Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute

Barcelona, Spain

Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute

Barcelona, Spain
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Martinez-Trillos A.,Hospital Clinic Of Barcelona | Pinyol M.,Unitat de Genomica | Navarro A.,Unitat de Genomica | Aymerich M.,Hospital Clinic Of Barcelona | And 21 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Mutations in Toll-like receptor (TLR ) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 ( MYD88 ) genes have been found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at low frequency. We analyzed the incidence, clinicobiological characteristics, and outcome of patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations in 587 CLL patients. Twenty-three patients (3.9%) hadmutations, 19 in MYD88 (one with concurrent IRAK1 mutation), 2 TLR2 (one with concomitant TLR6 mutation), 1 IRAK1 , and 1 TLR5. No mutations were found in IRAK2 and IRAK4. TLR/MYD88- mutated CLL overexpressed genes of the nuclear factor κB pathway. Patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations were significantly younger (83% age ≤50 years) than those with no mutations. TLR/MYD88 mutations were the most frequent in youngpatients. Patients with mutated TLR/MYD88 CLLhad a higher frequency of mutated IGHV and low expression of CD38 and ZAP-70. Overall survival (OS) was better in TLR/MYD88-mutated than unmutated patients in the whole series (10-year OS, 100% vs 62%; P = .002), and in the subset of patients age ≤50 years (100% vs 70%; P = .02). In addition, relative OS of TLR/MYD88-mutated patients was similar to that in the age- and gender-matched population. In summary, TLR/MYD88 mutations identify a population of young CLL patients with favorable outcome. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

Rodriguez R.M.,Instituto Universitario Of Oncologia Del Principado Of Asturias Iuopa | Suarez-Alvarez B.,Hospital Universitario Central Of Asturias | Salvanes R.,Hospital Universitario Central Of Asturias | Huidobro C.,Instituto Universitario Of Oncologia Del Principado Of Asturias Iuopa | And 9 more authors.
Epigenetics | Year: 2014

The bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) protein family member BRD4 is a transcriptional regulator, critical for cell cycle progression and cellular viability. Here, we show that BRD4 plays an important role in embryonic stem cell (ESC) regulation. During differentiation of ESCs, BRD4 expression is upregulated and its gene promoter becomes demethylated. Disruption of BRD4 expression in ESC s did not induce spontaneous differentiation but severely diminished hematoendothelial potential. Although BRD4 regulates c-Myc expression, our data show that the role of BRD4 in hematopoietic commitment is not exclusively mediated by c-Myc. Our results indicate that BRD4 is epigenetically regulated during hematopoietic differentiation ESC s in the context of a still unknown signaling pathway. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

Romero-Moya D.,University of Granada | Bueno C.,University of Granada | Montes R.,University of Granada | Navarro-Montero O.,University of Granada | And 6 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2013

The homeostasis of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell pool relies on a fine-tuned balance between selfrenewal, differentiation and proliferation. Recent studies have proposed that mitochondria regulate these processes. Although recent work has contributed to understanding the role of mitochondria during stem cell differentiation, it remains unclear whether the mitochondrial content/function affects human hematopoietic stem versus progenitor function. We found that mitochondrial mass correlates strongly with mitochondrial membrane potential in CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We, therefore, sorted cord blood CD34+ cells on the basis of their mitochondrial mass and analyzed the in vitro homeostasis and clonogenic potential as well as the in vivo repopulating potential of CD34+ cells with high (CD34+ MitoHigh) versus low (CD34+ MitoLow) mitochondrial mass. The CD34+ MitoLow fraction contained 6-fold more CD34+CD38- primitive cells and was enriched in hematopoietic stem cell function, as demonstrated by its significantly greater hematopoietic reconstitution potential in immuno-deficient mice. In contrast, the CD34+ MitoHigh fraction was more enriched in hematopoietic progenitor function with higher in vitro clonogenic capacity. In vitro differentiation of CD34+ MitoLow cells was significantly delayed as compared to that of CD34+MitoHigh cells. The eventual complete differentiation of CD34+MitoLow cells, which coincided with a robust expansion of the CD34- differentiated progeny, was accompanied by mitochondrial adaptation, as shown by significant increases in ATP production and expression of the mitochondrial genes ND1 and COX2. In conclusion, cord blood CD34+ cells with low levels of mitochondrial mass are enriched in hematopoietic repopulating stem cell function whereas high levels of mitochondrial mass identify hematopoietic progenitors. A mitochondrial response underlies hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation of lineagecommitted CD34- cells. © 2013 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

Bueno C.,Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute | Roldan M.,University of Granada | Anguita E.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos | Romero-Moya D.,Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2014

Aplastic anemia is a life-threatening bone marrow failure disorder characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia. The majority of cases of aplastic anemia remain idiopathic, although hematopoietic stem cell deficiency and impaired immune responses are hallmarks underlying the bone marrow failure in this condition. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells constitute an essential component of the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment because of their immunomodulatory properties and their ability to support hematopoiesis, and they have been involved in the pathogenesis of several hematologic malignancies. We investigated whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells contribute, directly or indirectly, to the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia. We found that mesenchymal stem cell cultures can be established from the bone marrow of aplastic anemia patients and display the same phenotype and differentiation potential as their counterparts from normal bone marrow. Mesenchymal stem cells from aplastic anemia patients support the in vitro homeostasis and the in vivo repopulating function of CD34+ cells, and maintain their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. These data demonstrate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from patients with aplastic anemia do not have impaired functional and immunological properties, suggesting that they do not contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. © 2014 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

PubMed | Rovira i Virgili University, Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, Cancer Research Group, Dr Josep Trueta Hospital Of Girona and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Aging | Year: 2016

Our understanding on how selective mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, can sustain the archetypal properties of stem cells is incomplete. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) plays a key role in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function and in the selective degradation of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. Here, using embryonic fibroblasts fromPINK1 gene-knockout (KO) mice, we evaluated whether mitophagy is a causal mechanism for the control of cell-fate plasticity and maintenance of pluripotency. Loss of PINK1-dependent mitophagy was sufficient to dramatically decrease the speed and efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. Mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies, which were characterized by a mixture of mature and immature mitochondria, seemed unstable, with a strong tendency to spontaneously differentiate and form heterogeneous populations of cells. Although mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies normally expressed pluripotent markers, functional monitoring of cellular bioenergetics revealed an attenuated glycolysis in mitophagy-deficient iPSC cells. Targeted metabolomics showed a notable alteration in numerous glycolysis- and TCA-related metabolites in mitophagy-deficient iPSC cells, including a significant decrease in the intracellular levels of -ketoglutarate -a key suppressor of the differentiation path in stem cells. Mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies exhibited a notably reduced teratoma-initiating capacity, but fully retained their pluripotency and multi-germ layer differentiation capacity in vivo. PINK1-dependent mitophagy pathway is an important mitochondrial switch that determines the efficiency and quality of somatic reprogramming. Mitophagy-driven mitochondrial rejuvenation might contribute to the ability of iPSCs to suppress differentiation by directing bioenergetic transition and metabolome remodeling traits. These findings provide new insights into how mitophagy might influence the stem cell decisions to retain pluripotency or differentiate in tissue regeneration and aging, tumor growth, and regenerative medicine.

PubMed | University of Barcelona, MRC Toxicology Unit Leicester, Hospital Clinic Of Barcelona, University of Salamanca and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Leukemia | Year: 2015

Prospective identification of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) destined to progress would greatly facilitate their clinical management. Recently, whole-genome DNA methylation analyses identified three clinicobiologic CLL subgroups with an epigenetic signature related to different normal B-cell counterparts. Here, we developed a clinically applicable method to identify these subgroups and to study their clinical relevance. Using a support vector machine approach, we built a prediction model using five epigenetic biomarkers that was able to classify CLL patients accurately into the three subgroups, namely naive B-cell-like, intermediate and memory B-cell-like CLL. DNA methylation was quantified by highly reproducible bisulfite pyrosequencing assays in two independent CLL series. In the initial series (n=211), the three subgroups showed differential levels of IGHV (immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus) mutation (P<0.001) and VH usage (P<0.03), as well as different clinical features and outcome in terms of time to first treatment (TTT) and overall survival (P<0.001). A multivariate Cox model showed that epigenetic classification was the strongest predictor of TTT (P<0.001) along with Binet stage (P<0.001). These findings were corroborated in a validation series (n=97). In this study, we developed a simple and robust method using epigenetic biomarkers to categorize CLLs into three subgroups with different clinicobiologic features and outcome.

PubMed | Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current stem cell research & therapy | Year: 2016

Studies are needed to understand the role of CD34 expressing cells with regard to efficient engraftment, especially in the adjuvant treatment of cancer.In this study we have used a modified method in our laboratory for routinely counting CD34+ cells. Unlysed whole blood samples were stained with the DNA-selective and cell membrane-permeant Vibrant DyeCycle Violet stain.CD34+ cells exhibit a consistent and differential Vybrant Dye Cycle Violet staining pattern. Based on their different DCV intensity, we classified these subpopulations as CD34+/DCV(high) and CD34+/DCV(low) cells. In general, DCV(high) cells are about 12-times brighter than DCV(low) cells.DCV staining may be used to discriminate subsets of CD34+ cells similarly to other methods which have previously defined different functional properties that can be related to the characterization, resolution, and purification of primitive hematopoietic stem cells in combination with specific useful markers for multicolor flow cytometric measurements.

PubMed | Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute and Thermo Fisher Scientific
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

With the aim to detect candidate malignant primitive progenitor populations, we modified an original alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stem cell detection method based on the identification of alkaline phosphatase fluorescent cells in combination with flow cytometry immunophenotyping. Over a period of one year, we have been using this technique to study its activity in patients with leukemia and lymphoma, showing that changes in the alkaline phosphatase levels can be used to detect rare populations of highly refractory malignant cells. By screening different blood cancers, we have observed that this activity is not always restricted to CD34+ leukemic cells, and can be overexpressed in CD34 negative leukemia. We have verified that this method gives accurate and reproducible measurements and our preliminary results suggest that CD34+/ALPhigh cells appear to sustain leukemogenesis over time.

PubMed | Lung and Blood Institute, Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, Genmab, Hemato oncology and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016

To establish a proof-of-concept for the efficacy of the anti-CD38 antibody daratumumab in the poor prognosis CD38+ CLL subtype.The mechanism of action of daratumumab was assessed in CLL primary cells and cell lines using peripheral blood mononuclear cells to analyze antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), murine and human macrophages to study antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) or human serum to analyze complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). The effect of daratumumab on CLL cell migration and adhesion to extracellular matrix was characterized. Daratumumab activity was validated in two in vivo models.Daratumumab demonstrated efficient lysis of patient-derived CLL cells and cell lines by ADCC in vitro and ADCP both in vitro and in vivo, while exhibited negligible CDC in these cells. To demonstrate the therapeutic effect of daratumumab in CLL, we generated a disseminated CLL mouse model with the CD38+ MEC2 cell line and CLL patient derived xenografts (CLL-PDX). Daratumumab significantly prolonged overall survival of MEC2 mice, completely eliminated cells from the infiltrated organs and significantly reduced disease burden in the spleen of CLL-PDX. The effect of daratumumab on patient-derived CLL cell dissemination was demonstrated in vitro by its effect on CXCL12-induced migration and in vivo by interfering with CLL cell homing to spleen in NSG mice. Daratumumab also reduced adhesion of CLL cells to VCAM-1, accompanied by down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP9.These unique and substantial effects of daratumumab on CLL viability and dissemination support the investigation of its use in a clinical setting of CLL.

PubMed | Hospital Universitario La Paz, Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Zaragoza, Hospital Txagorritxu and 15 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer | Year: 2016

Chromosomal translocations are rare in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). With the exception of t(3q), translocations are not explicitly considered in the cytogenetic classification of the IPSS-R and their impact on disease progression and patient survival is unknown. The present study was aimed at determining the prognostic impact of translocations in the context of the cytogenetic classification of the IPSS-R. We evaluated 1,653 patients from the Spanish Registry of MDS diagnosed with MDS or CMML and an abnormal karyotype by conventional cytogenetic analysis. Translocations were identified in 168 patients (T group). Compared with the 1,485 patients with abnormal karyotype without translocations (non-T group), the T group had a larger proportion of patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts and higher scores in both the cytogenetic and global IPSS-R. Translocations were associated with a significantly shorter survival and higher incidence of transformation into AML at univariate analysis but both features disappeared after multivariate adjustment for the IPSS-R cytogenetic category. Patients with single or double translocations other than t(3q) had an outcome similar to those in the non-T group in the intermediate cytogenetic risk category of the IPSS-R. In conclusion, the presence of translocations identifies a subgroup of MDS/CMML patients with a more aggressive clinical presentation that can be explained by a higher incidence of complex karyotypes. Single or double translocations other than t(3q) should be explicitly considered into the intermediate risk category of cytogenetic IPSS-R classification.

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