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Akpera M.T.,Benue State University | Oguntayo B.O.,JOS Technology | Jombo G.T.A.,Benue State University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2012

Objective: To ascertain the haematological properties of aqueous extract of G. applanatum(G. applanatum). Methods: Sixty albino rats were grouped into six equal groups (10 each) from A to F, consisting of tests and controls. Laboratory albino rats in groups A, B and C were infected with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) while groups A and B (Test) were treated with aqueous G. applanatum extract; other groups served as control. Microscopy and haematological profiles from the albino rats were monitored on daily basis for blood parasites, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin Concentration (HC), Total Red Blood Cell Count (RBC), Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Cell Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), and Total White Blood Cell Count (WBC). Results: Albino rats in groups A, B and C infected with T. brucei and treated with various concentrations of aqueous G. applanatum showed a progressive reduction in PCV, HC, RBC, MCH and MCHC compared to the controls (P < 0.05). All the infected rats died by day 14 of the experiment from parasitaemia. Conclusions: G. applanatum lacks ability to boost haematological profiles of anaemic laboratory rats and also of no use in the treatment of African Trypanosomiasis. Higher doses of the fungal extract may be required to test on laboratory rats with less lethal biological stimulants of anaemia before proving or otherwise its true haematological properties. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press. Source


Akpera M.T.,Benue State University | Oguntayo B.O.,JOS Technology | Jombo G.T.A.,Benue State University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2012

Objective: Extracts of Ganoderma species have been widely used as herbal medicines in the treatment of several infections. This study was carried out to ascertain the haematological properties of aqueous Ganoderma applanatum (G. applanatum). Methods: Sixty albino rats grouped into six equal groups (10 each) of A to F consisting of tests and controls. Laboratory albino rats in groups A, B and C were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. brucei brucei) while groups A and B (test) were treated with aqueous G. applanatum extract; other groups served as control. Microscopy and haematological profiles from the albino rats were monitored on daily basis for blood parasites, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (HC), total red blood cell count (RBC), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and total white blood cell count (WBC). Results: Albino rats in groups A, B and C infected with T. brucei brucei and treated with various concentrations of aqueous G. applanatum showed a progressive reduction in PCV, HC, RBC, MCH and MCHC compared to the controls (P<0.05). All the infected rats died by day 14 of the experiment from parasitaemia. Conclusions: G. applanatum lacks ability to boost haematological profiles of anaemic laboratory rats and also of no use in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. Higher doses of the fungal extract may be required to test on laboratory rats with less lethal biological stimulants of anaemia before proving or otherwise its true haematological properties. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press. Source


Manasseh A.T.,Benue State University | Godwin J.T.A.,Benue State University | Emanghe E.U.,University of Calabar | Borisde O.O.,JOS Technology
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: This study was set up to review the phytochemistry of Ganoderma applanatum, its potentiality in nanotechological engineering for clinical use as well as impact of aqueous extracts of Ganoderma applanatum on laboratoery rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Methods: Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma applanatum were obtained using hot sterile distilled water and whatmann filter paper. The presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and steroids were tested using standard procedures. Acqueous extracts were also inoculated into laboratory rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei along with both positive and negative controls. Blood samples were collected daily, stained with Giemsa's stain and examined for the presence of parasites. Results: Ganoderma applanatum aqueous extracts contained detectable levels of saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and steroids but undetectable levels of alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinone. All the infected rats died by day 12 from overwhelming trypanosomal infections. Conclusion: The biochemical constituents of Ganoderma species should be subjected to nanotechnological engineering in order to probably discover more of its wider therapeutic benefits, and to further disprove its suitability or otherwise in the treatment of African sleeping sickness. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source


The study was conducted to evaluate farmers' response to extension services on ginger production in Kagarko local government area of Kaduna State. One hundred and ten respondents were randomly selected for the study. Only 2.7% of the respondents pointed out that extension worker visited them monthly while 72.7% claimed they had never seen the extension agents on their farm. Only 9.1% of the respondents adopted improved cutting and none of them adopted any improved processing technique. However, 90.0% of the respondents used fertilizer and 100% mulched ginger even though information was not given on them by extension workers. There was a significant (p < 0.05) relationship between frequency of extension agent's contact with the farmers and the farmers response to extension services on ginger production (x2 = 84.672). Extension contact was discovered to be very low in the area. Two major problems identified by the respondents were finance and marketing problems. Hence, extension services in the area needs improvement and the farmers need loan support to increase the scale of their production. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source


Ifejika P.I.,National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research | Belonwu E.N.,P.A. College | Malgwi Y.Y.,JOS Technology | Odunuga A.O.,National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research | Mbah A.A.,JOS Technology
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science | Year: 2013

Recent changes observed in the past decade in political, social and economic developments prompted the study on emerging income generating activities of fisherfolk in riverine communities. A total of 165 respondents were randomly selected for the study from eleven riverine fishing communities in two council areas of Niger State. While primary data was generated with open-ended questionnaire and analyzed descriptively with cross tabulation across gender. The result revealed few number of farming activities but constituted the bulk (75.7%) of the income generating activities engaged by respondents compared to a few (24.3%) non-farming activities. Out of twenty identified income generating activities, only 13% were on emerging income generating activities and 87% on existing income generating activities. On gender involvement, men (83.6%) dominate women (26.4%) in almost all the income generating activities except trading (6.7%) which was controlled by women. Identified emerging income generating activities were television viewing center, film rental, fish farming, commercial driving of taxi and motorcycle, politics, mobile phone enterprise and petrol selling. Observed attributes of the emerging income generating activities were there attractiveness to young people, generation of daily, weekly and monthly incomes against longer gestation periods for most agricultural income activities. The evidence here strongly suggests income from farming and non-farming income generating activities help fisherfolk to make ends meet. Opportunities provided by mobile phone services will help them save cost and time through communication and information whereas, fish farming could provide income during off farming season in the riverine communities. As such, they need empowerment on information dissemination through extension advisory service, inputs, credits and infrastructure to improve income earning activities. Policy makers and change agencies should take recognition of new emerging income opportunities in designing rural empowerment schemes in the riverine communities to meet their needs. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc. Source

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