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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Duijvesz D.,Erasmus Medical Center | Luider T.,Erasmus Medical Center | Bangma C.H.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jenster G.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jenster G.,Josephine Nefkens Institute
European Urology | Year: 2011

Context: Although progress has been made with regard to types of markers (protein, DNA, RNA, and metabolites) and implementation of improved technologies (mass spectrometry, arrays, and deep sequencing), the discovery of novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa) in complex fluids, such as serum and urine, remains a challenge. Meanwhile, recent studies have reported that many cancer-derived proteins and RNAs are secreted through small vesicles known as exosomes. Objective: This narrative review describes recent progress in exosome research, focusing on the potential role of exosomes as novel biomarkers for PCa. The purpose of this review is to acquaint clinicians and researchers in the field of urology with the potential role of exosomes as biomarker treasure chests and with their clinical value. Evidence acquisition: Medline and Embase entries between 1966 and September 2010 were searched using the keywords exosomes, microvesicles, prostasomes, biomarkers, prostate cancer, and urology. Leading publications and articles constructively contributing to exosome research were selected for this review. Evidence synthesis: Exosomes are small vesicles (50-100 nm) secreted by almost all tissues; they represent their tissue origin. Purification of prostate- and PCa-derived exosomes will allow us to profile exosomes, providing a promising source of protein and RNA biomarkers for PCa. This profiling will contribute to the discovery of novel markers for the early diagnosis and reliable prognosis of PCa. Conclusions: Although the initial results are promising, further investigations are required to assess the clinical value of these exosomes in PCa. © 2010 European Association of Urology. Source

Roth S.,Josephine Nefkens Institute | Fodde R.,Josephine Nefkens Institute
Cell Communication and Adhesion | Year: 2011

Adult stem cell niches are characterized by a dichotomy of cycling and quiescent stem cells: while the former are responsible for tissue turnover, their quiescent counterparts are thought to become active upon tissue injury thus underlying the regenerative response. Moreover, quiescence prevents adult stem cells from accumulating mutations thus ensuring a reservoir of unaltered stem cells. In the intestine, while cycling stem cells were shown to give rise to the main differentiated lineages, the identity of their quiescent equivalents remains to date elusive. This is of relevance for conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis where quiescent stem cells may underlie metaplasia and the increased cancer risk associated with chronic inflammation. Tumours are thought to share a comparable hierarchical structure of adult tissues with pluripotent and self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) giving rise to more differentiated cellular types. As such, neoplastic lesions may encompass both cycling and quiescent CSCs. Because of their infrequent cycling, quiescent CSCs are refractory to chemo- and radiotherapy and are likely to play a role in tumour dissemination, dormancy and recurrence. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Marques R.B.,Josephine Nefkens Institute | Dits N.F.,Josephine Nefkens Institute | Erkens-Schulze S.,Josephine Nefkens Institute | van IJcken W.F.J.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Prostate epithelial cells depend on androgens for survival and function. In (early) prostate cancer (PCa) androgens also regulate tumor growth, which is exploited by hormonal therapies in metastatic disease. The aim of the present study was to characterize the androgen receptor (AR) response in hormonal therapy-resistant PC346 cells and identify potential disease markers. Methodology/Principal Findings: Human 19K oligoarrays were used to establish the androgen-regulated expression profile of androgen-responsive PC346C cells and its derivative therapy-resistant sublines: PC346DCC (vestigial AR levels), PC346Flu1 (AR overexpression) and PC346Flu2 (T877A AR mutation). In total, 107 transcripts were differentially-expressed in PC346C and derivatives after R1881 or hydroxyflutamide stimulations. The AR-regulated expression profiles reflected the AR modifications of respective therapy-resistant sublines: AR overexpression resulted in stronger and broader transcriptional response to R1881 stimulation, AR down-regulation correlated with deficient response of AR-target genes and the T877A mutation resulted in transcriptional response to both R1881 and hydroxyflutamide. This AR-target signature was linked to multiple publicly available cell line and tumor derived PCa databases, revealing that distinct functional clusters were differentially modulated during PCa progression. Differentiation and secretory functions were up-regulated in primary PCa but repressed in metastasis, whereas proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion were overexpressed in metastasis. Finally, the androgen-regulated genes ENDOD1, MCCC2 and ACSL3 were selected as potential disease markers for RT-PCR quantification in a distinct set of human prostate specimens. ENDOD1 and ACSL3 showed down-regulation in high-grade and metastatic PCa, while MCCC2 was overexpressed in low-grade PCa. Conclusions/Significance: AR modifications altered the transcriptional response to (anti)androgens in therapy-resistant cells. Furthermore, selective down-regulation of genes involved in differentiation and up-regulation of genes promoting proliferation and invasion suggest a disturbed balance between the growth and differentiation functions of the AR pathway during PCa progression. These findings may have implications in the current treatment and development of novel therapeutical approaches for metastatic PCa. © 2011 Marques et al. Source

Martens-Uzunova E.S.,Josephine Nefkens Institute | Bottcher R.,Josephine Nefkens Institute | Bottcher R.,Wildau University of Applied Sciences | Croce C.M.,Ohio State University | And 3 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2014

Context Genomic regions without protein-coding potential give rise to millions of protein-noncoding RNA transcripts (noncoding RNA) that participate in virtually all cellular processes. Research over the last 10 yr has accumulated evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in human urologic cancers. Objective To review current progress in the biology and implication of lncRNAs associated with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. Evidence acquisition The PubMed database was searched for articles in the English language with combinations of the Medical Subject Headings terms long non coding RNA, long noncoding RNA, long untranslated RNA, cancer, neoplasms, prostate, bladder, and kidney. Evidence synthesis We summarise existing knowledge on the systematics, biology, and function of lncRNAs, particularly these involved in prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. We also discuss the possible utilisation of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in urologic malignancies and portray the major challenges and future perspectives of ongoing lncRNA research. Conclusions LncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Alterations in the function of lncRNAs promote tumour formation, progression, and metastasis of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. LncRNAs can be used as noninvasive tumour markers in urologic malignancies. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs perform their function in the normal and malignant cell will lead to a better understanding of tumour biology and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of urologic cancers. Patient summary In this paper we reviewed current knowledge of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) for the detection and treatment of urologic cancers. We conclude that lncRNAs can be used as novel biomarkers in prostate, kidney, or bladder cancer. LncRNAs hold promise as future therapeutic targets, but more research is needed to gain a better understanding of their biologic function. © 2013 European Association of Urology. Source

Monteiro J.,Josephine Nefkens Institute | Gaspar C.,Josephine Nefkens Institute | Gaspar C.,Instituto Medicina Molecular | Richer W.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 8 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2014

Wnt signaling plays a central role in mammary stem cell (MaSC) homeostasis and in breast cancer. In particular, epigenetic alterations at different members of the Wnt pathway have been identified among triple-negative, basal-like breast cancers. Previously, we developed a mouse model for metaplastic breast adenocarcinoma, a subtype of triple-negative breast cancer, by targeting a hypomorphic mutations in the endogenous Apc gene (Apc1572T/+). Here, by employing the CD24 and CD29 cell surface antigens, we have identified a subpopulation of mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSCs) from Apc1572T/+ capable of self-renewal and differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of micro- and macrolung metastases and preliminary intravenous transplantation assays suggest that the MaCSCs underlie metastasis at distant organ sites. Expression profiling of the normal and tumor cell subpopulations encompassing MaSCs and CSCs revealed that the normal stem cell compartment is more similar to tumor cells than to their own differentiated progenies. Accordingly, Wnt signaling appears to be active in both the normal and cancer stem cell compartments, although at different levels. By comparing normal with cancer mouse mammary compartments, we identified a MaCSC gene signature able to predict outcome in breast cancer in man. Overall, our data indicate that constitutive Wnt signaling activation affects self-renewal and differentiation of MaSCs leading to metaplasia and basal-like adenocarcinomas. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

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