JSS Technical Institutions Campus

Mysore, India

JSS Technical Institutions Campus

Mysore, India
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Samy R.P.,National University of Singapore | Gopalakrishnakone P.,National University of Singapore | Stiles B.G.,U.S. Army | Stiles B.G.,Wilson College | And 8 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

The majority of snake venom phospholipases A2 (svPLA 2s) are toxic and induce a wide spectrum of biological effects. They are cysteine-rich proteins that contain 119-134 amino acids and share similar structures and functions. About 50% of the residues are incorporated into α-helices, whereas only 10% are in β-sheets. Fourteen conserved cysteines form a network of seven disulfide bridges that stabilize the tertiary structure. They show a high degree of sequence and structural similarity, and are believed to have a common calcium-dependent catalytic mechanism. Additionally, svPLA2s display an array of biological actions that are either dependent or independent of catalysis. The PLA2s of mammalian origin also exert potent bactericidal activity by binding to anionic surfaces and enzymatic degradation of phospholipids in the target membranes, preferentially of Gram-positive species. The bactericidal activity against Gramnegatives by svPLA2 requires a synergistic action with bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), but is equally dependent on enzymatic-based membrane degradation. Several hypotheses account for the bactericidal properties of svPLA2s, which include "fatal depolarization" of the bacterial membrane, creation of physical holes in the membrane, scrambling of normal distribution of lipids between the bilayer leaflets, and damage of critical intracellular targets after internalization of the peptide. The present review discusses several svPLA2s and derived peptides that exhibit strong bactericidal activity. The reports demonstrate that svPLA2-derived peptides have the potential to counteract microbial infections. In fact, the C-terminal cationic/hydrophobic segment (residues 115-129) of svPLA2s is bactericidal. Thus identification of the bactericidal sites in svPLA2s has potential for developing novel antimicrobials. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Subramaniam A.,National University of Singapore | Subramaniam A.,Bharathiar University | Shanmugam M.K.,National University of Singapore | Perumal E.,Bharathiar University | And 11 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2013

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, and is also the fourth most common cancer worldwide with around 700,000 new cases each year. Currently, first line chemotherapeutic drugs used for HCC include fluorouracil, cisplatin, doxorubicin, paclitaxel and mitomycin, but most of these are non-selective cytotoxic molecules with significant side effects. Sorafenib is the only approved targeted therapy by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for HCC treatment, but patients suffer from various kinds of adverse effects, including hypertension. The signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription 3 (STAT3) protein, one of the members of STATs transcription factor family, has been implicated in signal transduction by different cytokines, growth factors and oncogenes. In normal cells, STAT3 activation is tightly controlled to prevent dysregulated gene transcription, whereas constitutively activated STAT3 plays an important role in tumorigenesis through the upregulation of genes involved in anti-apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis. Thus, pharmacologically safe and effective agents that can block STAT3 activation have the potential both for the prevention and treatment of HCC. In the present review, we discuss the possible role of STAT3 signaling cascade and its interacting partners in the initiation of HCC and also analyze the role of various STAT3 regulated genes in HCC progression, inflammation, survival, invasion and angiogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Global University, JSS Technical Institutions Campus and Mahajana Life Science Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EF (100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed deterioration in fasting hyperglycaemia and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine, when compared to the diabetic control group of rats. The diabetic group of rats fed with EF, C1 and C2 (100 mg/kg b. wt.) once daily, for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of diabetic symptoms viz., polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and urine sugar together with an improved body weight. HbA1c extent was reduced whereas levels of insulin and Hb were increased. Both the extract and compounds wielded positive impacts in diabetic rats by reversal of altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase. The characteristic diabetic complications such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia also significantly reverted to normal in the serum/liver of diabetic rats. Besides these, the treatment increased the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the serum and liver. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the -cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study illustrates that EF, C1 and C2 enhances the glycolytic activities, besides increasing the hepatic glucose utilization in diabetic rats by stimulating insulin secretion from the remnant -cells along with potential enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities.


Prakash V.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus | Taylor J.R.N.,University of Pretoria
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods | Year: 2012

India and Africa share many common food trends such as rapid urbanization and a growing demand for convenience and health-promoting foods. Notably in Africa, these food demands are currently being met by relatively simple value addition to grains through small and medium enterprises. However, achieving improved staple food security will require more complex technologies, higher technical skills and a better organized food pipeline. Thus, in Asia and Africa there is an acute need for collaborative and network programmes in grain science and technology. The recent creation of an ICC India Task Force to make India-International grain science collaboration and networking a reality is a critical step to achieving these goals. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Sidram M.H.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus | Bhajantri N.U.,Governement Engineering College
International Journal of Tomography and Simulation | Year: 2014

In the need of elite information of object, optical flow with gray attempts to emulate moderate essence. Since long time the color optical flow approach had been neglected. In this work, the contemporary policy has been put forward which endeavors to split out the optical flow for each channels such as R, G and B. The same is attempted through the well known optical flow schemes namely Horn-Schunk with BFB (Barron,Fleet,Beauchemin) kernel and Lukas-Kanade with Sobel gradient. Consequently, the obtained end results are merged to acquire the enhanced values of the motion vectors and in turn to isolate the moving objects from the static background. To overcome the drifting of template, the distance measures like histogram regression lines and Doyle's strategy have suitably been extended in the work. The histogram regression lines of template and non-stationary objects are estimated to determine the matching between them and hence best match candidate template is replaced as new template. On the other hand, Doyle's distance between the candidate templates and model template are rescued. In view of template up gradation, the candidate template which resembles to the model template has revealed the best match by means of Doyle's distance. Further, the bounding box is appended over the object with the help of spatial information of updated template. © 2014 by CESER PUBLICATIONS.


PubMed | University of Mysore, JSS Technical Institutions Campus and JSS University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

A new simple, rapid and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the extraction and quantitative estimation of caffeine (C), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (+)-catechin(Ct), (-)-epicatechin(EC), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) (collectively named as Tea Powder Bioactives TPBAs) extracted from tea powder using different ratios of ethanol: water. The simultaneous determination of TPBAs was performed using the UV spectrophotometric method which employs the absorbance at 205nm (max of caffeine and polyphenols). This method is a gradient based HPLC method with a flow rate of 0.8mL/min using Inertsil ODS 1004.6mm, 3m column with methanol and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (pH-2.8) as mobile phase. The method was validated in terms of specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), and limit of detection (LOD). The linearity of the proposed method was investigated for concentration ranging between 0.5-60g/mL with regression co-efficient, R(2)=0.999-1.0. This method estimates all the TPBAs simultaneously with enhanced precision and linearity as per the ICH guidelines. Also, to confirm the individual TPBA, the antioxidant property of the each TPBA was analyzed which was commensurate with that of the previous reports.


Sidram M.H.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus | Bhajantri N.U.,Government Engineering College Chamarajanagar
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2014

Tracking of an object in a scene, especially through visual appearance is weighing much relevance in the context of recent research trend. In this work, we are extending the one of the approaches through which visual features are erected to reveal the motion of the object in a captured video. One such strategy is a mean shift due to its unfussiness and sturdiness with respect to tracking functionality. Here we made an attempt to judiciously exploit the tracking potentiality of mean shift to provide elite solution for various applications such as object tracking. Subsequently, in view of proposing more robust strategy with large pixel grouping is possible through mean shift. The mean shift approach has utilized the neighborhood minima of a similarity measure through bhattacharyya coefficient (BC) between the kernel density estimate of the target model and candidate. However, similar capability is quite possible through color coherence vectors (CCV). The CCV are derived in addition to color histogram of target model and target candidate. Further, joint histogram of color model and CCV is added. Thus, the resultant histograms are empirically less sensitive to variance of background which is not ensured through traditional mean shift alone. Experimental results proved to be better and seen changes in tracking especially in similar color background. Thiswork explores the contribution and paves the way for different applications to track object in varied dataset. © Springer India 2014.


Shivalingu B.R.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus | Vivek H.K.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus | Nafeesa Z.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus | Priya B.S.,University of Mysore | Swamy S.N.,JSS Technical Institutions Campus
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnaopharmacologial relevance: Turmeric rhizome is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been widely used as a remedy to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and for wound healing by the rural and tribal population of India. Aim of the study: To validate scientific and therapeutic application of turmeric rhizomes to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and its role in wound healing process. Materials and methods: The water extracts of thoroughly scrubbed and washed turmeric rhizomes viz., Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. were subjected to salting out and dialysis. The dialyzed crude enzyme fractions (CEFs) were assessed for proteolytic activity using casein as substrate and were also confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. Its coagulant activity and fibrinogenolytic activity were assessed using human citrated plasma and fibrinogen, respectively. The type of protease(s) in CEFs was confirmed by inhibition studies using specific protease inhibitors. Results: The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed 1.89, 1.21 and 1.07 folds higher proteolytic activity, respectively, compared to papain. In contrast to these, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited moderate proteolytic activity. CEFs showed low proteolytic activities compared to trypsin. The proteolytic activities of CEFs were confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed complete hydrolysis of Aα, Bβ and γ subunits of human fibrinogen, while C. amada and C. zedoria showed partial hydrolysis. The CEFs viz., C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time from 172 s (Control) to 66 s, 84 s 88 s, 78 s and 90 s, respectively. The proteolytic activity of C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia and C. amada was inhibited (>82%) by PMSF, suggesting the possible presence of a serine protease(s). However, C. zedoria showed significant inhibition (60%) against IAA and moderate inhibition (30%) against PMSF, indicating the presence of cysteine and serine protease(s). Conclusion: The CEFs of turmeric species exhibited strong procoagulant activity associated with fibrinogenolytic activity. This study provides the scientific credence to turmeric in its propensity to stop bleeding and wound healing process practiced by traditional Indian medicine. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | JSS Technical Institutions Campus
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied biochemistry and biotechnology | Year: 2014

Vast applications of peroxidases create an increasing demand to characterize peroxidases from new sources with more applicability potential. The aim of the present study was to check the presence of peroxidase activity from Caralluma umbellata. This is the first report on the C. umbellata peroxidase (CUP). The presence of peroxidase was revealed by the histochemical analysis of the stem sections, zymographic studies, and in vitro peroxidase activity assay using various reducing substrates viz., 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), guaiacol, o-dianisidine, and ferulic acid. The band pattern in zymogram confirms that CUP has a molecular weight less than that of horseradish peroxidase (44kDa). Comparative evaluation of peroxidase activity of CUP with respect to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) indicates that CUP catalyzes ABTS and ferulic acid in a similar pattern as HRP but with guaiacol, the extent of catalysis shown by CUP over HRP is high. The standard inhibitors sodium azide and sodium meta bisulphite inhibited CUP activity in a dose dependent manner.


PubMed | University of Mysore and JSS Technical Institutions Campus
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Turmeric rhizome is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been widely used as a remedy to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and for wound healing by the rural and tribal population of India.To validate scientific and therapeutic application of turmeric rhizomes to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and its role in wound healing process.The water extracts of thoroughly scrubbed and washed turmeric rhizomes viz., Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. were subjected to salting out and dialysis. The dialyzed crude enzyme fractions (CEFs) were assessed for proteolytic activity using casein as substrate and were also confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. Its coagulant activity and fibrinogenolytic activity were assessed using human citrated plasma and fibrinogen, respectively. The type of protease(s) in CEFs was confirmed by inhibition studies using specific protease inhibitors.The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed 1.89, 1.21 and 1.07 folds higher proteolytic activity, respectively, compared to papain. In contrast to these, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited moderate proteolytic activity. CEFs showed low proteolytic activities compared to trypsin. The proteolytic activities of CEFs were confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed complete hydrolysis of A, B and subunits of human fibrinogen, while C. amada and C. zedoria showed partial hydrolysis. The CEFs viz., C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time from 172s (Control) to 66s, 84s 88s, 78s and 90s, respectively. The proteolytic activity of C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia and C. amada was inhibited (>82%) by PMSF, suggesting the possible presence of a serine protease(s). However, C. zedoria showed significant inhibition (60%) against IAA and moderate inhibition (30%) against PMSF, indicating the presence of cysteine and serine protease(s).The CEFs of turmeric species exhibited strong procoagulant activity associated with fibrinogenolytic activity. This study provides the scientific credence to turmeric in its propensity to stop bleeding and wound healing process practiced by traditional Indian medicine.

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