JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering

Uppsala, Sweden

JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering

Uppsala, Sweden
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PubMed | JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lund University and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2014

Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87kgm(-3), which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6mgL(-1)) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage.

Tortella G.R.,University of the Frontier | Rubilar O.,University of the Frontier | Castillo M.D.P.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Cea M.,University of the Frontier | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

The biomixture is a principal element controlling the degradation efficacy of the biobed. The maturity of the biomixture used in the biobed affects its overall performance of the biobed, but this is not well studied yet. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of using a typical composition of Swedish biomixture at different maturity stages on the degradation of chlorpyrifos. Tests were made using biomixture at three maturity stages: 0d (BC0), 15d (BC15) and 30d (BC30); chlorpyrifos was added to the biobeds at final concentration of 200, 320 and 480mgkg -1. Chlorpyrifos degradation in the biomixture was monitored over time. Formation of TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol) was also quantified, and hydrolytic and phenoloxidase activities measured. The biomixture efficiently degraded chlorpyrifos (degradation efficiency >50%) in all the evaluated maturity stages. However, chlorpyrifos degradation decreased with increasing concentrations of the pesticide. TCP formation occurred in all biomixtures, but a major accumulation was observed in BC30. Significant differences were found in both phenoloxidase and hydrolytic activities in the three maturity stages of biomixture evaluated. Also, these two biological activities were affected by the increase in pesticide concentration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that chlorpyrifos can be degraded efficiently in all the evaluated maturity stages. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Acevedo F.,University of the Frontier | Pizzul L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Castillo M.D.P.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Cuevas R.,University of the Frontier | Diez M.C.,University of the Frontier
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

The degradation of three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kirk medium by Anthracophyllum discolor, a white-rot fungus isolated from the forest of southern Chile, was evaluated. In addition, the removal efficiency of three-, four- and five-ring PAHs in contaminated soil bioaugmented with A. discolor in the absence and presence of indigenous soil microorganisms was investigated. Production of lignin-degrading enzymes and PAH mineralization in the soil were also determined. A. discolor was able to degrade PAHs in Kirk medium with the highest removal occurring in a PAH mixture, suggesting synergistic effects between PAHs or possible cometabolism. A high removal capability for phenanthrene (62%), anthracene (73%), fluoranthene (54%), pyrene (60%) and benzo(a)pyrene (75%) was observed in autoclaved soil inoculated with A. discolor in the absence of indigenous microorganisms, associated with the production of manganese peroxidase (MnP). The metabolites found in the PAH degradation were anthraquinone, phthalic acid, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone and 4,5-dihydropyrene. A. discolor was able to mineralize 9% of the phenanthrene. In non-autoclaved soil, the inoculation with A. discolor did not improve the removal efficiency of PAHs. Suitable conditions must be found to promote a successful fungal bioaugmentation in non-autoclaved soils. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Acevedo F.,University of the Frontier | Pizzul L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Castillo M.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Gonzalez M.E.,University of the Frontier | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by Anthracophyllum discolor, a Chilean white rot fungus, was immobilized on nanoclay obtained from volcanic soil and its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared with the free enzyme was evaluated. At the same time, nanoclay characterization was performed.Nanoclay characterization by transmission electronic microscopy showed a particle average size smaller than 100nm. The isoelectric points (IEP) of nanoclay and MnP from A. discolor were 7.0 and 3.7, respectively, as determined by micro electrophoresis migration and preparative isoelectric focusing. Results indicated that 75% of the enzyme was immobilized on the nanoclay through physical adsorption. As compared to the free enzyme, immobilized MnP from A. discolor achieved an improved stability to temperature and pH. The activation energy (Ea) value for immobilized MnP (51.9kJmol-1) was higher than that of the free MnP (34.4kJmol-1).The immobilized enzyme was able to degrade pyrene (>86%), anthracene (>65%), alone or in mixture, and to a less extent fluoranthene (<15.2%) and phenanthrene (<8.6%). Compared to free MnP from A. discolor, the enzyme immobilized on nanoclay enhanced the enzymatic transformation of anthracene in soil.Overall results indicate that nanoclay, a carrier of natural origin, is a suitable support material for MnP immobilization. In addition, immobilized MnP shows an increased stability to high temperature, pH and time storage, as well as an enhanced PAHs degradation efficiency in soil. All these characteristics may suggest the possible use of nanoclay-immobilized MnP from A. discolor as a valuable option for in situ bioremediation purposes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Risberg K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sun L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Leven L.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Horn S.J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Schnurer A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Non-treated or steam-exploded straw in co-digestion with cattle manure was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production compared with manure as the sole substrate. All digestions were performed in laboratory-scale CSTR reactors (5L) operating with an organic loading late of approximately 2.8g VS/L/day, independent of substrate mixture. The hydraulic retention was 25days and an operating temperature of 37, 44 or 52°C. The co-digestion with steam exploded straw and manure was evaluated with two different mixtures, with different proportion. The results showed stable performance but low methane yields (0.13-0.21NLCH4/kg VS) for both manure alone and in co-digestion with the straw. Straw appeared to give similar yield as manure and steam-explosion treatment of the straw did not increase gas yields. Furthermore, there were only slight differences at the different operating temperatures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Olsson J.,Mälardalen University | Feng X.M.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Ascue J.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Gentili F.G.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Rodhe L.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Halling M.A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2015

Slurry injection into grassland has advantages as it decreases ammonia losses, but may harm grassland plants. In two field experiments, four different types of knife/tine equipment were tested on three different grassland species (monocultures of red clover, perennial ryegrass and red fescue), with or without added mineral nitrogen (N), but without slurry application. During 2 years, in two separate experiments, the injection treatments were applied in spring or in summer to different plots. Crop damage was assessed by a range of methods. It was concluded that both the timing and the design of the knife/injector equipment had a significant influence on yield when used in grassland, with the greatest decrease in yield after spring use. Mean total yield over 2 years (no treatment = 100) for timing and species, with N added, was 94 (vertical knife), 92 (vertical and horizontal knife), 96 (double disc tine) and 94 (tubulator tine). With no N added, the relative yield decrease caused by equipment was less. Red fescue seemed to be a little more sensitive than the other species at spring treatment in one of the 2 years. Leaf area index could be useful for measuring crop damage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Rodhe L.K.K.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Abubaker J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ascue J.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Pell M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2012

Different mitigation techniques for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from pig slurry in storage and after field application were evaluated and specific emissions factors derived. Fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured for one year in a pilot-scale storage plant comparing uncovered pig slurry (NC) with slurry covered by straw (SC) or plastic sheet cover (PC). In spring and autumn, stored slurry was band spread (BS) in the field without or with immediate incorporation by harrowing (BS + HA). Closed chamber techniques were used for gas sampling. Complementary soil core experiments in the laboratory examined the influence of soil moisture and temperature on emissions from slurry application. Annual CH4 emissions (g CH4-C kg-1 VS) from storage were 5.3 for NC, 5.8 for SC and 2.8 for PC, corresponding to CH4 conversion factors (MCFs) of 2.6, 2.8 and 1.4%, respectively. N2O emissions from storage were low except from SC, where they comprised 31.7 g N2O-N m-2 year-1, corresponding to an N2O emissions factor (EFN2O) of 0.66% of total N (Tot-N) in slurry. N2O emissions after field application varied depending on soil conditions, with soil moisture content having a significant influence according to soil core experiments. Overall, cumulative N2O-N emissions in spring were 1.35% of Tot-N in slurry for BS and 0.46% for BS + HA. Corresponding N2O-N emissions in autumn were 0.77 and 0.97%. The MCFs observed in storage were considerably lower than the default IPCC value of 10%, while EFN2O was in the suggested IPCC range for storage and field. © 2012 IAgrE.

Geng Q.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Stuthridge R.W.,Purdue University | Field W.E.,Purdue University
Journal of Agromedicine | Year: 2013

In consequence of working in cold environments, agricultural workers may be exposed to higher risk of cold-related injuries, compared with the general population. These injuries can include tissue damage due to the exposure to subfreezing temperatures, more generalized symptoms caused by hypothermia, and secondary injuries caused by impaired performance. Risk of cold injury is increased for older workers and for those with disabling health conditions, both of which occur in above-average numbers in agriculture. Based on a selective review of the literature and case studies assembled by Purdue's Breaking New Ground Resource Center, an overview is presented of the mechanisms and symptoms of cold injuries, together with practical suggestions to help reduce risks of cold injuries for workers in agricultural settings. Special attention is given to potential risks to individuals with physical disabilities. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Larsson M.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Gilbertsson M.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering
Precision Agriculture 2011 - Papers Presented at the 8th European Conference on Precision Agriculture 2011, ECPA 2011 | Year: 2011

The current political drive to decrease the use of pesticides and limit the number of substances approved for use makes mechanical weed control an interesting option. New technology allows row hoeing to be carried out at high speeds with high precision. A field study was carried out in south-west Sweden to compare two different automatic guidance systems for row hoeing, RTK-GNSS guidance and camera guidance by image analysis. No significant difference was found between the two systems in terms of side-shift accuracy, uprooted weeds and damage to crop plants.

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