Mysore, India
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Obulesu M.,JSS Medical College | Rao D.M.,Andhra University
International Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with unclear etiology for a few decades. Many animal models employed to study the etiology of the disease and test the efficacy of a drug could give limited understanding of these events. Introduction of aluminum salts into aged New Zealand rabbit brain could demonstrate neurofibrillary tangle formation in 1965. This outstanding contribution substantiated the role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease in turn becoming the basis further molecular studies in rabbits. In this review, various animal models (transgenic mice, rats, rabbits, zebrafish) used to study the pathology of the disease and to test the efficacy of a drug have been summarized. It also focuses on the growing need to unravel the molecular underpinnings of the disease progression. Copyright © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Kotekar N.,JSS Medical College | Kuruvilla C.S.,JSS Medical College | Murthy V.,Molecular Therapeutics
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Aging population is a major demographic trend worldwide. Globally, 50% of all the elderly individuals are estimated to undergo atleast one surgical procedure and post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is one of the most common and often poorly understood post-operative complications in this section of the population. This randomised prospective study was conducted to assess the post-operative cognitive status in the elderly undergoing non-cardiac surgery, evaluate the cognitive parameters affected, evaluate the potential risk factors and thereby analyse the potential for implementation of preventive strategies. Methods: This study was conducted on 200 patients aged 60 years or older scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgeries. The baseline cognitive status of the patients was assessed 2 days prior to the date of the surgery. The post-operative cognitive status was assessed on the 3rd day, 7th day and after 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS and SPSS. Results: The incidence of POCD showed a gradual decline from postoperative day 3 to 30. Females were found to be at significant risk in developing POCD. Advancing age and level of education emerged as dominant factors, while type of anaesthesia, duration of surgery, and presence of coexisting comorbidities had no influence on the incidence of cognitive dysfunction. Conclusion: POCD is a definite complication after surgery and anaesthesia in the elderly population. Gender emerged as a significant risk factor with increasing age as a dominating factor contributing to POCD.


Halebeedu P.P.,University of Mysore | Vijay Kumar G.S.,JSS Medical College | Gopal S.,University of Mysore
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Extensive use of indwelling devices in modern medicine has revoked higher incidence of device associated infections and most of these devices provide an ideal surface for microbial attachment to form strong biofilms. These obnoxious biofilms are responsible for persistent infections, longer hospitalization and high mortality rate. Gene regulations in bacteria play a significant role in survival, colonization and pathogenesis. Operons being a part of gene regulatory network favour cell colonization and biofilm formation in various pathogens. This review explains the functional role of various operons in biofilm expression and regulation observed in device-associated pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Chhajed N.,JSS Medical College
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2014

Carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) predicts future vascular events in the general population. However, the correlation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with CIMT is not studied extensively. To determine the correlation of CIMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors like age, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia and various stages of CKD patients, CIMT was measured by means of high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography in 70 CKD patients and compared with the 30 healthy controls. The mean CIMT in patients was 0.86 ± 0.21 mm vs 0.63 ± 0.17 mm in healthy age- and sex-matched controls (P <0.001). There was a significant univariate positive correlation between CIMT and age (r = 0.605, P <0.001), BMI (r = 0.377, P = 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.236, P ≤0.018) and serum triglyceride (r = 0.387, P ≤0.001). No statistically significant correlation was found between mean CIMT and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.02, P = 0.30), very low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Atherosclerotic changes very well correlate with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors like age, BMI, serum total cholesterol and serum triglyceride level in CKD patients. Even though CIMT was marginally more in the late stages of CKD patients, no statistically significant correlation was found with CIMT and eGFR.


Gurudatt C.L.,JSS Medical College
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2016

A case report is a specific type of research design that reports on an aspect of the management of patients. Case reports have significantly influenced the evolution of medicine. In general, case reports should be short and focussed and should contain abstract, introduction, description of the case, discussion and conclusion. The aim of this article is to provide useful details and tips to the young anaesthesiologists in the writing of a case report and then to publish it. © 2016 Indian Journal of Anaesthesia.


Krishnacharya P.S.,JSS Medical College
Journal of Optometry | Year: 2014

Purpose: Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia.Methods: A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced ?with the motion? was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that ?against the motion? was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization.Results: Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63 ± 0.69 D and dynamic refraction was -0.07 ± 0.44 D before cycloplegia, while the mean was + 0.52 D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17 D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90 D after cycloplegia.Conclusions: The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry.


Hemamalini,JSS Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015

Splenic artery is the largest branch from the celiac trunk. It is remarkably tortuous in its course before it enters the hilum of the spleen. During routine dissection of abdomen for undergraduate students in a 60-year-old male cadaver, we observed an unusual course and tortuosity in the splenic artery. Knowledge of such unusual tortuous splenic artery is important in partial or total splenectomy, splenic aneurysum, splenic embolisation and surgeries related to pancreas, stomach. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, All Rights Reserved.


Rangaswamy M.,JSS Medical College
Journal of the Indian Medical Association | Year: 2012

Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. It may be a manifestation of a wide variety of disorders, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The total number of cases studied were 100 over a period of two years in the department of pathology, JSS Hospital, Mysore. Megaloblastic anaemia (33%) was the commonest cause of pancytopenia. Other causes were nutritional anaemia (16%), aplastic anaemia (14%), hypersplenism (10%), sepsis (9%) and leukaemia (5%). Less common causes were alcoholic liver disease, haemolytic anaemia, HIV, dengue, systemic lupus erythematosus, viral hepatitis, disseminated TB and multiple myeloma. Most of the patients were in the age group of 11-30 years with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1.Generalised weakness and fatigue (88%) were the commonest presenting complaints. Haemoglobin level varied from 1-10 g/dl with majorIty (70%) of them in the range of 5.1-10 g/dI. TLC was in the range of 500-4000 cells/cmm. Most (34%) of them had 3100-4000 cells/cmm. Platelet count was in the range of 4000-1,40,000 cells/cmm. Reticulocyte count varied from 0.1%-15% with majority (82%) of them ranging from 0.1%-2%. The bone marrow cellularity was hypocellular in 14%, hypercellular in 75%, and normocellular in 11% of the patients. Pancytopenia is a relatively common entity with inadequate attention in Indian subcontinent. A comprehensive clinical and haematological study of patients with pancytopenia will usually help in the identification of the underlying cause. However in view of wide array of aetiologies, pancytopenia continues to be a diagnostic challenge for haematologists.


Kumar V.G.,JSS Medical College | Urs T.A.,JSS Medical College | Ranganath R.R.,JSS Medical College
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background: A new rapid Immunochromatographic test kit(SD MPT64TB Ag Kit) for detection of MPT 64 Antigen in M. tuberculosis isolates using mouse monoclonal MPT 64 Antibody developed by SD Bioline, South Korea was evaluated for rapid identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. We also assessed the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of this kit. The test kit has an excellent sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value & positive predictive value. This rapid method is found to be a reliable, rapid and cheaper method for confirming MTB culture isolates in resource poor laboratories. Material/methods: 54 culture isolates of M. tuberculosis in broth & on LJ medium, 12 Non mycobacterial isolates, 10 Non tubercular (NTM) rapidly growing Mycobacteria isolated from pus & 5 smear positive sputum samples were tested for detection of MPT64 antigen using the SD Bioline immunochromatography (ICT)test kit. H37 RV strain was employed as the positive reference control. Findings. H37 RV strain showed the presence of MPT64 antigen band. Similar band was formed in all the 54 MTB isolates tested proving 100% sensitivity. MPT64 band formation was not detected in any of the other test isolates which proved the 100% specificity of the test kit. Both PPV & NPV were 100%. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is a global pandemic. Rapid identification of MTB culture isolate is very important for drug susceptibility testing. MPT 64 TB Ag detection ICT kit is a rapid, reliable method; it can be a substitute for the molecular identification methods. © 2011 Kumar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Balaraj B.M.,Jss Medical College | Nithin M.D.,Jss Medical College
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to determine the adolescent ages from 14 to 16 years, from dental radiographic study of the closure of apical foramen of permanent second molars. The sample for this study consisted of 116 students (59 males and 57 females) of age range from 13 to 18 years, from South Indian population, from various schools in and around Manipal, Karnataka, India. Here Demirjian method was applied on children of Manipal, where 94.0% of males presented with closed apical foramen at 15 years and 5 months where as 95.0% of female presented with closed apical foramen at 14 years and 9 months. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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