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Mysore, India

Halebeedu P.P.,University of Mysore | Vijay Kumar G.S.,JSS Medical College | Gopal S.,University of Mysore
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Extensive use of indwelling devices in modern medicine has revoked higher incidence of device associated infections and most of these devices provide an ideal surface for microbial attachment to form strong biofilms. These obnoxious biofilms are responsible for persistent infections, longer hospitalization and high mortality rate. Gene regulations in bacteria play a significant role in survival, colonization and pathogenesis. Operons being a part of gene regulatory network favour cell colonization and biofilm formation in various pathogens. This review explains the functional role of various operons in biofilm expression and regulation observed in device-associated pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Source

Obulesu M.,JSS Medical College | Rao D.M.,Andhra University
International Journal of Neuroscience

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with unclear etiology for a few decades. Many animal models employed to study the etiology of the disease and test the efficacy of a drug could give limited understanding of these events. Introduction of aluminum salts into aged New Zealand rabbit brain could demonstrate neurofibrillary tangle formation in 1965. This outstanding contribution substantiated the role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease in turn becoming the basis further molecular studies in rabbits. In this review, various animal models (transgenic mice, rats, rabbits, zebrafish) used to study the pathology of the disease and to test the efficacy of a drug have been summarized. It also focuses on the growing need to unravel the molecular underpinnings of the disease progression. Copyright © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Bijanzadeh M.,University of Mysore | Mahesh P.A.,JSS Medical College | Ramachandra N.B.,University of Mysore
Indian Journal of Medical Research

Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease in developed nations and its prevalence has increased in the world over the last 25 years. It is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Asthma is caused by multiple interacting genes, some having a protective effect and others contributing to the disease pathogenesis, with each gene having its own tendency to be influenced by the environment. This article reviews the current state of the genetics of asthma in six categories, viz. epidemiology, management, aetiology, family and twin studies, segregation and linkage studies, and candidate genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Source

Krishnacharya P.S.,JSS Medical College
Journal of Optometry

Purpose: Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia.Methods: A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced ?with the motion? was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that ?against the motion? was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization.Results: Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63 ± 0.69 D and dynamic refraction was -0.07 ± 0.44 D before cycloplegia, while the mean was + 0.52 D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17 D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90 D after cycloplegia.Conclusions: The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Source

Chhajed N.,JSS Medical College
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia

Carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) predicts future vascular events in the general population. However, the correlation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with CIMT is not studied extensively. To determine the correlation of CIMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors like age, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia and various stages of CKD patients, CIMT was measured by means of high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography in 70 CKD patients and compared with the 30 healthy controls. The mean CIMT in patients was 0.86 ± 0.21 mm vs 0.63 ± 0.17 mm in healthy age- and sex-matched controls (P <0.001). There was a significant univariate positive correlation between CIMT and age (r = 0.605, P <0.001), BMI (r = 0.377, P = 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.236, P ≤0.018) and serum triglyceride (r = 0.387, P ≤0.001). No statistically significant correlation was found between mean CIMT and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.02, P = 0.30), very low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Atherosclerotic changes very well correlate with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors like age, BMI, serum total cholesterol and serum triglyceride level in CKD patients. Even though CIMT was marginally more in the late stages of CKD patients, no statistically significant correlation was found with CIMT and eGFR. Source

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