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Toppelberg C.O.,Child Language and Developmental Psychiatry Research Laboratory | Toppelberg C.O.,Judge Baker Childrens Center | Toppelberg C.O.,Harvard University | Collins B.A.,York College
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2010

In this article the authors discuss first why it is crucial, from a clinical and public health perspective, to better understand the development as well as risk and protection processes for the mental health of immigrant children. The authors then shift focus to the main tenet of this article, namely, that specific aspects of the dual language development of immigrant children are highly relevant to their mental health and adaptation. This argument is illustrated with empirical studies on Latino immigrant children, as they represent the majority of immigrant children in America and as a way of exemplifying the risks and circumstances that are potentially shared by other immigrant groups. Finally, the authors conceptually differentiate dual language development and its mental health impact from the dual-culture (bicultural) development and circumstance of immigrant children and their mental health impact. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Ferguson C.J.,Texas A&M International University | Olson C.K.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Kutner L.A.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Warner D.E.,Judge Baker Childrens Center
Crime and Delinquency | Year: 2014

The effects of violent video game exposure on youth aggression remain an issue of significant controversy and debate. It is not yet clear whether violent video games uniquely contribute to long-term youth aggression or whether any relationship is better explained through third variables such as aggressive personality or family environment. The current study examines the influence of violent video game exposure on delinquency and bullying behavior in 1,254 seventh- and eighth-grade students. Variables such as parental involvement, trait aggression, stress, participation in extracurricular activities, and family/peer support were also considered. Results indicated that delinquent and bullying behavior were predicted by the child's trait aggression and stress level. Violent video game exposure was not found to be predictive of delinquency or bullying, nor was level of parental involvement. These results question the commonly held belief that violent video games are related to youth delinquency and bullying. © 2010 SAGE Publications.

Zachrisson H.D.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Zachrisson H.D.,The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development | Dearing E.,Boston College | Lekhal R.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | And 2 more authors.
Child Development | Year: 2013

Associations between maternal reports of hours in child care and children's externalizing problems at 18 and 36 months of age were examined in a population-based Norwegian sample (n = 75,271). Within a sociopolitical context of homogenously high-quality child care, there was little evidence that high quantity of care causes externalizing problems. Using conventional approaches to handling selection bias and listwise deletion for substantial attrition in this sample, more hours in care predicted higher problem levels, yet with small effect sizes. The finding, however, was not robust to using multiple imputation for missing values. Moreover, when sibling and individual fixed-effects models for handling selection bias were used, no relation between hours and problems was evident. © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Langer D.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Langer D.A.,Judge Baker Childrens Center | McLeod B.D.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Weisz J.R.,Harvard University
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2011

Objective: Some critics of treatment manuals have argued that their use may undermine the quality of the client-therapist alliance. This notion was tested in the context of youth psychotherapy delivered by therapists in community clinics. Method: Seventy-six clinically referred youths (57 female, age 8-15 years, 34 Caucasian) were randomly assigned to receive nonmanualized usual care or manual-guided treatment to address anxiety or depressive disorders. Treatment was provided in community clinics by clinic therapists randomly assigned to treatment condition. Youth-therapist alliance was measured with the Therapy Process Observational Coding System - Alliance (TPOCS-A) scale at 4 points throughout treatment and with the youth report Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children (TASC) at the end of treatment. Results: Youths who received manual-guided treatment had significantly higher observer-rated alliance than usual care youths early in treatment; the 2 groups converged over time, and mean observer-rated alliance did not differ by condition. Similarly, the manual-guided and usual care groups did not differ on youth report of alliance. Conclusions: Our findings did not support the contention that using manuals to guide treatment harms the youth-therapist alliance. In fact, use of manuals was related to a stronger alliance in the early phase of treatment. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Park K.H.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Park K.H.,Hallym University | Zaichenko L.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Peter P.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2014

Objective Adherence to a healthy diet has been shown to decrease the incidence of obesity and associated comorbidities. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established inflammatory marker and irisin was recently identified as a molecule which may play a role in energy regulation and obesity but whether diet alters irisin levels remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin, leptin, and CRP levels and dietary quantity and quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED). Materials/Methods The study evaluated dietary data and biomarker levels of 151 participants between 2009 and 2011 (71 male vs. 80 female, over 35 years old, obese 43.7%). AHEI and aMED scores were calculated based on data derived from self-administered 110-item food-frequency questionnaires estimating usual nutrient intake over the past year. Cross-sectional associations between dietary quantity, quality, body composition by bioelectric impedance, and biomarker levels including irisin, leptin, and CRP after fasting were assessed. Results CRP, but not irisin, was negatively correlated with AHEI (r = - 0.34) and aMED (r = - 0.31). Irisin was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.22), fat mass (r = 0.21), waist circumference (r = 0.24), waist-hip ratio (r = 0.20), leptin (r = 0.32), and CRP (r = 0.25). Participants with the highest AHEI scores tended to have 11.6% lower concentrations of irisin (P for trend = 0.09), but they were not significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Better diet quality was associated with lower CRP concentrations (P for trend = 0.02) in multivariate model. Percentage of energy from carbohydrate was inversely associated with CRP. Conclusions Unlike CRP, irisin is not associated with dietary quality or quantity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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