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Sidram M.H.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus | Bhajantri N.U.,Government Engineering College Chamarajanagar
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2014

Tracking of an object in a scene, especially through visual appearance is weighing much relevance in the context of recent research trend. In this work, we are extending the one of the approaches through which visual features are erected to reveal the motion of the object in a captured video. One such strategy is a mean shift due to its unfussiness and sturdiness with respect to tracking functionality. Here we made an attempt to judiciously exploit the tracking potentiality of mean shift to provide elite solution for various applications such as object tracking. Subsequently, in view of proposing more robust strategy with large pixel grouping is possible through mean shift. The mean shift approach has utilized the neighborhood minima of a similarity measure through bhattacharyya coefficient (BC) between the kernel density estimate of the target model and candidate. However, similar capability is quite possible through color coherence vectors (CCV). The CCV are derived in addition to color histogram of target model and target candidate. Further, joint histogram of color model and CCV is added. Thus, the resultant histograms are empirically less sensitive to variance of background which is not ensured through traditional mean shift alone. Experimental results proved to be better and seen changes in tracking especially in similar color background. Thiswork explores the contribution and paves the way for different applications to track object in varied dataset. © Springer India 2014.

Samy R.P.,National University of Singapore | Gopalakrishnakone P.,National University of Singapore | Stiles B.G.,U.S. Army | Stiles B.G.,Wilson College | And 8 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

The majority of snake venom phospholipases A2 (svPLA 2s) are toxic and induce a wide spectrum of biological effects. They are cysteine-rich proteins that contain 119-134 amino acids and share similar structures and functions. About 50% of the residues are incorporated into α-helices, whereas only 10% are in β-sheets. Fourteen conserved cysteines form a network of seven disulfide bridges that stabilize the tertiary structure. They show a high degree of sequence and structural similarity, and are believed to have a common calcium-dependent catalytic mechanism. Additionally, svPLA2s display an array of biological actions that are either dependent or independent of catalysis. The PLA2s of mammalian origin also exert potent bactericidal activity by binding to anionic surfaces and enzymatic degradation of phospholipids in the target membranes, preferentially of Gram-positive species. The bactericidal activity against Gramnegatives by svPLA2 requires a synergistic action with bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), but is equally dependent on enzymatic-based membrane degradation. Several hypotheses account for the bactericidal properties of svPLA2s, which include "fatal depolarization" of the bacterial membrane, creation of physical holes in the membrane, scrambling of normal distribution of lipids between the bilayer leaflets, and damage of critical intracellular targets after internalization of the peptide. The present review discusses several svPLA2s and derived peptides that exhibit strong bactericidal activity. The reports demonstrate that svPLA2-derived peptides have the potential to counteract microbial infections. In fact, the C-terminal cationic/hydrophobic segment (residues 115-129) of svPLA2s is bactericidal. Thus identification of the bactericidal sites in svPLA2s has potential for developing novel antimicrobials. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Revanna C.N.,University of Mysore | Revanna C.N.,Syngene International Ltd | Srinivasa V.,Bangalore University | Li F.,National University of Singapore | And 8 more authors.
MedChemComm | Year: 2014

The transcription factor STAT3 is constitutively overexpressed in many human tumors and hence represents a putative target for anticancer drug design. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel chemotype, pyridine-fused pyrazoles ('PFPs') as inhibitors of STAT3 phosphorylation. The effect of the compounds synthesized was evaluated in cell proliferation assays of MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cell lines and two of the compounds tested (12g and 12k) were found to show significant activity. Both compounds were also found to inhibit the proliferation of Hep3B, HUH-7 and PLC/PRF5 HCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we established in a DNA binding assay that one of the compounds (12g) was able to significantly inhibit the DNA binding ability of STAT3. Cytotoxicity of 12g against PC3 cells, which do not constitutively phosphorylate STAT3, was found to be minimal, hence lending further support for our mode-of-action hypothesis of this compound. We established for this structure a complete inhibition of CXCL12-induced cell invasion and associated wound healing in HCCLM3 cells, corroborating the proposed modulation of the STAT3 axis by 12g. Finally, molecular modeling was employed to evaluate the hypothesis of PFPs to bind to the SH2 domain of STAT3. Given the efficacy of PFPs in the biological systems studied here we propose their further evaluation in the context of STAT3-mediated cancer therapy. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Prakash S.P.S.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus | Nagabhushan T.N.,JSS Academy of Technical Education | Krinkin K.,Saint Petersburg State University
Conference of Open Innovation Association, FRUCT | Year: 2013

In recent times Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) have evolved as powerful networks for most commercial applications. Many contributions have been made to enhance the performance of WMN of which the enhancement of the network lifetime remains as one of the challenging area for research. IEEE standard proposed an amendment which introduced Power Save Mode (PSM) in order to increase the lifetime of WMN. It has three modes such as Active, Light Sleep and Deep Sleep. There exist a lot of literature on increasing energy efficiency by keeping node in Deep Sleep mode when it is not involved in transmission. But current Power Save Mode has some deficiency in low Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR). This paper presents Energy Aware Power Save Mode (EAPSM) which attempt to overcome the deficiency of low PDR by triggering PSM. EAPSM consist of three modules namely, remaining energy calculator, transmission mode identifier and PSM scheduler. EAPSM schedules PSM based on the constraints such as remaining energy of a node and its participation in transmission. The proposed method includes mathematical model and algorithms which gives improved performance over conventional PSM. © 2013 FRUCT Oy.

Subramaniam A.,National University of Singapore | Subramaniam A.,Bharathiar University | Shanmugam M.K.,National University of Singapore | Perumal E.,Bharathiar University | And 11 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2013

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, and is also the fourth most common cancer worldwide with around 700,000 new cases each year. Currently, first line chemotherapeutic drugs used for HCC include fluorouracil, cisplatin, doxorubicin, paclitaxel and mitomycin, but most of these are non-selective cytotoxic molecules with significant side effects. Sorafenib is the only approved targeted therapy by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for HCC treatment, but patients suffer from various kinds of adverse effects, including hypertension. The signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription 3 (STAT3) protein, one of the members of STATs transcription factor family, has been implicated in signal transduction by different cytokines, growth factors and oncogenes. In normal cells, STAT3 activation is tightly controlled to prevent dysregulated gene transcription, whereas constitutively activated STAT3 plays an important role in tumorigenesis through the upregulation of genes involved in anti-apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis. Thus, pharmacologically safe and effective agents that can block STAT3 activation have the potential both for the prevention and treatment of HCC. In the present review, we discuss the possible role of STAT3 signaling cascade and its interacting partners in the initiation of HCC and also analyze the role of various STAT3 regulated genes in HCC progression, inflammation, survival, invasion and angiogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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