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Herein we report the successful fabrication of highly flexible, reversibly stretchable, transparent, and conductive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite (NC) films with a hydrophobic surface by reinforcing varying amounts, viz., 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 wt %, of calcium zincate (Ca0.2Zn0.8O) nanofillers. The developed nanocomposite films show appreciable UVA screening efficacies as established by a novel (UV-transillumination studies) method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies reveal a positive interaction between PVA matrix and incorporated nanofiller, while scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies support uniform filler dispersions. The electronic spectral studies substantiate the changes in electronic band structure of composite films leading to appreciable changes in the optoelectronic properties. The fluorescent emission studies reveal dopant-dependent photonic emissions, while the dielectric properties, such as dielectric constant (ϵ') and dielectric loss (ϵ''), increase with an increase in filler volumes up to an optimal filler fraction (2 wt % of Ca0.2Zn0.8O) owing to the segmental motion of polymer chains in addition to interfacial polarization associated with multicomponent systems. The developed films with excellent optoelectronic properties alongside appreciable flexibilities and stretchabilities aid their applications as multifunctional UVA shielding polymeric composites with enhanced photoconductivities. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Kundachira Subramani N.,JSS College
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2015

Polymer nanocomposites for electro-optics are known to offer novel material morphologies and unique device geometries, thereby enhancing the device performance. In this study, we report the successful fabrication of one such blue-green fluorescent poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/cesium zincate (Cs2ZnO2) nanocomposite by solution intercalation technique. The optoelectronic properties of prepared films were probed with the intent to establish the effect of nanointegrates on optical and electrical characteristics of particle stabilizing PVA. The optical absorbance studies revealed the UV absorbent nature of PVA/Cs2ZnO2 films exhibiting a steep UV absorption coupled with high visible transmission. The optical parameters of nanocomposite films, including absorption/extinction coefficients, optical band gap, complex refractive index (RI), and dielectric functions besides optical conductivity were evaluated, which supports the dopant-dependent optical properties of PVA with a scope for band gap engineering. The dispersion and functionalization of nanofillers were characterized by FESEM. The integrated fillers induced a broad blue-green luminescence (2.88-2.58 eV) in the emission spectrum of PVA. The structural aspects were probed by FTIR studies, while charge transport properties were valued by dielectric studies. The dielectric properties (dielectric storage and dielectric loss), AC conductivity, and charge dissipation were found to increase with nanofiller content and decrease with frequency. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Patil S.K.,Jss College | Wari M.N.,Karnatak University | Inamdar S.R.,Karnatak University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

The absorption and fluorescence spectra of three medium sized dipolar laser dyes: coumarin 478 (C478), coumarin 519 (C519) and coumarin 523 (C523) have been recorded and studied comprehensively in various solvents at room temperature. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of C478, C519 and C523 show a bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts with increasing solvent polarity indicate that the transitions involved are π → π â̂ - and n → πâ̂ -. Onsager radii determined from ab initio calculations were used in the determination of dipole moments. The ground and excited state dipole moments were evaluated by using solvatochromic correlations. It is observed that the dipole moment values of excited states (μe) are higher than corresponding ground state values (μg) for the solvents studied. The ground and excited state dipole moments of these probes computed from ab initio calculations and those determined experimentally are compared and the results are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


News Article | December 7, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

LUGANO-SINGAPORE, 7th December, 2016 - Pain relief and other forms of supportive care for cancer patients are insufficient, researchers report at the ESMO ASIA 2016 Congress in Singapore. They also highlight that side-effects to chemotherapy must be treated efficiently and that doctors should ensure end-of-life treatment meets patients' expectations. Despite existing recommendations on the need for early supportive care interventions for cancer patients (1,2,3) researchers are still reporting inadequate efforts to address pain, anxiety and other side effects of cancer treatment. A study from India presented at ESMO Asia 2016 shows that, for patients on government-funded health schemes, medical care for the toxic effects of chemotherapy is often highly restricted and this delays cancer treatment cycles. Drugs are often not fully funded so patients have to pay for them out of their own pocket. If they cannot afford to do this, then their supportive care is inadequate and they will suffer side effects from cancer drugs. This means they are unlikely to adhere to treatment for subsequent chemotherapy cycles. "The majority of patients treated under government schemes had poor quality of supportive care while on chemotherapy," said lead author Assistant Professor Himanshu Patel, a clinical pharmacist, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore, India. "We found its use was highly restricted, leading to side effects such as vomiting and infections, meaning the rescheduling of chemotherapy cycles for many patients.There's an urgent need for better treatment policies from government," he said. Supportive care such as pain relief, antibiotics and drugs to prevent nausea is recommended for advanced cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy by ESMO (1,2) and the World Health Organisation (3), among others. The study by Dr Patel (4) included interviews about supportive care with 850 patients over six months. Researchers reviewed what support was used including pain-relief, antibiotics and protein supplements. Results showed that access to drugs proven to be more effective in treating nausea and vomiting was highly restricted for patients on government-funded schemes in India. The same was true for medications to reduce infection risk and boost white blood cell production in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as protein supplements. To relieve cancer-related pain, four in five participants were prescribed tramadol, with access to morphine and other more effective painkillers limited. Privately-insured patients did not face the same limited access as those on government-funded schemes, which often did not cover out-of-pocket costs. Patel said: "Public cancer care schemes should follow guidelines and include adjuvant treatments in their budgets, according to international recommendations." Cure or symptom relief: what do cancer patients expect from treatment? Patients' expectations from palliative chemotherapy as well as their concerns as treatment progresses are explored in another study (5) reported at the ESMO Asia 2016 Congress. Results found that expectations among patients changed as care progressed. Nearly a third (n=11) on first line treatment expected a cure whereas later line patients said they anticipated an ordinary life with controlled symptoms. All patients put drug toxicity as their top concern, although anxiety around disease progression increased as patients advanced through treatment. Lead author Nobumichi Takeuchi, director of medical oncology, Ina Central Hospital, Ina, Japan, said: "Oncologists should assist end-of-life patients to focus on positive experiences such as a family event so they don't lose hope. The patient should drive this process with medical staff guiding and encouraging them with a questionnaire to identify their expectations." Cancer pain and how to prioritise its treatment is the focus of a study (6) which evaluated the difference in quality of life (QoL) and demand for pain relief. Researchers compared the experiences of patients with background cancer pain (BCP) - persistent pain lasting at least 12 hours - and breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) where patients experience brief but severe flare-ups of discomfort. Results found that patients with uncontrolled BCP had a lower QoL than those with BTcP. Those with moderate or severe BCP experienced sleep disorders and dissatisfaction with pain control compared with BTcP patients (p Lead author Assistant Professor Sun Kyung Baek, a medical oncologist, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea, said: "Pain is one of the most feared symptoms in cancer patients and impacts significantly on their well-being. Physicians should be aware of and control background pain first, even though acute pain also has a negative impact on quality of life ." A total of 1,841 patients were recruited including those experiencing high (n=496) to moderate (n=736) pain, and BTcP (n=609). They completed a questionnaire on their experiences including pain severity, treatment, and satisfaction with how their cancer pain was dealt with. Commenting on the results of these studies, Dr Grace Yang, a consultant at the National Cancer Centre, Singapore, said: "The findings from these studies highlight the need to improve both the effectiveness of, as well as access to, supportive care measures that can relieve cancer-related symptoms and treatment-related side effects. "This will improve patient quality of life, enable cancer therapy to be administered, and is aligned with the expectations of patients themselves."


Baragi J.G.,Jss College | Maganur S.,Jss College | Malode V.,Jss College | Baragi S.J.,Jss College
Journal of Molecular Liquids | Year: 2013

Density and refractive index at (298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K for the binary liquid mixtures of acetylacetone with n-Nonane, n-Decane and n-Dodecane have been measured over the entire mole fraction range of binary liquid mixtures. Using these data, excess molar volume and deviation in molar refraction were calculated. The computed quantities were fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to derive the coefficients and estimate the standard deviation values. These quantities have been discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Patil P.B.,Karnatak University | Kallapur S.V.,Jss College | Kallapur V.L.,Karnatak University | Holihosur S.N.,Karnatak University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate insecticidal properties of organic solvent extracts of Clerodendron inerme (C. inerme) leaves against larval stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) mosquito species. Methods: The sundried leaf powder of C. inerme was subjected for extraction using organic solvents viz. methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and hexane extract, and were tested against third/fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus species in accordance with WHO standard methods. Experiments were conducted in four replicates with control group containing water alone and positive control group containing respective solvent (dimethylsulfoxide/acetone) used for dissolving the extracts. Results: Among the four solvent extracts, hexane extract has effective growth disruptive activity against Ae. aegypti, and showed positive tests for presence of four groups of phytochemical constituents viz. tanin, phytosteriod, terpenoid and cardiac glycoside. The hexane extract was tested against field collected filarial vector Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae for growth disruptive activity. Adult emergence inhibition values for 50 percent suppression (EI50) of the tested population for methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and hexane extracts treated against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were found to be 37.45, 14.79, 2.56 and 1.96 mg/L respectively, while hexane extract treated against Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to be equally effective with EI50 value of 3.74 mg/L. Hexane extract treated against fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus showed EI50 values of 8.07 and 19.55 mg/L respectively in comparison with that of standard insect growth regulator methoprene demonstrating EI50 value of 0.05 mg/L. Besides, the hexane extract was also found to possess toxic effect against non-target organism Gambusia affinis (a bio-control agent), however, the lethal concentration (LC50=172.7 mg/L for 24 h) against Gambusia affinis was much higher in comparison with that of tested concentrations against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusions: We conclude from the present investigation that the hexane extract of C. inerme has positive implications for its consideration in integrated control of dengue/filarial vectors due to their ecological distinctness in comparison with non-target organism and further due to ecofriendly nature of the extract in terms of easy biodegradability. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Pushpa N.,JSS College | Gnana Prakash A.P.,University of Mysore
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2015

N-channel depletion MOSFETs were irradiated with different swift heavy ions viz., 175 MeV Ni13+ ions, 140 MeV Si10+ ions, 100 MeV F8+ ions, 95 MeV O7+ ions and 48 MeV Li3+ ions in the same dose range of 100 krad–100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics of MOSFETs were studied before and after irradiation and after annealing. The degradation and recovery mechanisms were studied systematically. It was found that around 80 % degradation in transconductance and mobility and almost 100 % recoveries in the electrical characteristics of irradiated MOSFETs after annealing. © 2015, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.


Inamdar L.S.,Karnatak University | Jayamma Y.,Jss College
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) for improved physical performance is associated with many deleterious effects. The present study aims to evaluate the short-term effect of an AAS compound stanozolol, on lipoprotein profile, granulopoiesis and immune response in adult female mice. The mice were assigned to five experimental groups and different doses of stanozolol (low - 0.05 mg, medium - 0.5 mg, high - 5 mg and highest dose - 7.5 mg/kg bwt or only vehicle respectively) were administered s.c. for 15 days. A decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) as well as total cholesterol (TC) in all the stanozolol treated groups and an increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) in high and the highest dose treated groups indicate that stanozolol alters serum lipoprotein profile. A significant increase in the percentage of myelocytes, metamyelocytes and neutrophils in all the treated mice unveils the stimulation of granulopoiesis through the acceleration of neutrophil precursors' maturation in the bone marrow of mice. The stimulation of erythropoiesis was also noted in all the treated groups. The flow cytometry analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3 + and CD4 +) revealed immunoenhancing response of stanozolol at optimum physiological dose, however, it is immunosuppressive at supraphysiologic level. We conclude that stanozolol accelerates granulopoiesis and stimulates immune response (at physiologic level only), though it alters the lipoprotein profile in mice. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Prakash A.P.G.,University of Mysore | Pushpa N.,JSS College
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2015

Silicon bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), Silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) and metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are the key components of BiCMOS integrated circuits. The semiconductor devices need to withstand very high total doses (100’s of Mrad) for reliable operation of electronic circuits for 8-10 years of LHC operation. The study of radiation tolerance of semiconductor devices up to 100 Mrad of total dose takes longer time with conventional60Co gamma, proton and electron irradiation facilities and the effects due to these radiations are well understood. Hence it is important to study the effects of heavy ion irradiation on various semiconductor devices. The irradiation time decreases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of incident radiation and LET increases with atomic number of the impinging ions. But it is essential to understand the mechanism of energy transfer by different heavy ions in semiconductor devices. Therefore, here we give an overview of different heavy ion interactions with Si BJTs, MOSFETs and SiGe HBTs by primarily focusing on the electrical characteristics of these devices before and after ion irradiation. We show that the irradiation time needed to reach very high total dose can be reduced by using Pelletron accelerator facilities instead of conventional irradiation facilities. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Seema M.,JSS College | Devaki N.S.,University of Mysore
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2010

The effect of 12 essential oils viz, pepper oil (Piper nigrum L.), nutmeg oil (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), turmeric oil (Curcuma longa L.), capsicum oil (Capsicum annum L.), coriander oil (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel oil (Sweet) ((Ocimum gratissimum L.), fennel oil (Bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp piperitum. Mill.), clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum L.), tulsi oil (Ocimum sanctum L.), cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyne.), mustard oil (Brassica juncea L.) and eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook) were tested for fungicidal properties against Rhizoctonia solani-the causal agent of sore shin disease of tobacco by poisoned food technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration varied between 500-2000 ppm. Essential oil of cinnamon was found most effective, as it recorded complete inhibition of the pathogen at 500 ppm. Clove oil showed mycelial inhibition at 1000 ppm. Fennel and nutmeg oil were effective at 2000 ppm. © JBiopest.

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