JSS Medical College
JSS Medical College
Holsinger R.M.D.,University of Sydney |
Madhunapantula V.S.R.,JSS Medical College
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2013
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the major risk factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have found similarities in molecular mechanisms that underlie the respective degenerative developments in the two diseases. Pharmacological agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which increase the level of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ameliorate T2D, have become valuable candidates as disease modifying agents in the treatment of AD. In addition, endogenous GLP-1 levels decreaseamyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and tau phosphorylation in AD. The present study examines the efficacy of Saxagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor in a streptozotocin (STZ) induced rat model of AD. Three months following induction of AD by intracerebral administration of streptozotocin, animals were orally administered Saxagliptin (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) for 60 days. The effect of the DPP-4 inhibitor on hippocampal GLP-1 levels, Ab burden, tau phosphorylation, inflammatory markers andmemory retention were evaluated. The results reveal an attenuation of Aβ, tau phosphorylation and inflammatory markers and an improvement in hippocampal GLP-1 and memory retention following treatment. This remarkable therapeutic effect of Saxagliptin mediated through DPP-4 inhibition demonstrates a uniquemechanism for Ab and tau clearance by increasing GLP-1 levels and reverses the behavioural deficits and pathology observed in AD. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mamatha H.,Kasturba Medical College |
Saraswathi G.,Jss Medical College |
Current Neurobiology | Year: 2010
The sphenoid sinus is deeply seated in the skull and is the most inaccessible paranasal sinus intimately related to numerous vital neural and vascular structures. This work determines the incidence of the different anatomical variations of sphenoid sinus as detected by CT scan and their impact on related neurovascular structures, for the safe removal of inter sphenoid and pituitary lesions. The CT scan of 20 patients were reviewed regarding the different anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus: degree of pneumatisation, protrusion of internal carotid artery (ICA), optic nerve (ON), and dehiscence of the walls of ICN and ON, and the septation pattern. There were 10 cases with protrusion and 9 cases of dehiscence of the bony wall on ICA, 13 cases of optic nerve protrusion and 10 cases of dehiscence. Sellar pneumatisation was present in majority of the patients (55%), with 5 patients having presellar (25%) and 4 patients having post sellar pneumatisation (20%). Different anatomical configurations of the sphenoid sinus can seriously affect the access to the sella via the nose. The surgeon should be aware of these findings preoperatively to reach the sella safely and effectively.
Obulesu M.,JSS Medical College |
Rao D.M.,Andhra University
International Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with unclear etiology for a few decades. Many animal models employed to study the etiology of the disease and test the efficacy of a drug could give limited understanding of these events. Introduction of aluminum salts into aged New Zealand rabbit brain could demonstrate neurofibrillary tangle formation in 1965. This outstanding contribution substantiated the role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease in turn becoming the basis further molecular studies in rabbits. In this review, various animal models (transgenic mice, rats, rabbits, zebrafish) used to study the pathology of the disease and to test the efficacy of a drug have been summarized. It also focuses on the growing need to unravel the molecular underpinnings of the disease progression. Copyright © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Kotekar N.,JSS Medical College |
Kuruvilla C.S.,JSS Medical College |
Murthy V.,Molecular Therapeutics
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2014
Background and Aims: Aging population is a major demographic trend worldwide. Globally, 50% of all the elderly individuals are estimated to undergo atleast one surgical procedure and post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is one of the most common and often poorly understood post-operative complications in this section of the population. This randomised prospective study was conducted to assess the post-operative cognitive status in the elderly undergoing non-cardiac surgery, evaluate the cognitive parameters affected, evaluate the potential risk factors and thereby analyse the potential for implementation of preventive strategies. Methods: This study was conducted on 200 patients aged 60 years or older scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgeries. The baseline cognitive status of the patients was assessed 2 days prior to the date of the surgery. The post-operative cognitive status was assessed on the 3rd day, 7th day and after 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS and SPSS. Results: The incidence of POCD showed a gradual decline from postoperative day 3 to 30. Females were found to be at significant risk in developing POCD. Advancing age and level of education emerged as dominant factors, while type of anaesthesia, duration of surgery, and presence of coexisting comorbidities had no influence on the incidence of cognitive dysfunction. Conclusion: POCD is a definite complication after surgery and anaesthesia in the elderly population. Gender emerged as a significant risk factor with increasing age as a dominating factor contributing to POCD.
Chhajed N.,JSS Medical College
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2014
Carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) predicts future vascular events in the general population. However, the correlation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with CIMT is not studied extensively. To determine the correlation of CIMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors like age, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia and various stages of CKD patients, CIMT was measured by means of high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography in 70 CKD patients and compared with the 30 healthy controls. The mean CIMT in patients was 0.86 ± 0.21 mm vs 0.63 ± 0.17 mm in healthy age- and sex-matched controls (P <0.001). There was a significant univariate positive correlation between CIMT and age (r = 0.605, P <0.001), BMI (r = 0.377, P = 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.236, P ≤0.018) and serum triglyceride (r = 0.387, P ≤0.001). No statistically significant correlation was found between mean CIMT and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.02, P = 0.30), very low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Atherosclerotic changes very well correlate with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors like age, BMI, serum total cholesterol and serum triglyceride level in CKD patients. Even though CIMT was marginally more in the late stages of CKD patients, no statistically significant correlation was found with CIMT and eGFR.
Gurudatt C.L.,JSS Medical College
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2016
A case report is a specific type of research design that reports on an aspect of the management of patients. Case reports have significantly influenced the evolution of medicine. In general, case reports should be short and focussed and should contain abstract, introduction, description of the case, discussion and conclusion. The aim of this article is to provide useful details and tips to the young anaesthesiologists in the writing of a case report and then to publish it. © 2016 Indian Journal of Anaesthesia.
Krishnacharya P.S.,JSS Medical College
Journal of Optometry | Year: 2014
Purpose: Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia.Methods: A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced ?with the motion? was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that ?against the motion? was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization.Results: Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63 ± 0.69 D and dynamic refraction was -0.07 ± 0.44 D before cycloplegia, while the mean was + 0.52 D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17 D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90 D after cycloplegia.Conclusions: The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry.
Hemamalini,JSS Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015
Splenic artery is the largest branch from the celiac trunk. It is remarkably tortuous in its course before it enters the hilum of the spleen. During routine dissection of abdomen for undergraduate students in a 60-year-old male cadaver, we observed an unusual course and tortuosity in the splenic artery. Knowledge of such unusual tortuous splenic artery is important in partial or total splenectomy, splenic aneurysum, splenic embolisation and surgeries related to pancreas, stomach. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, All Rights Reserved.
Rangaswamy M.,JSS Medical College
Journal of the Indian Medical Association | Year: 2012
Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. It may be a manifestation of a wide variety of disorders, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The total number of cases studied were 100 over a period of two years in the department of pathology, JSS Hospital, Mysore. Megaloblastic anaemia (33%) was the commonest cause of pancytopenia. Other causes were nutritional anaemia (16%), aplastic anaemia (14%), hypersplenism (10%), sepsis (9%) and leukaemia (5%). Less common causes were alcoholic liver disease, haemolytic anaemia, HIV, dengue, systemic lupus erythematosus, viral hepatitis, disseminated TB and multiple myeloma. Most of the patients were in the age group of 11-30 years with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1.Generalised weakness and fatigue (88%) were the commonest presenting complaints. Haemoglobin level varied from 1-10 g/dl with majorIty (70%) of them in the range of 5.1-10 g/dI. TLC was in the range of 500-4000 cells/cmm. Most (34%) of them had 3100-4000 cells/cmm. Platelet count was in the range of 4000-1,40,000 cells/cmm. Reticulocyte count varied from 0.1%-15% with majority (82%) of them ranging from 0.1%-2%. The bone marrow cellularity was hypocellular in 14%, hypercellular in 75%, and normocellular in 11% of the patients. Pancytopenia is a relatively common entity with inadequate attention in Indian subcontinent. A comprehensive clinical and haematological study of patients with pancytopenia will usually help in the identification of the underlying cause. However in view of wide array of aetiologies, pancytopenia continues to be a diagnostic challenge for haematologists.
Kumar V.G.,JSS Medical College |
Urs T.A.,JSS Medical College |
Ranganath R.R.,JSS Medical College
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011
Background: A new rapid Immunochromatographic test kit(SD MPT64TB Ag Kit) for detection of MPT 64 Antigen in M. tuberculosis isolates using mouse monoclonal MPT 64 Antibody developed by SD Bioline, South Korea was evaluated for rapid identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. We also assessed the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of this kit. The test kit has an excellent sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value & positive predictive value. This rapid method is found to be a reliable, rapid and cheaper method for confirming MTB culture isolates in resource poor laboratories. Material/methods: 54 culture isolates of M. tuberculosis in broth & on LJ medium, 12 Non mycobacterial isolates, 10 Non tubercular (NTM) rapidly growing Mycobacteria isolated from pus & 5 smear positive sputum samples were tested for detection of MPT64 antigen using the SD Bioline immunochromatography (ICT)test kit. H37 RV strain was employed as the positive reference control. Findings. H37 RV strain showed the presence of MPT64 antigen band. Similar band was formed in all the 54 MTB isolates tested proving 100% sensitivity. MPT64 band formation was not detected in any of the other test isolates which proved the 100% specificity of the test kit. Both PPV & NPV were 100%. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is a global pandemic. Rapid identification of MTB culture isolate is very important for drug susceptibility testing. MPT 64 TB Ag detection ICT kit is a rapid, reliable method; it can be a substitute for the molecular identification methods. © 2011 Kumar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.