Josephine Bay Paul Center

East Falmouth, MA, United States

Josephine Bay Paul Center

East Falmouth, MA, United States
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Huse S.M.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Ye Y.,Indiana University Bloomington | Fodor A.A.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

We explore the microbiota of 18 body sites in over 200 individuals using sequences amplified V1-V3 and the V3-V5 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S) hypervariable regions as part of the NIH Common Fund Human Microbiome Project. The body sites with the greatest number of core OTUs, defined as OTUs shared amongst 95% or more of the individuals, were the oral sites (saliva, tongue, cheek, gums, and throat) followed by the nose, stool, and skin, while the vaginal sites had the fewest number of OTUs shared across subjects. We found that commonalities between samples based on taxonomy could sometimes belie variability at the sub-genus OTU level. This was particularly apparent in the mouth where a given genus can be present in many different oral sites, but the sub-genus OTUs show very distinct site selection, and in the vaginal sites, which are consistently dominated by the Lactobacillus genus but have distinctly different sub-genus V1-V3 OTU populations across subjects. Different body sites show approximately a ten-fold difference in estimated microbial richness, with stool samples having the highest estimated richness, followed by the mouth, throat and gums, then by the skin, nasal and vaginal sites. Richness as measured by the V1-V3 primers was consistently higher than richness measured by V3-V5. We also show that when such a large cohort is analyzed at the genus level, most subjects fit the stool "enterotype" profile, but other subjects are intermediate, blurring the distinction between the enterotypes. When analyzed at the finer-scale, OTU level, there was little or no segregation into stool enterotypes, but in the vagina distinct biotypes were apparent. Finally, we note that even OTUs present in nearly every subject, or that dominate in some samples, showed orders of magnitude variation in relative abundance emphasizing the highly variable nature across individuals. © 2012 Huse et al.

Crump B.C.,University of Cambridge | Amaral-Zettler L.A.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Amaral-Zettler L.A.,Brown University | Kling G.W.,University of Michigan
ISME Journal | Year: 2012

Microbes are transported in hydrological networks through many environments, but the nature and dynamics of underlying microbial metacommunities and the impact of downslope inoculation on patterns of microbial diversity across landscapes are unknown. Pyrosequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions to characterize microbial communities along a hydrological continuum in arctic tundra showed a pattern of decreasing diversity downslope, with highest species richness in soil waters and headwater streams, and lowest richness in lake water. In a downstream lake, 58% and 43% of the bacterial and archaeal taxa, respectively, were also detected in diverse upslope communities, including most of the numerically dominant lake taxa. In contrast, only 18% of microbial eukaryotic taxa in the lake were detected upslope. We suggest that patterns of diversity in surface waters are structured by initial inoculation from microbial reservoirs in soils followed by a species-sorting process during downslope dispersal of both common and rare microbial taxa. Our results suggest that, unlike for metazoans, a substantial portion of bacterial and archaeal diversity in surface freshwaters may originate in complex soil environments. © 2012 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

Anderson R.E.,University of Washington | Sogin M.L.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Baross J.A.,University of Washington
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitat hosts a diverse community of archaea and bacteria that withstand extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions. Abundant viruses in these systems, a high proportion of which are lysogenic, must also withstand these environmental extremes. Here, we explore the evolutionary strategies of both microorganisms and viruses in hydrothermal systems through comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome, collected by size fractionation of high temperature fluids from a diffuse flow hydrothermal vent. We detected a high enrichment of mobile elements and proviruses in the cellular fraction relative to microorganisms in other environments. We observed a relatively high abundance of genes related to energy metabolism as well as cofactors and vitamins in the viral fraction compared to the cellular fraction, which suggest encoding of auxiliary metabolic genes on viral genomes. Moreover, the observation of stronger purifying selection in the viral versus cellular gene pool suggests viral strategies that promote prolonged host integration. Our results demonstrate that there is great potential for hydrothermal vent viruses to integrate into hosts, facilitate horizontal gene transfer, and express or transfer genes that manipulate the hosts' functional capabilities. © 2014 Anderson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

McLellan S.L.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Huse S.M.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Mueller-Spitz S.R.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Andreishcheva E.N.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Sogin M.L.,Josephine Bay Paul Center
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernible human faecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae genera. The faecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human faecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in faecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI - servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS - servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human faecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Schrenk M.O.,East Carolina University | Huber J.A.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Edwards K.J.,University of Southern California
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2010

The rocks and sediments of the oceanic subsurface represent a diverse mosaic of environments potentially inhabited by microorganisms. Understanding microbial ecosystems in subseafloor environments confounds standard ecological descriptions in part because we have difficulty elucidating and describing the scale of relevant processes. Habitat characteristics impact microbial activities and growth, which in turn affect microbial diversity, net production, and global biogeochemical cycles. Herein we provide descriptions of subseafloor microbial provinces, broadly defined as geologically and geographically coherent regions of the subseafloor that may serve as potential microbial habitats. The purpose of this review is to summarize and refine criteria for the definition and delineation of distinct subseafloor microbial habitats to aid in their exploration. This review and the criteria we outline aim to develop a unified framework to improve our understanding of subseafloor microbial ecology, enable quantification of geomicrobial processes, and facilitate their accurate assimilation into biogeochemical models. © 2010 by Annual Reviews.

The nucleolinus is a nuclear subcompartment long ago posited to play a role in cell division. In a recent study using surf clam oocytes, cytoplasmic foci containing a nucleolinar protein were shown to later recruit γ-tubulin, identifying them as centrosomal precursors. (1) We now demonstrate the presence of structural RNAs from the nucleolinus in these procentrosomes. They include the well-known but poorly understood rRNA-transcribed spacer regions. In situ hybridization revealed a specific and dynamic association of these structural RNAs with the cell division apparatus that extends through the early stages of meiosis. In addition to their bearing on the debate over the nature of centrosome- and spindle-associated RNAs, the observations also suggest that rRNA spacer regions are not simply waste products to be discarded immediately, but may be functional byproducts that play a role in formation of the cell division apparatus.

Huse S.M.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Welch D.M.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Morrison H.G.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Sogin M.L.,Josephine Bay Paul Center
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

Deep sequencing of PCR amplicon libraries facilitates the detection of low-abundance populations in environmental DNA surveys of complex microbial communities. At the same time, deep sequencing can lead to overestimates of microbial diversity through the generation of low-frequency, error-prone reads. Even with sequencing error rates below 0.005 per nucleotide position, the common method of generating operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by multiple sequence alignment and complete-linkage clustering significantly increases the number of predicted OTUs and inflates richness estimates. We show that a 2% single-linkage preclustering methodology followed by an average-linkage clustering based on pairwise alignments more accurately predicts expected OTUs in both single and pooled template preparations of known taxonomic composition. This new clustering method can reduce the OTU richness in environmental samples by as much as 30-60% but does not reduce the fraction of OTUs in long-tailed rank abundance curves that defines the rare biosphere. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

McLellan S.L.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Eren A.M.,Josephine Bay Paul Center
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Fecal pollution indicators are essential to identify and remediate contamination sources and protect public health. Historically, easily cultured facultative anaerobes such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, or enterococci have been used but these indicators generally provide no information as to their source. More recently, molecular methods have targeted fecal anaerobes, which are much more abundant in humans and other mammals, and some strains appear to be associated with particular host sources. Next-generation sequencing and microbiome studies have created an unprecedented inventory of microbial communities associated with fecal sources, allowing reexamination of which taxonomic groups are best suited as informative indicators. The use of new computational methods, such as oligotyping coupled with well-established machine learning approaches, is providing new insights into patterns of host association. In this review we examine the basis for host-specificity and the rationale for using 16S rRNA gene targets for alternative indicators and highlight two taxonomic groups, Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae, which are rich in host-specific bacterial organisms. Finally, we discuss considerations for using alternative indicators for water quality assessments with a particular focus on detecting human sewage sources of contamination. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Alliegro M.C.,Josephine Bay Paul Center
Chromosome Research | Year: 2011

The notion of nucleic acids in the spindle, and particularly, the centrosome has a long history of inquiry, doubt, and debate. However, the association of specific RNAs with these structures is now confirmed by several investigators. What their presence means for the assembly, function, and evolution of the cell division apparatus is not known; but with newly available information and probes, these are questions that can finally be addressed. The present article summarizes the history of this field, what we know about the molecules in question, and in light of these findings, emphasizes the need to view the cell division apparatus for what it is by definition, a ribonucleoprotein complex. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Fortunato C.S.,Josephine Bay Paul Center | Huber J.A.,Josephine Bay Paul Center
ISME Journal | Year: 2016

The chemolithoautotrophic microbial community of the rocky subseafloor potentially provides a large amount of organic carbon to the deep ocean, yet our understanding of the activity and metabolic complexity of subseafloor organisms remains poorly described. A combination of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) analyses were used to identify the metabolic potential, expression patterns, and active autotrophic bacteria and archaea and their pathways present in low-temperature hydrothermal fluids from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic results showed the presence of genes and transcripts for sulfur, hydrogen, and ammonium oxidation, oxygen respiration, denitrification, and methanogenesis, as well as multiple carbon fixation pathways. In RNA-SIP experiments across a range of temperatures under reducing conditions, the enriched 13C fractions showed differences in taxonomic and functional diversity. At 30 °C and 55 °C, Epsilonproteobacteria were dominant, oxidizing hydrogen and primarily reducing nitrate. Methanogenic archaea were also present at 55 °C, and were the only autotrophs present at 80 °C. Correspondingly, the predominant CO2 fixation pathways changed from the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle to the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway with increasing temperature. By coupling RNA-SIP with meta-omics, this study demonstrates the presence and activity of distinct chemolithoautotrophic communities across a thermal gradient of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 12 February 2016; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.258. © 2016 International Society for Microbial Ecology

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