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Shimizu M.,Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. | Miyagawa K.,Shinshu University | Miyagawa K.,Jukunen Taiikudaigaku Research Center | Iwashita S.,Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

We compared relative exercise intensity and active energy expenditure (AEE) on trail walking in the mountains, with those of daily exercise training, and whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and arginine supplementation attenuated the release of markers indicating muscle damage and declines in physical performance. Twenty-one subjects (~63 years) were divided into two groups: amino acid (AA, 51 g of amino acids and 40 g of carbohydrate, male/female = 6/4) or placebo (PL, 91 g of carbohydrate, male/female = 6/5) supplementation during 2 days of trail walking in the mountains. We measured heart rate (HR), AEE, fatigue sensation, water and food intake, and sweat loss during walking. In addition, we measured peak aerobic capacity (VO 2peak) and heart rate (HR peak) with graded-intensity walking, vertical jumping height (VJ) before and after walking. We found that average HR and AEE during uphill walking were ~ 100% HRpeak and ~60% VO 2peak, while they were ~80 and ~ 20% during downhill walking, respectively. Moreover, average total AEE per day was sevenfold that of their daily walking training. VJ after walking remained unchanged compared with the baseline in AA (P > 0.2), while it was reduced by ~ 10% in PL (P < 0.01), although with no significant difference in the reduction between the groups (P > 0.4). The responses of other variables were not significantly different between groups (all, P > 0.2). Thus, trail walking in the mountains required a high-intensity effort for older people, while the effects of BCAA and arginine supplementation were modest in this condition. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source


Masuki S.,Shinshu University | Mori M.,Shinshu University | Tabara Y.,Ehime University | Tabara Y.,Ehime Proteo Medicine Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2015

No long-term exercise training regimen with high adherence and effectiveness in middle-aged and older people is broadly available in the field. We assessed the adherence to, and effects of, our long-term training program comprising an interval walking training (IWT) and an information technology network system and the factors affecting adherence. Middle-aged and older men and women [n = 696, aged 65 ± 7(SD) yr] underwent IWT. The subjects were instructed to repeat five or more sets of fast and slow walking for 3 min each at ≥70 and 40% peak aerobic capacity for walking (VO2peak), respectively, per day ≥4 days/wk for 22 mo. Adherence was assessed as training days accomplished relative to the target of 4 days/wk over 22 mo. The effects on the VO2peak and lifestyle-related disease score were evaluated every 6 mo. The independent factors affecting adherence were assessed by multiple-regression analysis after adjustment for baseline physical characteristics and other possible covariates, including vasopressin V1a receptor polymorphisms. The adherence over 22 mo averaged 70% and was highly correlated with a 13% reduction in the lifestyle-related disease score (R2 = 0.94, P = 0.006) and with a 12% increase in VO2peak (R2 = 0.94, P = 0.006). The major determinant of higher adherence was lower baseline body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.0001) and male sex (P < 0.0001). For men, in addition to BMI, nonsmokers (P = 0.031) and V1a receptor polymorphisms (P < 0.033) were independent determinants of higher adherence. Thus the long-term IWT program is an effective regimen. Moreover, baseline BMI and sex for all subjects, and smoking and V1a receptor polymorphisms for men, were associated with adherence. Copyright © 2015 by the American Physiological Society. Source


Morishima Y.,Shinshu University | Morishima Y.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine | Mizushima T.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine | Yamauchi K.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Due to the reduced physical activity of patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA), there are no home-based exercise training regimens for preventing muscle atrophy and aerobic capacity impairment in these patients. We examined whether interval walking training (IWT) could prevented these issues. Twenty-eight female patients (∼60 years of age) who had undergone THA more than 2 months prior were randomly divided into IWT (n = 14) and control (CNT, n = 14) groups. The IWT subjects trained at a target of 60 min of fast walking at >70% peak aerobic capacity for walking (VO2peak) per wk for 12 wk, while those in the CNT maintained their previous sedentary life during the same period. We measured the energy expenditure of the daily physical activity, except during sleeping and bathing, every minute and every day during the intervention. We also measured the isometric knee extension (FEXT) and flexion (FFLX) forces, VO2peak, and anaerobic threshold during the graded cycling exercise (VO2AT) before and after the intervention. All subjects, except for one in IWT, completed the protocol. FFLX increased by 23% on the operated side (P = 0.003) and 14% on the non-operated side of IWT (P = 0.006), while it only increased on the operated side of CNT (P = 0.03). The VO2peak and VO2AT in IWT increased by 8% (P = 0.08) and 13% (P = 0.002), respectively, and these changes were significantly higher in the IWT than in CNT group (both, P<0.05). In conclusion, IWT might be an effective home-based training regimen for preventing the muscle atrophy from reduced daily physical activity in THA patients. © 2014 Morishima et al. Source


Morikawa M.,Shinshu University | Morikawa M.,Jukunen Taiikudaigaku Research Center | Okazaki K.,Shinshu University | Masuki S.,Shinshu University | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

Hypothesis Whether increasing peak aerobic capacity for walking (VO 2peak) by interval walking training (IWT) is closely linked with decreasing the indices of lifestylerelated diseases (LSDs) in middle-aged and older people were examined. Methods For 4 months from April to September 2005 or 2006, 246 males and 580 females (̃65 years) performed IWT consisting of =5 sets of fast walking at ≥70% VO 2peak for 3 min followed by slow walking at ≤40% VO 2peak for 3 min ≥4 days/week. Before and after IWT, we measured VO 2peak, body mass index (BMI), %body fat, arterial blood pressure, thigh muscle strength and blood parameters. We analysed 198 males and 468 females who had undergone all the measurements both before and after IWT. To examine the hypothesis, we divided the subjects equally into three groups according to their pretraining VO 2peak: Low, middle and high groups for each sex. Results Before training, it was found that thigh muscle strength and blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration were lower, whereas body weight, BMI, %body fat, arterial blood pressure and blood glucose were higher in the low group than the high group (all, p<0.05). After training, although VO 2peak and thigh muscle strength increased and body weight, BMI, %body fat, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration decreased in all groups (all, p<0.05), the changes were greatest in the low group for both sexes. Conclusion VO 2peak at baseline and changes in response to training were closely linked with indices of LSDs. Source

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