JSS Institution Camp

Mysore, India

JSS Institution Camp

Mysore, India
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Ramu R.,JSS Institution Camp | Shirahatti P.S.,JSS Institution Camp | Zameer F.,Mahajana Life Science Research Center | Lakkapa D.B.,Global University | Nagendra Prasad M.N.,JSS Institution Camp
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objectives: The present study is centered on potential utilization of banana flower (FB) and pseudostem (PB), as a source of antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic contributor, which otherwise is discarded as waste or burnt. Methods: FB and PB, the by-products of banana cultivation were extracted sequentially using various solvents viz., ether: chloroform (1:1), ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, ethanol and water. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against six bacterial strains using standard disc diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed by microdilution method. Further to validate the safe consumption, extracts were assessed for toxicity evaluation in cell culture against 3T3-L1 cell line (obtained from adipose tissues) using MTT assay. Also, the thrombolytic activity was performed by clot disruption method. Results: Phytochemical analysis demonstrated that FB and PB were a rich source of polyphenols (saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins), cardiac glycosides and steroids. Extracts possessed antimicrobial activities against all the microorganisms tested, with MIC values in the range between 1.2 to 2.5 mg/ml. The investigation on thrombolytic activity by the aqueous extracts of FB (18%) and PB (13%) expressed a significant percentage of clot lysis with reference to Streptokinase (64%). Also, all the extracts of FB and PB exhibited no cytotoxic effect against 3T3L1 cell line. Conclusion: The present work demonstrates the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic activities of FB and PB extracts. The activities exhibited could be the basis for their alleged health promoting abilities and serve as new source of natural nutraceutical with potential applications. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All rights reserved.


Shirahatti P.S.,JSS Institution Camp | Ramu R.,JSS Institution Camp | Lakkapa D.B.,Global University | Nagendra Prasad M.N.,JSS Institution Camp
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objectives: Plant diseases extend a threat to the global production of herbal medicines. Safer plant protection strategies are in need to meet the demands from the pharmaceutical industry. Neem is a tree with great medicinal values, which is being infected by Phomopsis azadirachtae (PA), causing die back disease. The resulting massive destruction of the tree demands optimum disease management methods and thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of some plant extracts against the growth of PA. Methods: In this study, we investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of ether: chloroform (1:1), ethyl acetate, acetone and ethanol extracts from different parts (leaves and roots) of five plant species viz., Ocimum tenuiflorium, Centella asiatica, Solanum nigrum, Apium graveolens and Besella alba against the growth of PA. Results: All the 40 crude extracts (at concentration of 1000 μg/ml), were active against PA. Among them, the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts proved optimum with antifungal activity ranging from 65-95% and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 75-200 μg/ml. The antifungal activity of the extracts was in the order: ethanol>ethyl acetate>acetone>ether: chloroform (1:1). Also, noteworthy results were observed in all the extracts tested against the spore germination of PA, with concentration and time-dependent kinetics. Conclusion: The results prove promising in order to develop new antifungal agents against the growth and spread of PA. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All rights reserved.


Zameer F.,University of Mysore | Naidu A.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | M. N. N.P.,JSS Institution Camp | Dhananjaya B.L.,Global University | Hegdekatte R.,University of Mysore
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2015

Context Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is traditionally used for treating various ailments, but lacks scientific evaluation. Objective This study evaluates Withania somnifera (WS) for its effect on platelet activity and inflammatory enzymes. Materials and methods Aqueous and ethanolic (1:1) leaf extracts were subjected to in vitro indirect haemolytic activity using Naja naja venom, human platelet aggregation was quantified for lipid peroxidation using arachidonic acid (AA) as agonist and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) levels were determined using standard spectrometric assays. Further, molecular docking was performed by the ligand fit method using molegro software package (Molegro ApS, Aarhus, Denmark). Results The study found that aqueous and ethanol extracts have very negligible effect (15%) with an IC50 value of 13.8 mg/mL on PLA2 from Naja naja venom. Further, extracts of WS also had very little effect (18%) with an IC50 value of 16.6 mg/mL on malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. However, a 65% inhibition of 5-LOX with an IC50 value of 0.92 mg/mL was observed in 1:1 ethanol extracts. The same was evident from SAR model with the active ingredient withaferin A binding predominantly on Phe 77, Tyr 98, Arg 99, Asp 164, Leu 168, Ser 382, Arg 395, Tyr 396 and Tyr 614 with an atomic contact energy value of −128.96 compared to standard phenidone (−103.61). Thus, the current study validates the application of WS for inflammatory diseases. Conclusion This study reveals the inhibitory potential of W. somnifera on inflammatory enzymes and platelet aggregation. Thus, WS can serve as a newer, safer and affordable medicine for inflammatory diseases. © 2015 Taylor & Francis


Ramu R.,P.A. College | Shirahatti P.S.,P.A. College | Shirahatti P.S.,JSS Institution Camp | Nayakavadi S.,G 9 | And 3 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2016

Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana pseudostem, is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of antihyperglycaemia exerted by the ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) and its isolated compounds viz., stigmasterol (C1) and β-sitosterol (C2), in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EE (100 and 200 mg per kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine in diabetic rats compared to the diabetic control group of rats. Diabetic symptoms such as polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, urine glucose and reduced body weight were ameliorated in the diabetic group of rats fed with EE, C1 and C2 (100 mg per kg b. wt., once daily) for 28 days. The levels of insulin and Hb were also increased, while the HbA1c level was reduced. The altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase were significantly reverted to normal levels by the administration of EE, C1 and C2. In addition, increased levels of hepatic glycogen and glycogen synthase and the corresponding decrease of glycogen phosphorylase activity in diabetic rats illustrated the antihyperglycaemic potential of EE and its components. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the β-cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. These findings suggest that EE might exert its antidiabetic potential in the presence of C1 and C2, attributable to the enhanced glycolytic activity, besides increasing the hepatic glucose utilization in diabetic rats by stimulating insulin secretion from the remnant β-cells. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | Global University, G 9, P.A. College, P-Com and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food & function | Year: 2016

Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana pseudostem, is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of antihyperglycaemia exerted by the ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) and its isolated compounds viz., stigmasterol (C1) and -sitosterol (C2), in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EE (100 and 200 mg per kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine in diabetic rats compared to the diabetic control group of rats. Diabetic symptoms such as polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, urine glucose and reduced body weight were ameliorated in the diabetic group of rats fed with EE, C1 and C2 (100 mg per kg b. wt., once daily) for 28 days. The levels of insulin and Hb were also increased, while the HbA1c level was reduced. The altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase were significantly reverted to normal levels by the administration of EE, C1 and C2. In addition, increased levels of hepatic glycogen and glycogen synthase and the corresponding decrease of glycogen phosphorylase activity in diabetic rats illustrated the antihyperglycaemic potential of EE and its components. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the -cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. These findings suggest that EE might exert its antidiabetic potential in the presence of C1 and C2, attributable to the enhanced glycolytic activity, besides increasing the hepatic glucose utilization in diabetic rats by stimulating insulin secretion from the remnant -cells.


PubMed | University of Mysore, Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute, Global University and JSS Institution Camp
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmaceutical biology | Year: 2016

Context Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is traditionally used for treating various ailments, but lacks scientific evaluation. Objective This study evaluates Withania somnifera (WS) for its effect on platelet activity and inflammatory enzymes. Materials and methods Aqueous and ethanolic (1:1) leaf extracts were subjected to in vitro indirect haemolytic activity using Naja naja venom, human platelet aggregation was quantified for lipid peroxidation using arachidonic acid (AA) as agonist and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) levels were determined using standard spectrometric assays. Further, molecular docking was performed by the ligand fit method using molegro software package (Molegro ApS, Aarhus, Denmark). Results The study found that aqueous and ethanol extracts have very negligible effect (15%) with an IC50 value of 13.8mg/mL on PLA2 from Naja naja venom. Further, extracts of WS also had very little effect (18%) with an IC50 value of 16.6mg/mL on malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. However, a 65% inhibition of 5-LOX with an IC50 value of 0.92mg/mL was observed in 1:1 ethanol extracts. The same was evident from SAR model with the active ingredient withaferin A binding predominantly on Phe 77, Tyr 98, Arg 99, Asp 164, Leu 168, Ser 382, Arg 395, Tyr 396 and Tyr 614 with an atomic contact energy value of-128.96 compared to standard phenidone (-103.61). Thus, the current study validates the application of WS for inflammatory diseases. Conclusion This study reveals the inhibitory potential of W. somnifera on inflammatory enzymes and platelet aggregation. Thus, WS can serve as a newer, safer and affordable medicine for inflammatory diseases.


Ramu R.,JSS Institution Camp | Shirahatti P.S.,JSS Institution Camp | Zameer F.,Mahajana Life Science Research Center | Nagendra Prasad M.N.,JSS Institution Camp
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetes could be ameliorated by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidases, responsible for starch hydrolysis and its absorption. Different parts of banana have been in use in conventional medicinal formulations since ancient times. Its role as an antihyperglycaemic agent has also been studied. This study was aimed at explaining the mechanism of hypoglycaemic effect by ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE). Additionally, studies on the active components involved in the effect have also been attempted. RESULTS: EE significantly inhibited mammalian intestinal α-glucosidases and yeast α-glucosidase (IC50, 8.11 ± 0.10 μg mL-1). The kinetic studies showed that EE inhibited sucrase, maltase and and p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside hydrolysis by mixed-type inhibition. Further, in vivo studies identified that the oral administration (100-200 mg kg-1 body weight) of EE significantly suppressed the maltose/glucose-induced postprandial plasma glucose elevation and wielded an antihyperglycaemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. GC-MS analysis of EE revealed high levels of β-sitosterol (29.62%), stigmasterol (21.91%), campesterol (10.85%) and other compounds. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that EE might exert an anti-diabetic effect by inhibition of α-glucosidases from the intestine, in turn suppressing the carbohydrate absorption into the bloodstream. Hence the results extend a foundation to the future prospects of the food-derived enzyme inhibitors in treatment of diabetes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Ramu R.,JSS Institution Camp | Shirahatti P.S.,JSS Institution Camp | Zameer F.,Mahajana Life Science Research Center | Ranganatha L.V.,University of Mysore | Nagendra Prasad M.N.,JSS Institution Camp
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Postprandial hyperglycaemia is characterized as the earliest symptom of diabetes and its management attenuates several of the associated secondary complications. In this context, we investigated the role of ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) for its antihyperglycaemic effects. The EF showed a strong inhibition towards α-glucosidase and pancreatic amylase which play a vital role in clinical management of postprandial hyperglycaemia. The major active compounds present in EF were identified as Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) using various spectroscopic methods. C1 (IC50: 7.08±0.17μg/ml) and C2 (IC50: 7.18±0.14μg/ml) were found to inhibit α-glucosidase in a non-competitive mode of inhibition, with low Ki values. Further, in vitro glycation assays showed that EF and its compounds prevented each stage of protein glycation and formation of its intermediary compounds. EF, C1 and C2 also exhibited a potent inhibition on aldose reductase with IC50 values of 2.25±0.29, 1.32±0.22 & 1.53±0.29μg/ml respectively. Our results suggest that, the observed potential of EF in antihyperglycaemic activity via inhibition of α-glucosidase and in antidiabetogenic effect by inhibition of polyol pathway and protein glycation is more likely to be attributed to the presence of C1 and C2. © 2014 South African Association of Botanists.


PubMed | JSS Institution Camp
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2014

Postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetes could be ameliorated by inhibiting intestinal -glucosidases, responsible for starch hydrolysis and its absorption. Different parts of banana have been in use in conventional medicinal formulations since ancient times. Its role as an antihyperglycaemic agent has also been studied. This study was aimed at explaining the mechanism of hypoglycaemic effect by ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE). Additionally, studies on the active components involved in the effect have also been attempted.EE significantly inhibited mammalian intestinal -glucosidases and yeast -glucosidase (IC50 , 8.11 0.10 g mL(-1) ). The kinetic studies showed that EE inhibited sucrase, maltase and and p-nitrophenyl--d-glucopyranoside hydrolysis by mixed-type inhibition. Further, in vivo studies identified that the oral administration (100-200 mg kg(-1) body weight) of EE significantly suppressed the maltose/glucose-induced postprandial plasma glucose elevation and wielded an antihyperglycaemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. GC-MS analysis of EE revealed high levels of -sitosterol (29.62%), stigmasterol (21.91%), campesterol (10.85%) and other compounds.These findings suggest that EE might exert an anti-diabetic effect by inhibition of -glucosidases from the intestine, in turn suppressing the carbohydrate absorption into the bloodstream. Hence the results extend a foundation to the future prospects of the food-derived enzyme inhibitors in treatment of diabetes.

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