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Lutter C.K.,World Health Organization | Iannotti L.,University of Washington | Creed-Kanashiro H.,Institute Investigacion Nutricional | Guyon A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition

Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Sununtnasuk C.,International Food Policy Research Institute | D'Agostino A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Fiedler J.L.,International Food Policy Research Institute
Public Health Nutrition

Objective The prevalence of maternal anaemia remains unacceptably high in developing countries. At the same time, the percentage of women who consume one or more Fe+folic acid (IFA) tablets during pregnancy remains persistently low. The objective of the present study was to identify where, within antenatal care (ANC) programmes, pregnant women falter in obtaining and consuming an ideal minimum of 180 IFA tablets. Design Data from Demographic and Health Surveys were used to develop a schematic which identifies four sequential 'falter points' to consuming 180 IFA tablets: ANC attendance, IFA receipt or purchase, IFA consumption and the number of tablets consumed. Setting Twenty-two countries with high burdens of undernutrition. Subjects A sample of 162 958 women, 15 to 49 years of age, with a live birth in the past 5 years. Results Across all countries, 83 % of all pregnant women had at least one ANC visit, 81 % of whom received IFA tablets. Of those receiving IFA tablets, 95 % consumed at least one. Overall adherence to the ideal supplementation regimen, however, was extremely low: only 8 % consumed 180 or more IFA tablets. There were only two countries in which the percentage of pregnant women consuming 180 or more tablets exceeded 30 %. Conclusions While most women receive and take some IFA tablets, few receive or take enough. The analysis identifies where ANC-based distribution of IFA falters in each country. It enables policy makers to design and prioritize follow-up activities to more precisely identify barriers, an essential next step to improving IFA distribution through ANC. © The Authors 2015. Source

Partapuri T.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Steinglass R.,Health Integrated | Sequeira J.,Health Integrated
Journal of Infectious Diseases

Background. Outreach services are used systematically to deliver immunization and health services to individuals with insufficient access to health facilities in lower-income countries. Currently, the topic of integrated service delivery during immunization outreach lacks the attention paid to integration at fixed sites or during campaigns. This article explores integrated outreach and risks associated with service integration. Methods. Published and gray literature in public health databases and on organization websites were reviewed, yielding 33 articles and gray literature documents for a literature review of experience integrating other services with routine immunization at outreach sessions.Results.The current policy climate favors service integration as a strategy for increasing the equity and efficiency of important health interventions. However, integration may also present some risk to well-established and resourced interventions, such as immunization, which must be recognized as programs compete for limited resources. Experience reveals integration opportunities in planning and intersectoral coordination, training and supervision, community participation, pooled funding, and monitoring. Conclusions. The reviewed literature indicates that successful integration of health interventions with immunization at routine outreach sessions requires well-planned and implemented steps. It also highlights the need for additional studies or feedback on planning and implementing integrated outreach services in lower-income countries. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Sibley L.M.,Emory University | Spangler S.A.,Emory University | Barry D.,Emory University | Tesfaye S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health

Introduction: In Ethiopia, postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death. The Maternal Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) project developed a community-based model of maternal and newborn health focusing on birth and early postpartum care. Implemented in the Amhara and Oromiya regions, the model included misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. This article describes regional trends in women's use of misoprostol; their awareness, receipt, and use of misoprostol at project's endline; and factors associated with its use. Methods: The authors assessed trends in use of misoprostol using monthly data from MaNHEP's quality improvement database; and awareness, receipt, use, and correct use of misoprostol using data from MaNHEP's endline survey of 1019 randomly sampled women who gave birth during the year prior to the survey. Results: Misoprostol use increased rapidly and was relatively stable over 20 months, but regional differences were stark. At endline, significantly more women in Oromiya were aware of misoprostol compared with women who resided in Amhara (94% vs 59%); significantly more had received misoprostol (80% vs 35%); significantly more had received it during pregnancy (93% vs 48%); and significantly more had received it through varied sources. Most women who received misoprostol used it (> 95%) irrespective of age, parity, or education. Factors associated with use were Oromiya residence (odds ratio [OR] 9.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.78-13.24), attending 2 or more Community Maternal and Newborn Health (CMNH) family meetings (OR 2.62; 95% CI, 1.89-3.63), receiving antenatal care (OR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.08-2.58) and being attended at birth by a skilled provider or trained health extension worker, community health development agent, or traditional birth attendant versus an untrained caregiver or no one. Correct use was associated with having attended 2 or more CMNH family meetings (OR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.35-3.03). Discussion: Multiple distribution channels increase women's access to misoprostol. Most women who have access to misoprostol use it. Early distribution to pregnant women who are educated to use misoprostol appears to be safe and unrelated to choice of birthplace. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives. Source

Ashenafr A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Karim A.M.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Ameha A.,UNICEF | Erbo A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Ethiopian Medical Journal

Background. In January 2011, Health Extension Workers (HEWs) of Ethiopia's Health Extension Program (IIEP) began providing pneumonia case management for children less than five years of age through the integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) strategy. Objective. To report the effect of HEP, following the introduction of iCCM, and other accessibility factors on care- seeking behaviors for common childhood illnesses (acute respiratory infection [ARI], diarrhea, and fever). Methods. Three possible care-seeking outcomes for childhood illnesses were considered: not seeking appropriate care, seeking care from HEP sources, or seeking care from other appropriate sources. The baseline care-seeking outcomes from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, 2011, were compared with the care-seeking outcomes in a follow-up iCCM survey in December 2012. The effects of the HEP intensity and other factors on care- seeking outcomes were estimated using regression analyses. Results. Appropriate care-seeking for children with acute respiratory infection, ARI, diarrhea, or fever increased two-fold, from 19% at baseline to 38% at follow-up, mainly due to an increase in seeking care for common childhood illnesses from HEWs. Higher intensity of the HEP and other accessibility factors were associated with higher care-seeking for childhood illnesses from HEP sources. Conclusion. Incorporating iCCM within the HEP service package significantly improved the appropriate care- seeking behaviors for childhood illnesses in rural Ethiopia. Source

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