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Harrogate, United Kingdom

Pilling E.,JSC International Ltd | Campbell P.,Syngenta | Coulson M.,Syngenta | Ruddle N.,Syngenta | Tornier I.,Eurofins
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Neonicotinoid residues in nectar and pollen from crop plants have been implicated as one of the potential factors causing the declines of honey bee populations. Median residues of thiamethoxam in pollen collected from honey bees after foraging on flowering seed treated maize were found to be between 1 and 7 μg/kg, median residues of the metabolite CGA322704 (clothianidin) in the pollen were between 1 and 4 μg/kg. In oilseed rape, median residues of thiamethoxam found in pollen collected from bees were between <1 and 3.5 μg/kg and in nectar from foraging bees were between 0.65 and 2.4 μg/kg. Median residues of CGA322704 in pollen and nectar in the oilseed rape trials were all below the limit of quantification (1 μg/kg). Residues in the hive were even lower in both the maize and oilseed rape trials, being at or below the level of detection of 1 μg/kg for bee bread in the hive and at or below the level of detection of 0.5 μg/kg for hive nectar, honey and royal jelly samples. The long-term risk to honey bee colonies in the field was also investigated, including the sensitive overwintering stage, from four years consecutive single treatment crop exposures to flowering maize and oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam treated seeds at rates recommended for insect control. Throughout the study, mortality, foraging behavior, colony strength, colony weight, brood development and food storage levels were similar between treatment and control colonies. Detailed examination of brood development throughout the year demonstrated that colonies exposed to the treated crop were able to successfully overwinter and had a similar health status to the control colonies in the following spring. We conclude that these data demonstrate there is a low risk to honey bees from systemic residues in nectar and pollen following the use of thiamethoxam as a seed treatment on oilseed rape and maize. © 2013 Pilling et al. Source


Elsmore R.,JSC International Ltd
Chimica Oggi/Chemistry Today | Year: 2013

The new Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) will repeal and replace the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) and is intended to build on the principles laid down in the BPD while introducing a number of significant changes to the way biocides are regulated within the EU. The BPR is intended to simplify and streamline existing EU requirements without reducing the level of protection offered to health and the environment. This article looks at the requirements of the BPR and some of the possible implications for industry and consumers of this new legislation. Source


Mereu C.,Field Fisher Waterhouse LLP | Chapman P.J.,JSC International Ltd
Chimica Oggi | Year: 2010

A new regulation (Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009) concerning the placing on the market of plant protection products has been recently published. This regulation replaces Council Directive 91/414/EEC. Many of the provisions of the new regulation are broadly similar to those in the Directive. However important changes include the introduction of hazard based cut-off criteria, the establishment of candidates for substitution and comparative assessment; together with zonal authorisation and mutual recognition for plant protection products. Source


Bowen D.E.,JSC International Ltd | Whitwell J.H.,Covance | Lillford L.,Covance | Henderson D.,Covance | And 5 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

With the publication of revised draft ICH guidelines (Draft ICH S2), there is scope and potential to establish a combined multi-end point in vivo assay to alleviate the need for multiple in vivo assays, thereby reducing time, cost and use of animals.Presented here are the results of an evaluation trial in which the bone-marrow and peripheral blood (via MicroFlow ® flow cytometry) micronucleus tests (looking at potential chromosome breakage and whole chromosome loss) in developing erythrocytes or young reticulocytes were combined with the Comet assay (measuring DNA strand-breakage), in stomach, liver and blood lymphocytes. This allowed a variety of potential target tissues (site of contact, site of metabolism and peripheral distribution) to be assessed for DNA damage. This combination approach was performed with minimal changes to the standard and regulatory recommended sampling times for the stand-alone assays.A series of eight in vivo genotoxins (2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[. a]pyrene, carbendazim, cyclophosphamide, dimethylnitrosamine, ethyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea and mitomycin C), which are known to act via different modes of action (direct- and indirect-acting clastogens, alkylating agents, gene mutagens, cross-linking and aneugenic compounds) were tested. Male rats were dosed at 0, 24 and 45. h, and bone marrow and peripheral blood (micronucleus endpoint), liver, whole blood and stomach (Comet endpoint) were sampled at three hours after the last dose. Comet and micronucleus responses were as expected based on available data for conventional (acute) stand-alone assays.All compounds were detected as genotoxic in at least one of the endpoints. The importance of evaluating both endpoints was highlighted by the uniquely positive responses for certain chemicals (benzo[. a]pyrene and 2-acetylaminofluorene) with the Comet endpoint and certain other chemicals (carbendazim and mitomycin C) with the micronucleus endpoint.The data generated from these investigations demonstrate the suitability of the multi-endpoint design. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Elsmore R.,JSC International Ltd
Chimica Oggi/Chemistry Today | Year: 2012

Biocides encompass a broad group of substances, products (and even micro-organisms) that are used to control unwanted organisms; they include many household products including disinfectants and insecticides as well as formulations used in industry such as slimicides, cooling water biocides and even embalming fl uids that are used to preserve bodies. This article looks at the regulatory hurdles facing biocides in the EU as the existing national schemes are being replaced by product authorisation under the Biocidal Products Directive [BPD] (98/8/EC). Historically many of these products have not required authorisation in some member states under the old national rules. Just as we are coming to terms with the implementation of the BPD it is being replaced by the Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR). The article examines the changes the BPR will introduce for biocidal products. Source

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