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Olah A.,Petz Aladar Teaching Hospital | Romics L.,Jr.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed enteral nutrition, nasogastric vs nasojejunal feeding, and early oral diet and immunonutrition, particularly glutamine and probiotic supplementation. Finally, current applicable guidelines and the effects of these guidelines on clinical practice are discussed. The latest meta- Analyses suggest that enteral nutrition significantly reduces the mortality rate of severe acute pancreatitis compared to parenteral feeding. To maintain gut barrier function and prevent early bacterial translocation, enteral feeding should be commenced within the first 24 h of hospital admission. Also, the safety of nasogastric feeding, which eases the administration of enteral nutrients in the clinical setting, is likely equal to nasojejunal feeding. Furthermore, an early low-fat oral diet is potentially beneficial in patients with mild pancreatitis. Despite the initial encouraging results, the current evidence does not support the use of immuno-enhanced nutrients or probiotics in patients with acute pancreatitis. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. Source

Willoughby R.E.,Jr.
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America | Year: 2015

Rabies is an acute, rapidly progressive encephalitis that is almost always fatal. Prophylaxis is highly effective but economics limits disease control. The mechanism of death from rabies is unclear. It is poorly cytopathic and poorly inflammatory. Rabies behaves like an acquired metabolic disorder. There may be a continuum of disease severity. History of animal bite is rare. The diagnosis is often missed. Intermittent encephalopathy, dysphagia, hydrophobia and aerophobia, and focal paresthesias or myoclonic jerks suggest rabies. Laboratory diagnosis is cumbersome but sensitive. Treatment is controversial but survivors are increasingly reported, with good outcomes in 4 of 8 survivors. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Spaide R.F.,Vitreous | Ryan E.H.,Jr.
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Purpose To evaluate potential accumulation of fluid in the outer choroid in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy. Design Retrospective observational case series. Methods Patients in 2 community-based retinal practices were evaluated for hyporeflective areas in the outer choroid consistent with collections of fluid using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Eligible patients were examined over the preceding 2 years, had a history of central serous chorioretinopathy, and did not have a history of choroidal neovascularization or photodynamic therapy. Results In the New York group there were 131 eyes of 70 patients who had a mean age of 56.3 (± 12.5) years, and 88 (67.2%) had hyporeflective regions consistent with posterior loculation of fluid in the macular region. In the Minnesota data set there were 91 eyes of 48 patients who had a mean age of 47.9 (± 9.9) years and hyporeflective regions consistent with posterior loculation of fluid was present in 59 (64.8%). In the entire group the mean subfoveal choroidal thickness of those without loculated fluid was 344 μm, as compared with 498 μm with loculated fluid (P <.001). The areas of loculated fluid were hyporeflective, were larger topographically than the large choroidal vessels, had an angular inner border, and did not have a bounding vascular wall. Conclusions Posterior loculation of fluid is a common finding in central serous chorioretinopathy, but it has a different pattern and distribution than do collections of fluid in the outer choroid and suprachoroidal space as seen in other forms of choroidal effusion. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

The mouse dose at the lowest water concentration used in the National Toxicology Program hexavalent chromium (CrVI) drinking water study (NTP, 2008) is about 74,500 times higher than the approximate human dose corresponding to the 35-city geometric mean reported in EWG (2010) and over 1000 times higher than that based on the highest reported tap water concentration. With experimental and environmental doses differing greatly, it is a regulatory challenge to extrapolate high-dose results to environmental doses orders of magnitude lower in a meaningful and toxicologically predictive manner. This seems particularly true for the low-dose extrapolation of results for oral CrVI-induced carcinogenesis since dose-dependent differences in the dose fraction absorbed by mouse target tissues are apparent (Kirman et al., 2012). These data can be used for a straightforward adjustment of the USEPA (2010) draft oral slope factor (SFo) to be more predictive of risk at environmentally-relevant doses. More specifically, the evaluation of observed and modeled differences in the fraction of dose absorbed by target tissues at the point-of-departure for the draft SFo calculation versus lower doses suggests that the draft SFo be divided by a dose-specific adjustment factor of at least an order of magnitude to be less over-predictive of risk at more environmentally-relevant doses. © 2014 The Author. Source

Salem N.,Jr. | Eggersdorfer M.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2015

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To delineate the available sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for human consumption and to determine if the available supply is capable of supplying the nutrient levels recommended by expert bodies. RECENT FINDINGS: There are converging opinions among experts, professional organizations and health professionals that a recommendation for a daily individual consumption of 500 mg of EPA/DHA would provide health benefits, and this translates to an annual human consumption of 1.3 million metric tons. Current human consumption of EPA/DHA is estimated to be only a small fraction of this amount and many people may suffer from suboptimal health as a result of low intake. EPA and DHA originate in the phytoplankton and are made available in the human food chain mainly through fish and other seafood. SUMMARY: The fish catch is not elastic and in fact has long since reached a plateau. Aquaculture has grown rapidly, but most of the fish oil produced is currently being used to support aquaculture feed and so this would appear to limit aquaculture growth - or at least the growth in availability of fish sources of EPA/DHA. Vegetable oil-derived alpha-linolenic acid, though relatively plentiful, is converted only at a trace level in humans to DHA and not very efficiently to EPA, and so cannot fill this gap. Microbial EPA/DHA production can in the future be increased, although this oil is likely to remain more expensive than fish oil. Plant sources of EPA and DHA have now been produced in the laboratory via transgenic means and will eventually clear regulatory hurdles for commercialization, but societal acceptance remains in question. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various sources of omega-3 fatty acids within the context of the potential world demand for these nutrients. In summary, it is concluded that fish and vegetable oil sources will not be adequate to meet future needs, but that algal oil and terrestrial plants modified genetically to produce EPA and DHA could provide for the increased world demand. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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