Mysore, India
Mysore, India

Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara University, also known by the abbreviation JSS University, is a deemed university located in the city of Mysore, in the Indian state of Karnataka. It was established in 2008 under Section 3 of the UGC Act 1956 and is part of JSS Mahavidyapeetha, which runs a variety of educational institutions. JSS University is focussed on medical and health-related studies, and comprises JSS medical college, JSS dental college and JSS pharmacy college at the main campus in Mysore as well as a second pharmacy college in Ootacamund, in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. Wikipedia.

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Khan M.S.,JSS University | Vishakante G.D.,JSS University
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2013

In the medical field, majority of the active ingredients exists in the form of solid particle (90% of all medicines). Nanotechnology had grabbed the attention of many scientists working in different aspects and gave them a vivid imagination in order to utilize the nanotechnology in an innovative way according to their needs. One of the major applications of nanotechnology is drug delivery through nanoparticles which is on boom for the researchers and gives a challenging environment for the researchers. Among them upcoming challenge is the use of inorganic nanoparticles for the drug delivery and related aspects. There is growing interests in usage of inorganic nanoparticles in medicine due to their size, and unique physical properties that make them different from other nanoparticulate systems. This review will lay special emphasis on the uniqueness of inorganic nanoparticles especially gold nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle and moreover will present a wide spread scenario of gold nanoparticles that has been used for treatment of life threatening diseases like cancer. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

News Article | December 7, 2016

LUGANO-SINGAPORE, 7th December, 2016 - Pain relief and other forms of supportive care for cancer patients are insufficient, researchers report at the ESMO ASIA 2016 Congress in Singapore. They also highlight that side-effects to chemotherapy must be treated efficiently and that doctors should ensure end-of-life treatment meets patients' expectations. Despite existing recommendations on the need for early supportive care interventions for cancer patients (1,2,3) researchers are still reporting inadequate efforts to address pain, anxiety and other side effects of cancer treatment. A study from India presented at ESMO Asia 2016 shows that, for patients on government-funded health schemes, medical care for the toxic effects of chemotherapy is often highly restricted and this delays cancer treatment cycles. Drugs are often not fully funded so patients have to pay for them out of their own pocket. If they cannot afford to do this, then their supportive care is inadequate and they will suffer side effects from cancer drugs. This means they are unlikely to adhere to treatment for subsequent chemotherapy cycles. "The majority of patients treated under government schemes had poor quality of supportive care while on chemotherapy," said lead author Assistant Professor Himanshu Patel, a clinical pharmacist, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore, India. "We found its use was highly restricted, leading to side effects such as vomiting and infections, meaning the rescheduling of chemotherapy cycles for many patients.There's an urgent need for better treatment policies from government," he said. Supportive care such as pain relief, antibiotics and drugs to prevent nausea is recommended for advanced cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy by ESMO (1,2) and the World Health Organisation (3), among others. The study by Dr Patel (4) included interviews about supportive care with 850 patients over six months. Researchers reviewed what support was used including pain-relief, antibiotics and protein supplements. Results showed that access to drugs proven to be more effective in treating nausea and vomiting was highly restricted for patients on government-funded schemes in India. The same was true for medications to reduce infection risk and boost white blood cell production in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as protein supplements. To relieve cancer-related pain, four in five participants were prescribed tramadol, with access to morphine and other more effective painkillers limited. Privately-insured patients did not face the same limited access as those on government-funded schemes, which often did not cover out-of-pocket costs. Patel said: "Public cancer care schemes should follow guidelines and include adjuvant treatments in their budgets, according to international recommendations." Cure or symptom relief: what do cancer patients expect from treatment? Patients' expectations from palliative chemotherapy as well as their concerns as treatment progresses are explored in another study (5) reported at the ESMO Asia 2016 Congress. Results found that expectations among patients changed as care progressed. Nearly a third (n=11) on first line treatment expected a cure whereas later line patients said they anticipated an ordinary life with controlled symptoms. All patients put drug toxicity as their top concern, although anxiety around disease progression increased as patients advanced through treatment. Lead author Nobumichi Takeuchi, director of medical oncology, Ina Central Hospital, Ina, Japan, said: "Oncologists should assist end-of-life patients to focus on positive experiences such as a family event so they don't lose hope. The patient should drive this process with medical staff guiding and encouraging them with a questionnaire to identify their expectations." Cancer pain and how to prioritise its treatment is the focus of a study (6) which evaluated the difference in quality of life (QoL) and demand for pain relief. Researchers compared the experiences of patients with background cancer pain (BCP) - persistent pain lasting at least 12 hours - and breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) where patients experience brief but severe flare-ups of discomfort. Results found that patients with uncontrolled BCP had a lower QoL than those with BTcP. Those with moderate or severe BCP experienced sleep disorders and dissatisfaction with pain control compared with BTcP patients (p Lead author Assistant Professor Sun Kyung Baek, a medical oncologist, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea, said: "Pain is one of the most feared symptoms in cancer patients and impacts significantly on their well-being. Physicians should be aware of and control background pain first, even though acute pain also has a negative impact on quality of life ." A total of 1,841 patients were recruited including those experiencing high (n=496) to moderate (n=736) pain, and BTcP (n=609). They completed a questionnaire on their experiences including pain severity, treatment, and satisfaction with how their cancer pain was dealt with. Commenting on the results of these studies, Dr Grace Yang, a consultant at the National Cancer Centre, Singapore, said: "The findings from these studies highlight the need to improve both the effectiveness of, as well as access to, supportive care measures that can relieve cancer-related symptoms and treatment-related side effects. "This will improve patient quality of life, enable cancer therapy to be administered, and is aligned with the expectations of patients themselves."

Basavaraj K.H.,JSS University | Vasu Devaraju P.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Rao K.S.,INDICASAT AIP
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2013

Background Oxidative stress was implicated in the psoriasis disease development and may damage DNA leading to keratinocytes cell death. No serum biomarker was available for the oxidative DNA damage. Objectives To evaluate the 8-OHdG (8-Hydroxy guanosine) as reliable biomarker for the oxidative stress in psoriatic patients with severity. Methods A total of 30 patients were considered for the study and graded according to the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and 10 healthy controls. Blood was collected under aseptic condition, and serum was separated. Serum 8-OHdG and total antioxidant capacity was measured by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using '8-OHdG Check' and PAO kit (JaICA, Fukuroi City, Japan). Results The average serum 8-OHdG level in the control, mild, moderate and severe groups were 1.18 ± 0.93 ng/mL, 3.46 ± 0.82 ng/mL, 3.68 ± 0.67 ng/mL and 4.86 ± 1.7 ng/mL respectively. There was no significant difference in the average level of total antioxidant capacity of control, mild, moderate and severe groups, and the values presented were 295.88 ± 206 μmol/L, 1392.20 ± 225 μmol/L, 1199.57 ± 257 μmol/L and 1184.24 ± 207 μmol/L respectively. Conclusion Serum 8-OHdG levels could be used as good biomarker for the early diagnosis of psoriasis and its management. © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

Basavaraj K.H.,JSS University | Navya M.A.,JSS University | Rashmi R.,JSS University
International Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing, cutaneous condition with 1-2% prevalence in the general population. There are many factors involved in the induction and/or exacerbation of psoriasis of which stress is a well-known trigger factor in the appearance or exacerbation of psoriasis. Stress reaction in patients with psoriasis is probably mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal relationship with immunologic effects. Stress response involves increased levels of neuroendocrine hormones and autonomic neurotransmitters. Psychological stress or an abnormal response to stressors has been found to modify the evolution of skin disorders such as psoriasis. It can also have substantial psychological, and psychosocial impact on a patient's quality of life. Treatment regimens include stress-reduction strategies, such as biofeedback, meditation, yoga, and self-help approaches. This review focuses the relationship between psoriasis and stress, especially relating to psychosocial, psychological, and emotional stress aspects. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

Shivananda M.J.,JSS University
Current Opinion in Psychiatry | Year: 2016

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is associated with many medical disorders. Lack of recognition of sexual dysfunction commonly occurs in medical practice. The impact of unrecognized sexual dysfunction affects quality of life, which in turn affects the recovery from medical illness. This article reviews the recent literature regarding sexual dysfunction in medical practice published in PubMed, Clinical key, Scopus, Google scholar from November 2014 to May 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: New findings suggest that sexual dysfunction is associated with most of the disorders affecting various systems. Sexual dysfunction associated with medical disorders, apart from having effects on patients, also has impact on spouses. Sexual dysfunction may also be a predictor of future major adverse event. Prevelance of sexual dysfunction in various major illness is in the range of 20–75%. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors which are first line drugs to treat erectile dysfunction cause no increase in myocardial infarction or death. SUMMARY: Sexual functioning is impaired in neurological, endocrinal, cardiovascular, pelvic, dermatological, and other disorders. Stroke, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders cause significant impairment in sexual functioning. Though exact correlation between androgen and sexual functioning cannot be made, androgen plays important role various phases of sexual cycle in both men and women. Diabetes has impact on all the phases of sexual cycle. Hypertension, as well as certain drugs used to treat hypertension also causes sexual dysfunction, judicious use of hypotensive drugs is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Basavaraj K.H.,JSS University
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Nanotechnology and nanomedicine are complementary disciplines aimed at the betterment of human life. Nanotechnology is an emerging branch of science for designing tools and devices of size 1-100 nm, with unique functions at the cellular, atomic and molecular levels. The concept of using nanotechnology in medical research and clinical practice is known as nanomedicine. Today, nanotechnology and nanoscience approaches to particle design and formulations are beginning to expand the market for many drugs and forming the basis for a highly profitable niche within the industry, but some predicted benefits are hyped. Under many conditions, dermal penetration of nanoparticles may be limited for consumer products such as sunscreens, although additional studies are needed on potential photooxidation products, experimental methods and the effect of skin condition on penetration. Today, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (20-30 nm) are widely used in several topical skin care products such as sunscreens. Thus, in the present scenario, nanotechnology is spreading its wings to address the key problems in the field of medicine. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but very little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. Hence, this review discusses in detail the applications of nanotechnology in medicine with more emphasis on the dermatologic aspects.

Hani U.,JSS University | Shivakumar H.G.,JSS University
Current Drug Delivery | Year: 2014

Curcumin diferuloylmethane is a main yellow bioactive component of turmeric, possess wide spectrum of biological actions. It was found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, anticoagulant, antifertility, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antifibrotic, antivenom, antiulcer, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic activities. However, the benefits are curtailed by its extremely poor aqueous solubility, which subsequently limits the bioavailability and therapeutic effects of curcumin. Nanotechnology is the available approach in solving these issues. Therapeutic efficacy of curcumin can be utilized effectively by doing improvement in formulation properties or delivery systems. Numerous attempts have been made to design a delivery system of curcumin. Currently, nanosuspensions, micelles, nanoparticles, nano-emulsions, etc. are used to improve the in vitro dissolution velocity and in vivo efficiency of curcumin. This review focuses on the methods to increase solubility of curcumin and various nanotechnologies based delivery systems and other delivery systems of curcumin. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers

Khan M.S.,JSS University | Vishakante G.D.,JSS University
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections result in large mortality rate and usually a frequent cause of diarrhea in infants and a major cause of economic losses in the swine industry. To prevent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections animal needs an active mucosal immunity at the moment of weaning. In the present study, F4 loaded porous chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by spray drying method for oral vaccination. In order to prevent the release the antigen in upper GI tract and to release it at target site nanoparticles were coated with Eudragit L100 which protect the antigen against the detrimental effects in the gastro-intestinal tract. Average size of prepared nanoparticles varied between 548±2.3 to 98±1.1 nm with a polydispersity index ranging from 0.767±0.023 to 0.209±0.021. Zeta potential for prepared nanoparticles was found to be in range from +18.3±2.5 to +29.5±2.8 mV. SEM studies completely revealed that the drug loaded nanoparticles were found to be distinct, spherical in shape with pores formed. Practicability of NPs was compared to vaccination with F4 fimbriae in solution. Mucosal immune response study revealed that, immune response were elicited in solution was well as in NPs group but colonization of the small intestine by F4+ ETEC upon oral solution challenge could not be prevented. However animals vaccinated with porous NPs group reveal a significant reduction in excretion of F4+ E. Coli. Studies indicate that a solid vaccine formulation will be more efficient as compared to oral solutions. These systems can contribute to the development of oral vaccines in veterinary as well as in human medicines. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Vishal Gupta N.,JSS University | Shivakumar H.G.,JSS University
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study is to develop and investigate the swelling behavior of pH-sensitive Superporous Hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC). A novel superporous hydrogel containing poly (methacrylic acid-co-acrylamide) was synthesized from methacrylic acid and acrylamide through the aqueous solution polymerization, using N,N-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker and ammonium persulfate as an initiator. SPHCs were made in the same way, except for the using of Ac-Di-Sol as a stabilizer. The synthesized SPH and SPHC were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, swelling kinetics, porosity, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy. The swelling of SPH and SPHC was sensitive towards the pH, ionic strength, and temperature stimuli. The study of the surface morphology of SPH using scanning electron microscopy showed a highly porous structure. SPH polymers showed higher swelling ratio but less mechanical stability compared to SPHC polymers, which showed lower swelling ratio but a higher mechanical stability. With a change in pH from acidic to basic, a considerable increase in swelling was observed. Since the prepared SPH and SPHC swell only in the basic pH, it may be concluded that SPH and SPHC can be used as the pH-sensitive drug delivery system. © 2012 by School of Pharmacy.

Getyala A.,JSS University
Current drug delivery | Year: 2013

The aim of the work is to modify the solubility and bioavailability of Losartan potassium, by employing noneffervescent floating drug delivery (tablet dosage forms). Non-effervescent systems are a type of floating drug delivery systems, that have been used to boost the gastric residence and the floatation time in the gastro intestinal tract. The study included formulation of floating tablets using polymers like Chitosan and Karaya gum as matrix forming agents. Accurel(®) MP 1000 was used as floating agent. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. FTIR, DSC studies conformed that there was no incompatibility between the polymer and the drug. Tablet preformulation parameters were within the Pharmacopoeial limit. Tablet showed zero lag time, contisnuance of buoyancy for >12 h. The tablet showed good in vitro release. Drug release was through swelling and abided by the gellation mechanism. In vivo X-ray studies depicted that tablets continued to float in the GIT for 12 h. Accelerated stability showed that, tablets were stable for over 6 month. Thus the prepared non-effervescent floating tablet of Losartan potassium can be used for the treatment of hypertension for more than 12 h with single dose administration.

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