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von Schneidemesser E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | von Schneidemesser E.,University of Leicester | Zhou J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zhou J.,Wuhan University of Technology | And 13 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

A study of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) was conducted in the Middle East at sites in Israel, Jordan, and Palestine. The sources and seasonal variation of organic carbon, as well as the contribution to fine aerosol (PM2.5) mass, were determined. Of the 11 sites studied, Nablus had the highest contribution of organic carbon (OC), 29%, and elemental carbon (EC), 19%, to total PM2.5 mass. The lowest concentrations of PM2.5 mass, OC, and EC were measured at southern desert sites, located in Aqaba, Eilat, and Rachma. The OC contribution to PM2.5 mass at these sites ranged between 9.4% and 16%, with mean annual PM2.5 mass concentrations ranging from 21 to 25ugm-3. These sites were also observed to have the highest OC to EC ratios (4.1-5.0), indicative of smaller contributions from primary combustion sources and/or a higher contribution of secondary organic aerosol. Biomass burning and vehicular emissions were found to be important sources of carbonaceous PM in this region at the non-southern desert sites, which together accounted for 30%-55% of the fine particle organic carbon at these sites. The fraction of measured OC unapportioned to primary sources (1.4μgCm-3 to 4.9μgCm-3; 30%-74%), which has been shown to be largely from secondary organic aerosol, is relatively constant at the sites examined in this study. This suggests that secondary organic aerosol is important in the Middle East during all seasons of the year. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Abdeen Z.,Al Quads University | Qasrawi R.,Al Quads University | Heo J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Wu B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 11 more authors.
Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 g/m3, with an average of 28.7 g/m 3. Seasonal variation of PM2.5concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 g/m3) in the summer (April-June) months compared to winter (October-December) months (26.0 g/m3) due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East. © 2014 Ziad Abdeen et al.

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