JSI Research and Training Institute Inc.

Fort Hunt, VA, United States

JSI Research and Training Institute Inc.

Fort Hunt, VA, United States
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Karim A.M.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc | Admassu K.,Ministry of Health | Schellenberg J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Alemu H.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Improving newborn survival is essential if Ethiopia is to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. The national Health Extension Program (HEP) includes community-based newborn survival interventions. We report the effect of these interventions on changes in maternal and newborn health care practices between 2008 and 2010 in 101 districts, comprising 11.6 million people, or 16% of Ethiopia's population.Methods and Findings:Using data from cross-sectional surveys in December 2008 and December 2010 from a representative sample of 117 communities (kebeles), we estimated the prevalence of maternal and newborn care practices, and a program intensity score in each community. Women with children aged 0 to 11 months reported care practices for their most recent pregnancy and childbirth. The program intensity score ranged between zero and ten and was derived from four outreach activities of the HEP front-line health workers. Dose-response relationships between changes in program intensity and the changes in maternal and newborn health were investigated using regression methods, controlling for secular trend, respondents' background characteristics, and community-level factors.Between 2008 and 2010, median program intensity score increased 2.4-fold. For every unit increase in the score, the odds of receiving antenatal care increased by 1.13 times (95% CI 1.03-1.23); the odds of birth preparedness increased by 1.31 times (1.19-1.44); the odds of receiving postnatal care increased by 1.60 times (1.34-1.91); and the odds of initiating breastfeeding immediately after birth increased by 1.10 times (1.02-1.20). Program intensity score was not associated with skilled deliveries, nor with some of the other newborn health care indicators.Conclusions:The results of our analysis suggest that Ethiopia's HEP platform has improved maternal and newborn health care practices at scale. However, implementation research will be required to address the maternal and newborn care practices that were not influenced by the HEP outreach activities. © 2013 Karim et al.

Berglund A.,Central Hospital | Lefevre-Cholay H.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Bacci A.,World Health Organization | Blyumina A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Lindmark G.,Collaborating Center in Human Reproduction
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica | Year: 2010

Objective. To describe the process of change and assess compliance and effect on maternal and infant outcome when the WHO package Effective Perinatal Care (EPC) was implemented at maternities in Ukraine. Design. Intervention study comparing outcomes before and during 2.5 years after training. Setting. Three maternities in Donetsk, Lutsk and Lviv 20032006. Population. Baseline data were collected for 652, 742 and 302 deliveries and 420, 381 and 135 infants, respectively, in Donetsk, Lutsk and Lviv. Follow-up data included 4,561, 9,865 and 7,227 deliveries and 3,829, 8,658 and 6,401 infants. Methods. Staff training on evidence-based guideline. Main outcome measures. Interventions during labor, maternal outcomes and hypothermia in the infants. Results: EPC procedures were successfully implemented and adherence to the protocols was excellent. For most variables, the change occurred during the first three months but was well sustained. The use of partogram increased fourfold in Donetsk and from 0% to 60% in Lviv. Induction and augmentation of labor decreased to less than 1% and less than 5%, respectively. Cesarean section rate dropped significantly in two of the maternities. The proportion of hypothermic infants decreased from 60% (Donetsk), 85% (Lutsk) and 77% (Lviv) to 1% in all three maternities during the first three months and was stable throughout the study period. Admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit decreased significantly in two of the maternities and there was no effect on early neonatal mortality. Conclusions: The process of education and change was well anchored in the organization, and implementation of new procedures was quick and successful. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Partapuri T.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Steinglass R.,Health Integrated | Sequeira J.,Health Integrated
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background. Outreach services are used systematically to deliver immunization and health services to individuals with insufficient access to health facilities in lower-income countries. Currently, the topic of integrated service delivery during immunization outreach lacks the attention paid to integration at fixed sites or during campaigns. This article explores integrated outreach and risks associated with service integration. Methods. Published and gray literature in public health databases and on organization websites were reviewed, yielding 33 articles and gray literature documents for a literature review of experience integrating other services with routine immunization at outreach sessions.Results.The current policy climate favors service integration as a strategy for increasing the equity and efficiency of important health interventions. However, integration may also present some risk to well-established and resourced interventions, such as immunization, which must be recognized as programs compete for limited resources. Experience reveals integration opportunities in planning and intersectoral coordination, training and supervision, community participation, pooled funding, and monitoring. Conclusions. The reviewed literature indicates that successful integration of health interventions with immunization at routine outreach sessions requires well-planned and implemented steps. It also highlights the need for additional studies or feedback on planning and implementing integrated outreach services in lower-income countries. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Lutter C.K.,World Health Organization | Iannotti L.,University of Washington | Creed-Kanashiro H.,Institute Investigacion Nutricional | Guyon A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2013

Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Degefie T.,Newborn and Child Health Consultant | Amare Y.,Consultancy for Social Development | Mulligan B.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2014

Background: Despite a substantial decrease in child mortality in Ethiopia over the past decade, neonatal mortality remains unchanged (37/1000 live-births). This paper describes a qualitative study on beliefs and practices on immediate newborn and postnatal care in four rural communities of Ethiopia conducted to inform development of a package of community-based interventions targeting newborns. Methods. The study team conducted eight key informant interviews (KII) with grandmothers, 27 in-depth interviews (IDI) with mothers; seven IDI with traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 15IDI with fathers, from four purposively selected communities located in Sidama Zone of Southern Nationalities, Nations, and Peoples (SNNP) Region and in East Shewa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia Region. Results: In the study communities deliveries occurred at home. After cutting the umbilical cord, the baby is put to the side of the mother, not uncommonly with no cloth covering. This is largely due to attendants focusing on delivery of the placenta which is reinforced by the belief that the placenta is the 'house' or 'blanket' of the baby and that any "harm" caused to the placenta will transfer to the newborn. Applying butter or ointment to the cord "to speed drying" is common practice. Initiation of breastfeeding is often delayed and women commonly report discarding colostrum before initiating breastfeeding. Sub-optimal breastfeeding practices continue, due to perceived inadequate maternal nutrition and breast milk often leading to the provision of herbal drinks. Poor thermal care is also demonstrated through lack of continued skin-to-skin contact, exposure of newborns to smoke, frequent bathing - often with cold water baths for low-birth weight or small babies; and, poor hygienic practices are reported, particularly hand washing prior to contact with the newborn. Conclusion: Cultural beliefs and newborn care practices do not conform to recommended standards. Local perspectives related to newborn care practices should inform behaviour change messages. Such messages should target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs, other female family members and fathers. © 2014Degefie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sununtnasuk C.,International Food Policy Research Institute | D'Agostino A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Fiedler J.L.,International Food Policy Research Institute
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2015

Objective The prevalence of maternal anaemia remains unacceptably high in developing countries. At the same time, the percentage of women who consume one or more Fe+folic acid (IFA) tablets during pregnancy remains persistently low. The objective of the present study was to identify where, within antenatal care (ANC) programmes, pregnant women falter in obtaining and consuming an ideal minimum of 180 IFA tablets. Design Data from Demographic and Health Surveys were used to develop a schematic which identifies four sequential 'falter points' to consuming 180 IFA tablets: ANC attendance, IFA receipt or purchase, IFA consumption and the number of tablets consumed. Setting Twenty-two countries with high burdens of undernutrition. Subjects A sample of 162 958 women, 15 to 49 years of age, with a live birth in the past 5 years. Results Across all countries, 83 % of all pregnant women had at least one ANC visit, 81 % of whom received IFA tablets. Of those receiving IFA tablets, 95 % consumed at least one. Overall adherence to the ideal supplementation regimen, however, was extremely low: only 8 % consumed 180 or more IFA tablets. There were only two countries in which the percentage of pregnant women consuming 180 or more tablets exceeded 30 %. Conclusions While most women receive and take some IFA tablets, few receive or take enough. The analysis identifies where ANC-based distribution of IFA falters in each country. It enables policy makers to design and prioritize follow-up activities to more precisely identify barriers, an essential next step to improving IFA distribution through ANC. © The Authors 2015.

Cortes D.E.,University of Massachusetts Boston | Millan-Ferro A.,Joslin Diabetes Center | Schneider K.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Vega R.R.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Caballero A.E.,Joslin Diabetes Center
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: In the U.S., poverty has been linked to both obesity and disease burden. Latinos in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by poverty, and over the past 10 years, the percentage of overweight U.S. Latino youth has approximately doubled. Buying low-cost food that is calorie-dense and filling has been linked to obesity. Low-income individuals tend to favor energy-dense foods because of their low cost, and economic decisions made during food purchasing have physiologic repercussions. Diets based on energy-dense foods tend to be high in processed staples, such as refined grains, added sugars, and added fats. These diets have been linked to a higher risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Purpose: This pilot study conducted ethnographic qualitative analyses combined with quantitative analyses to understand grocery shopping practices among 20 Spanish-speaking, low-income Latino families. The purpose was to analyze food selection practices in order to determine the effect of nutrition education on changes in shopping practices to later develop educational tools to promote selection of healthier food options. Methods: Participants received tailored, interactive, nutrition education during three to five home visits and a supermarket tour. Grocery store receipts for grocery purchases collected at baseline and at the end of the project were analyzed for each family to extract nutritional content of purchased foods. Nutritional content was measured with these factors in mind: quantity, calories, fats, carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and percentage of sugary beverages and processed food. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2011-2012. Results: After receiving between three and five home-based nutrition education sessions and a supermarket tour over a 6-month period, many families adopted instructions on buying budget-friendly, healthier alternative foods. Findings indicate that participating families decreased the total number of calories and calories per dollar purchased from baseline to post-education (median total calories: baseline, 20, 191; post-education, 15, 991, p=0.008); median calories per dollar: baseline, 404; post-education, 320, p=0.008). The median grams of carbohydrates per dollar (baseline, 66, post-education, 45) and median calories from processed food (baseline, 11, 000, post-education, 7845) were not reduced (p=0.06). Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated that grocery shopping practices are an important factor to address in nutrition education among Spanish-speaking, low-income individuals, and that there maybe ways to encourage low-income, Latino families to purchase healthier foods. Findings challenged arguments suggesting that such an approach is not possible because of the high cost of healthier foods. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Ashenafr A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Karim A.M.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Ameha A.,UNICEF | Erbo A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Ethiopian Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Background. In January 2011, Health Extension Workers (HEWs) of Ethiopia's Health Extension Program (IIEP) began providing pneumonia case management for children less than five years of age through the integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) strategy. Objective. To report the effect of HEP, following the introduction of iCCM, and other accessibility factors on care- seeking behaviors for common childhood illnesses (acute respiratory infection [ARI], diarrhea, and fever). Methods. Three possible care-seeking outcomes for childhood illnesses were considered: not seeking appropriate care, seeking care from HEP sources, or seeking care from other appropriate sources. The baseline care-seeking outcomes from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, 2011, were compared with the care-seeking outcomes in a follow-up iCCM survey in December 2012. The effects of the HEP intensity and other factors on care- seeking outcomes were estimated using regression analyses. Results. Appropriate care-seeking for children with acute respiratory infection, ARI, diarrhea, or fever increased two-fold, from 19% at baseline to 38% at follow-up, mainly due to an increase in seeking care for common childhood illnesses from HEWs. Higher intensity of the HEP and other accessibility factors were associated with higher care-seeking for childhood illnesses from HEP sources. Conclusion. Incorporating iCCM within the HEP service package significantly improved the appropriate care- seeking behaviors for childhood illnesses in rural Ethiopia.

Chandani Y.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Noel M.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Pomeroy A.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | Andersson S.,JSI Research and Training Institute Inc. | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

To understand how supply chain factors affect product availability at the community level, the Improving Supply Chains for Community Case Management of Pneumonia and Other Common Diseases of Childhood Project developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for gathering, organizing, and interpreting evidence about supply constraints to community case management (CCM). Baseline assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda conducted in 2010 provided information on the strengths and weaknesses of existing CCM supply chains for five main products: antibiotics for pneumonia, oral rehydration solution, ready to use therapeutic food, zinc, and artemether/lumefantrine. The assessments tested the strength and validity of causal pathways identified in the TOC that were believed to influence availability of CCM products among community health workers (CHWs) for treating common childhood illnesses. Results of the assessments showed product availability to be weak in each country, with more than half of CHWs stocked out of at least one tracer product on the day of the assessment. This report will focus on the findings related to three key preconditions of the TOC and how these were used to inform the design of the CCM supply chain improvement strategy in each country. The three key preconditions include product availability at CHW resupply points, supply chain knowledge and capacity among CHWs and their supervisors, and availability of appropriate transportation. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Sibley L.M.,Emory University | Spangler S.A.,Emory University | Barry D.,Emory University | Tesfaye S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health | Year: 2014

Introduction: In Ethiopia, postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death. The Maternal Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) project developed a community-based model of maternal and newborn health focusing on birth and early postpartum care. Implemented in the Amhara and Oromiya regions, the model included misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. This article describes regional trends in women's use of misoprostol; their awareness, receipt, and use of misoprostol at project's endline; and factors associated with its use. Methods: The authors assessed trends in use of misoprostol using monthly data from MaNHEP's quality improvement database; and awareness, receipt, use, and correct use of misoprostol using data from MaNHEP's endline survey of 1019 randomly sampled women who gave birth during the year prior to the survey. Results: Misoprostol use increased rapidly and was relatively stable over 20 months, but regional differences were stark. At endline, significantly more women in Oromiya were aware of misoprostol compared with women who resided in Amhara (94% vs 59%); significantly more had received misoprostol (80% vs 35%); significantly more had received it during pregnancy (93% vs 48%); and significantly more had received it through varied sources. Most women who received misoprostol used it (> 95%) irrespective of age, parity, or education. Factors associated with use were Oromiya residence (odds ratio [OR] 9.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.78-13.24), attending 2 or more Community Maternal and Newborn Health (CMNH) family meetings (OR 2.62; 95% CI, 1.89-3.63), receiving antenatal care (OR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.08-2.58) and being attended at birth by a skilled provider or trained health extension worker, community health development agent, or traditional birth attendant versus an untrained caregiver or no one. Correct use was associated with having attended 2 or more CMNH family meetings (OR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.35-3.03). Discussion: Multiple distribution channels increase women's access to misoprostol. Most women who have access to misoprostol use it. Early distribution to pregnant women who are educated to use misoprostol appears to be safe and unrelated to choice of birthplace. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

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