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Yoshida A.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Emoto J.,Nanzan University
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2010

The morphology, number, and arrangement of sensory scales along wing margins of the imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), were examined by scanning electron and light microscopy, after applying a microscopic operation to the margins. The sensory scales were much more slender than the noninnervated scales, which completely covered the former. The total number of sensory scales was ≈190 and ≈60 in the forewing and hindwing, respectively, and the patterns of sensory scale arrangement differed between the forewing and hindwing and varied from region to region in each wing margin. Sensory scales were densely distributed along the proximal half of the anterior forewing margin and along a fairly small region of the anterior hindwing margin, immediate to the wing base; they were sparsely distributed or absent along other regions of the wing margin. Sensory scale morphology and arrangement were compared with those of the sensory bristle, another kind of hair-like sensilla, and are discussed in terms of wing movement regulation. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.


Nishikawa H.,University of Tokyo | Iijima T.,University of Tokyo | Kajitani R.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Yamaguchi J.,University of Tokyo | And 16 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2015

In Batesian mimicry, animals avoid predation by resembling distasteful models. In the swallowtail butterfly Papilio polytes, only mimetic-form females resemble the unpalatable butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae. A recent report showed that a single gene, doublesex (dsx), controls this mimicry; however, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we determined two whole-genome sequences of P. polytes and a related species, Papilio xuthus, identifying a single ∼130-kb autosomal inversion, including dsx, between mimetic (H-type) and non-mimetic (h-type) chromosomes in P. polytes. This inversion is associated with the mimicry-related locus H, as identified by linkage mapping. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that female-specific dsx isoforms expressed from the inverted H allele (dsx(H)) induce mimetic coloration patterns and simultaneously repress non-mimetic patterns. In contrast, dsx(h) does not alter mimetic patterns. We propose that dsx(H) switches the coloration of predetermined wing patterns and that female-limited polymorphism is tightly maintained by chromosomal inversion. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Oda H.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Oda H.,Osaka University | Takeichi M.,RIKEN
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Adhesion between cells is essential to the evolution of multicellularity. Indeed, morphogenesis in animals requires firm but flexible intercellular adhesions that are mediated by subcellular structures like the adherens junction (AJ). A key component of AJs is classical cadherins, a group of transmembrane proteins that maintain dynamic cell-cell associations in many animal species. An evolutionary reconstruction of cadherin structure and function provides a comprehensive framework with which to appreciate the diversity of morphogenetic mechanisms in animals © 2011 Oda and Takeichi.


Ishiwata K.,Osaka University | Ishiwata K.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Sasaki G.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Sasaki G.,Kyoto University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Many attempts to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of higher groups of insects have been made based on both morphological and molecular evidence; nonetheless, most of the interordinal relationships of insects remain unclear or are controversial. As a new approach, in this study we sequenced three nuclear genes encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta and the two largest subunits of RNA polymerase II from all insect orders. The predicted amino acid sequences (In total, approx. 3500 amino acid sites) of these proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analyses based on the maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis methods with various models. The resulting trees strongly support the monophyly of Palaeoptera, Neoptera, Polyneoptera, and Holometabola, while within Polyneoptera, the groupings of Isoptera/" Blattaria" /Mantodea (Superorder Dictyoptera), Dictyoptera/Zoraptera, Dermaptera/Plecoptera, Mantophasmatodea/Grylloblattodea, and Embioptera/Phasmatodea are supported. Although Paraneoptera is not supported as a monophyletic group, the grouping of Phthiraptera/Psocoptera is robustly supported. The interordinal relationships within Holometabola are well resolved and strongly supported that the order Hymenoptera is the sister lineage to all other holometabolous insects. The other orders of Holometabola are separated into two large groups, and the interordinal relationships of each group are (((Siphonaptera, Mecoptera), Diptera), (Trichoptera, Lepidoptera)) and ((Coleoptera, Strepsiptera), (Neuroptera, Raphidioptera, Megaloptera)). The sister relationship between Strepsiptera and Diptera are significantly rejected by all the statistical tests (AU, KH and wSH), while the affinity between Hymenoptera and Mecopterida are significantly rejected only by AU and KH tests. Our results show that the use of amino acid sequences of these three nuclear genes is an effective approach for resolving the relationships of higher groups of insects. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Ai H.,Fukuoka University | Yoshida A.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Yokohari F.,Fukuoka University
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2010

Bristles along the wing margins (wm-bristles) of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, were studied morphologically and electrophysiologically. The male moth has ca. 50 wm-bristles on each forewing and hindwing. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these wm-bristles are typical mechanosensilla. Leuco-methylene blue staining demonstrated that each wm-bristle has a single receptor neuron, which is also characteristic of the mechanosensillum. The receptor neuron responded to vibrating air currents but did not respond to a constant air current. The wm-bristles showed clear directional sensitivity to vibrating air currents. The wm-bristles were classified into two types, type I and type II, by their response patterns to sinusoidal movements of the bristle. The neuron in type I discharged bursting spikes immediately following stimulation onset and also discharged a single spike for each sinusoidal cycle for frequencies less than ca. 60 Hz. The neuron in type II only responded to vibrations over 40 Hz and, specifically at 75 Hz, discharged a single spike for each sinusoidal cycle throughout the stimulation period. These results suggest that the two types of wm-bristles are highly tuned in different ways to detect vibrations due to the wing beat. The roles of the wm-bristles in the wing beat are discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nishihara A.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Hashimoto C.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Hashimoto C.,Osaka University
Development Growth and Differentiation | Year: 2014

The tail organizer has been assessed by such transplantation methods as the Einsteck procedure. However, we found that simple wounding of blastocoel roof (BCR) made it possible to form secondary tails without any transplantation in Xenopus laevis. We revealed that the ectopic expression of Xbra was blocked by inhibiting the contact between BCR and blastocoel floor (BCF), and wounding per se seemed to be not directly related to the secondary tail formation. Therefore, the secondary tail might be induced by the contact between BCR and BCF due to the leak of blastocoel fluid from the wound. This secondary tail was similar to the original tail in the expression pattern of tail genes, and in the fact that the inhibition of fibroblast growth factor signaling prevented the secondary tail induction. Our results imply that the secondary tail formation reflects the developmental processes of the original tail, indicating that simple wounding of BCR is useful for the analysis of tail formation in normal development. © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.


Miyazawa H.,Osaka University | Miyazawa H.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Ueda C.,Osaka University | Ueda C.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

Myriapoda, a subphylum of Arthropoda, comprises four classes, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Pauropoda, and Symphyla. While recent molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, the internal phylogeny, which is pivotal for understanding the evolutionary history of myriapods, remains unresolved. Here we report the results of phylogenetic analyses and estimations of divergence time and ancestral state of myriapods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on three nuclear protein-coding genes determined from 19 myriapods representing the four classes (17 orders) and 11 outgroup species. The results revealed that Symphyla whose phylogenetic position has long been debated is the sister lineage to all other myriapods, and that the interordinal relationships within classes were consistent with traditional classifications. Ancestral state estimation based on the tree topology suggests that myriapods evolved from an ancestral state that was characterized by a hemianamorphic mode of post-embryonic development and had a relatively low number of body segments and legs.


Hiroki O.,JT Biohistory Research Hall
Sub-cellular biochemistry | Year: 2012

Adherens junctions are the most common junction type found in animal epithelia. Their core components are classical cadherins and catenins, which form membrane-spanning complexes that mediate intercellular binding on the extracellular side and associate with the actin cytoskeleton on the intracellular side. Junctional cadherin-catenin complexes are key elements involved in driving animal morphogenesis. Despite their ubiquity and importance, comparative studies of classical cadherins, catenins and their related molecules suggest that the cadherin/catenin-based adherens junctions have undergone structural and compositional transitions during the diversification of animal lineages. This chapter describes the molecular diversities related to the cadherin-catenin complex, based on accumulated molecular and genomic information. Understanding when and how the junctional cadherin-catenin complex originated, and its subsequent diversification in animals, promotes a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of animal morphological diversification.


Oda H.,JT Biohistory Research Hall
Sub-Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Adherens junctions are the most common junction type found in animal epithelia. Their core components are classical cadherins and catenins, which form membrane-spanning complexes that mediate intercellular binding on the extracellular side and associate with the actin cytoskeleton on the intracellular side. Junctional cadherin–catenin complexes are key elements involved in driving animal morphogenesis. Despite their ubiquity and importance, comparative studies of classical cadherins, catenins and their related molecules suggest that the cadherin/catenin-based adherens junctions have undergone structural and compositional transitions during the diversification of animal lineages. This chapter describes the molecular diversities related to the cadherin–catenin complex, based on accumulated molecular and genomic information. Understanding when and how the junctional cadherin–catenin complex originated, and its subsequent diversification in animals, promotes a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of animal morphological diversification. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012.


Akiyama-Oda Y.,JT Biohistory Research Hall | Oda H.,JT Biohistory Research Hall
Development | Year: 2010

The early embryo of the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum is emerging as a model for the simultaneous study of cell migration and pattern formation. A cell cluster internalized at the center of the radially symmetric germ disc expresses the evolutionarily conserved dorsal signal Decapentaplegic. This cell cluster migrates away from the germ disc center along the basal side of the epithelium to the germ disc rim. This cell migration is thought to be the symmetry-breaking event that establishes the orientation of the dorsoventral axis. In this study, knockdown of a patched homolog, At-ptc, that encodes a putative negative regulator of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, prevented initiation of the symmetry-breaking cell migration. Knockdown of a smoothened homolog, At-smo, showed that Hh signaling inactivation also arrested the cells at the germ disc center, whereas moderate inactivation resulted in sporadic failure of cell migration termination at the germ disc rim. hh transcript expression patterns indicated that the rim and outside of the germ disc were the source of the Hh ligand. Analyses of patterning events suggested that in the germ disc, short-range Hh signal promotes anterior specification and long-range Hh signal represses caudal specification. Moreover, negative regulation of Hh signaling by At-ptc appears to be required for progressive derepression of caudal specification from the germ disc center. Cell migration defects caused by At-ptc and At-smo knockdown correlated with patterning defects in the germ disc epithelium. We propose that the cell migration crucial for dorsoventral axis orientation in Achaearanea is coordinated with anteroposterior patterning mediated by Hh signaling.

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