology | Year: 2013
Purpose: To assess the effect of a Capsulorhexis Intensive Training Curriculum (CITC) on the rates of errant, continuous, curvilinear capsulorhexes (CCCs) during cataract surgery among resident surgeons at a teaching hospital. Design: Retrospective educational interventional case series. Participants and Controls: A total of 1037 consecutive cataract surgeries performed at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center during 4 consecutive academic years were considered. The baseline cohort consists of 434 cataract surgeries performed during the 2 academic years before the intervention. The postintervention cohort consists of 603 cataract surgeries performed during the following 2 consecutive academic years. Intervention: The principal intervention was the introduction of the CITC for residents on the Eyesi (VRmagic, Mannheim, Germany) ophthalmic virtual reality surgical simulator. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measure was the rate of errant CCCs among the capsulorhexes performed during resident surgical cases. Errant CCCs were defined as attempted CCCs that resulted in the attending physician taking over, radialization of the CCC, conversion to can-opener capsulorhexis, or any combination of the 3 aforementioned conditions. Secondary measures included the use of trypan blue during CCC and correlating errant CCC and surgeons' level of training (postgraduate year [PGY]). Results: There were 68 errant CCCs (15.7%) in the baseline cohort and 30 errant CCCs (5.0%; P < 0.0001) in the postintervention cohort, a 3.2-fold or 68% reduction. The use of trypan blue increased from 55.3% in the baseline cohort to 76.0% in the postintervention cohort (P < 0.00001), but within each cohort there was no significant difference in the rate of errant CCCs whether trypan blue was used or not. In the baseline cohort, there was a statistical trend toward fewer errant CCCs among PGY 4 (14.6%) compared with PGY 3 (22.8%) surgeons (P = 0.12). The postintervention cohort showed no significant difference in errant CCC rates between PGY 3 (4.4%) and PGY 4 (5.1%) surgeons (P = 1.00). Conclusions: This study strongly suggests that virtual reality surgical simulation training with the CITC on the Eyesi reduces the rate of errant capsulorhexes. The incorporation of a formal program for surgical training via virtual reality simulation should be strongly considered in ophthalmology resident surgical education to reduce the unnecessary risk of complications for live patients. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2013 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology Published by Elsevier Inc.
Caprioli J.,Jules Stein Eye Institute |
Varma R.,Doheny Eye Institute
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2011
Purpose: To review the role of intervisit intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation as an independent risk factor for glaucoma. Design: Perspective after literature review. Methods: Analysis of pertinent publications in the peer-reviewed literature. Results: Disparate findings regarding the role of intervisit IOP variation have been published. IOP variation was a significant risk factor in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study, and other smaller studies. These studies have in common low IOPs (often after surgery) and moderately advanced disease. In the AGIS, when patients were stratified by mean IOP, only those patients with low IOPs showed the detrimental effects of IOP variation. IOP variation was not a significant risk factor in the Early Manifest Glaucoma Treatment Trial, and in 2 separate studies of ocular hypertensives. These studies have in common generally higher IOPs and an earlier stage of glaucoma (or no glaucoma at all). We believe these results are complementary rather than contradictory: existing data suggest that the effects of IOP variation depend on the characteristics of the patient, the baseline IOP, their stage of damage, the type of glaucoma, and other as-yet unknown factors. Conclusions: Practitioners should consider whether patients who are progressing at low mean IOP may benefit from having IOP variation reduced. Single elevated measures of IOP may not be an anomaly or may not be related to compliance, but may identify patients who are at high risk for progressive glaucomatous damage, and thus should be monitored more carefully and potentially treated more aggressively. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Matynia A.,Jules Stein Eye Institute
Experimental eye research | Year: 2012
Photoallodynia (photophobia) occurs when normal levels of light cause pain ranging from uncomfortable to debilitating. The only current treatment for photoallodynia is light avoidance. The first step to understanding the mechanisms of photoallodynia is to develop reliable animal behavioral tests of light aversion and identify the photoreceptors required to initiate this response. A reliable light/dark box behavioral assay was developed that measures light aversion independently from anxiety, allowing direct testing of one endophenotype of photoallodynia in mice. Mice lacking intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) exhibit reduced aversion to bright light, suggesting these cells are the primary circuit for light aversion. Mice treated with exogenous μ opiate receptor agonists exhibited dramatically enhanced light aversion, which was not dependent on ipRGCs, suggesting an alternative pathway for light is engaged. Morphine enhances retinal electrophysiological responses to light but only at low levels. This suggests that for the dramatic light aversion observed, opiates also sensitize central brain regions of photoallodynia. Taken together, our results suggest that light aversion has at least two dissociable mechanisms by which light causes specific allodynia behaviors: a primary ipRGC-based circuit, and a secondary ipRGC-independent circuit that is unmasked by morphine sensitization. These models will be useful in delineating upstream light sensory pathways and downstream avoidance pathways that apply to photoallodynia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sun H.,Jules Stein Eye Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2012
The eye is the human organ most sensitive to vitamin A deficiency because of vision's absolute and heavy dependence on vitamin A for light perception. Studies of the molecular basis of vision have provided important insights into the intricate mechanistic details of the function, transport and recycling of vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoid). This review focuses on retinoid-related membrane receptors and transporters. Three kinds of mammalian membrane receptors and transporters are discussed: opsins, best known as vitamin A-based light sensors in vision; ABCA4, an ATP-dependent transporter specializes in the transport of vitamin A derivative; and STRA6, a recently identified membrane receptor that mediates cellular uptake of vitamin A. The evolutionary driving forces for their existence and the wide spectrum of human diseases associated with these proteins are discussed. Lessons learned from the study of the visual system might be useful for understanding retinoid biology and retinoid-related diseases in other organ systems as well. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Rootman D.B.,Jules Stein Eye Institute
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2016
INTRODUCTION:: Surgical rehabilitation of thyroid orbitopathy involves reducing proptosis, treating strabismus, lengthening the eyelids, and managing aesthetic changes. Not all are necessary in each patient; however, they often are. The current investigation intends to describe postdecompression changes that may influence the staging of these procedures. METHODS:: In this retrospective cohort study, records of 169 patients who underwent orbital decompression between 1983 and 2001 were reviewed. A single orbital specialist confirmed all measurements. Time to follow up was defined as the most recent follow up after decompression and prior to any secondary procedures. No strabismus or eyelid surgery was performed at the time of decompression. Strabismus was measured with alternating prism cover test. Ductions were estimated utilizing Hirschberg’s method. Exophthalmometry was measured with Hertel. Eyelid positions were defined relative to the pupillary light reflex. Strabismus data were analyzed within eye pairs. Ductions, exophthalmometry and eyelid position were analyzed for each eye. T-test for paired data was utilized to compare means pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS:: The study population was on average 45 years old and 73.4% women. Average length of follow up was 1.2 years. Esotropia was significantly increased after decompression by an average of 8.1 prism diopters (p < 0.01). Exotropia and vertical deviations were not significantly altered. Ductions decreased by >5 degrees in at least one meridian for 68.1% of the population. Upper eyelid retraction remained unchanged; however, lower eyelid retraction improved by 50% from 1.4 mm to 0.7 mm (p < 0.01). Exophthalmometry improved from 23.5 mm to 19.7 mm (p < 0.01), and this result was correlated with the number of walls removed (Pearson r = −0.302, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:: On average, esotropia and ductions tend to worsen with decompression surgery. This result supports the clinical dictum to avoid strabismus surgery until after decompression. The improvement in lower eyelid retraction suggests that at least lower eyelid-lengthening surgery should be reserved for after decompression, as there may be significant spontaneous improvement, while the same may not be true for upper eyelid retraction, which does not tend to change with decompression. © 2016 by The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc., All rights reserved.
Bitrian E.,Jules Stein Eye Institute |
Caprioli J.,Jules Stein Eye Institute
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2010
Purpose: To report a surgical technique for aqueous misdirection refractory to medical treatment consisting of combined pars plana vitrectomy, hyaloido-zonulectomy, and peripheral iridectomy. Design: Noncomparative case series. Methods: The charts of 5 pseudophakic patients who sought treatment for aqueous humor misdirection refractory to medical treatment from May 2008 trough February 2009 were reviewed. All 5 patients underwent anterior vitrectomy, hyaloido-zonulectomy, and peripheral iridectomy with an anterior vitrector through a pars plana incision. Main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, intraocular pressure, medications, slit-lamp examination results, and fundus findings. Results: Five female patients (age range, 23 to 89 years) had increased intraocular pressure and shallowing of the anterior chamber after cataract extraction or trabeculectomy, and none responded to conventional medical therapy. After surgery, prompt resolution of the aqueous misdirection was achieved in all cases. The follow-up was 7.6 months (range, 1 to 13 months). Conclusions: Aqueous misdirection refractory to medical treatment can be treated successfully with surgery consisting of partial pars plana vitrectomy, hyaloido-zonulectomy, and peripheral iridectomy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.