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Yacoub M.,Jordan Center for Pharmaceutical Research | awwad A.A.,Jordan Center for Pharmaceutical Research | Alawi M.,University of Jordan | Arafat T.,University of Petra
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2013

A simple liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry method for the quantification of amlodipine and atorvastatin with its metabolites, ortho and para hydroxy atorvastatin, simultaneously in human plasma was developed. Analytes with internal standard were extracted by protein direct precipitation with acetonitrile. Adequate chromatographic separation was achieved using Phenomenex Synergi 4u polar-RP 80A (150mm×4.6mm, 4μm) column in the isocratic elution mode and the eluent was water/methanol (14:86%, v/v) adjusted by trichloroacetic acid to pH 3.2 which was delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.50mL/min. Standard solutions for the analytes were prepared using amlodipine besylate, atorvastatin calcium, ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin dihydrate monosodium salt, para-hydroxy atorvastatin disodium salt, and pravastatin sodium as an internal standard. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to USFDA guideline. Standard calibration levels were prepared by pooled human plasma to attain final dynamic range of 0.2-20.0ng/mL for amlodipine, 1.5-150ng/mL for atorvastatin, 1.0-100.0ng/mL for ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin and 0.2-20.0ng/mL for para-hydroxy atorvastatin. Clinical bioequivalence study was successfully investigated by the application of this validated bioanalytical method in order to evaluate bioequivalence of two commercial products 10mg amlodipine/80mg atorvastatin in a single dose. In this study, 29 healthy volunteers were participated in randomized, two periods, double blend, open label cross over design. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were calculated to compare a test product with CADUET® reference product. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Arafat T.,Jordan Center for Pharmaceutical Research | Payne D.,University of Manchester | Ollier W.,University of Manchester | Pushpakom S.,University of Manchester | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

This study provides the first analysis of the TPMT mutant allele frequency in a sample of the Jordanian population and indicates that TPMT*3A is the most common allele in Jordanian subjects. Purpose: Thiopurine methyltransferase TPMT catalyses the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, and azathiopurine. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) polymorphisms are the major determinants of interindividual differences in the severe haematological toxicity of 6-mercaptopurine. Several variants in the TPMT gene have been identified that correlate with a low activity phenotype. Four variant alleles, TPMT*2, TPMT*3A, TPMT*3B and TPMT*3C, are responsible for over 80% of the low or undetectable enzyme activity. The allelic frequency of TPMT variants has been established in many populations. Methods: In this study, the frequencies of four (TPMT*2, TPMT*3A, TPMT*3B and TPMT*3C) variants were investigated in 169 healthy Jordanian men (18-45 years of age). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using the Sequenom® MassARRAY technology (Sequenom®; San Diego, CA, USA). Results: TPMT*3A and TPMT*3C were the only deficiency alleles detected in the Jordanian population with an allele frequency of 0.59% and 0.30% respectively. The TPMT*3A allele frequency is found to be lower than in the European Caucasian population. Conclusion: TPMT*3A and TPMT*3C were the only deficiency alleles detected in the Jordanian population with an allele frequency of 0.59% and 0.30% respectively. The TPMT*3A allele frequency is found to be lower than in the European Caucasian population. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Arafat T.,University of Petra | Arafat B.,Al-Ahliyya Amman University | awad R.,University of Petra | awwad A.A.,Jordan Center for Pharmaceutical Research
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2014

A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium® 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50μl sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Eftaiha A.F.,Suwagh Company for Drug Delivery Systems | Qinna N.,Suwagh Company for Drug Delivery Systems | Qinna N.,University of Petra | Rashid I.S.,Suwagh Company for Drug Delivery Systems | And 2 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2010

Metronidazole, a common antibacterial drug, was incorporated into a hydrophilic polymer matrix composed of chitosan xanthan gum mixture. Hydrogel formation of this binary chitosan-xanthan gum combination was tested for its ability to control the release of metronidazole as a drug model. This preparation (MZ-CR) was characterized by in vitro, ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioavailability study. For comparison purposes a commercial extended release formulation of metronidazole (CMZ) was used as a reference. The in vitro drug-release profiles of metronidazole preparation and CMZ were similar in 0.1 M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Moreover, metronidazole preparation and CMZ showed a similar detachment force to sheep stomach mucosa, while the bioadhesion of the metronidazole preparation was higher three times than CMZ to sheep duodenum. The results of in vivo study indicated that the absorption of metronidazole from the preparation was faster than that of CMZ. Also, MZ-CR leads to higher metronidazole Cmax and AUC relative to that of the CMZ. This increase in bioavailability might be explained by the bioadhesion of the preparation at the upper part of the small intestine that could result in an increase in the overall intestinal transit time. As a conclusion, formulating chitosan-xanthan gum mixture as a hydrophilic polymer matrix resulted in a superior pharmacokinetic parameters translated by better rate and extent of absorption of metronidazole. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI. Source


Diab O.,University of Jordan | Arafat T.,Jordan Center for Pharmaceutical Research | Arafat T.,University of Petra | Yousef A.-M.,University of Jordan
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: To assess the influence of smoking cigarettes on the pharmacokinetics of the antiplatelet drug, clopidogrel. Methods: Thirty four male patients, mean age and weight of 59.3 years and 81.1 kg, respectively, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), took part in the study. Each subject received an oral loading dose of 600 mg clopidogrel eight tablets, each 75 mg). Clopidogrel carboxylate plasma level was measured and non-compartmental analysis was used to determine peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to achieve peak plasma concentration (Tmax), elimination half-life (t1/2e), and area under the curve (AUC0-∞). Other parameters measured include gamma-glutamyltransferase enzyme (GGT), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and platelet count. Results: Nineteen patients were smokers (55.9 %). Smokers had higher levels of GGT compared to non-smokers (31.73 ± 14.42 vs. 21.63 ± 11.41 IU/L, p = 0.08) as well as higher levels of LDL-cholesterol (116.79 ± 42.08 vs. 87.07 ± 27.34 mg/dl, p = 0.041, respectively). Smokers had shorter half-life (smokers: 3.47 ± 1.9 h vs. non-smokers: 5.83 ± 4.09 h, p = 0.012). Smoking behavior had no influence on Cmax (p = 0.16), AUC0-∞ (p = 0.65) or Tmax (p = 0.91). In general, the pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized by considerable inter-individual variation (Cmax = 23.2 ± 8.79 μg/ml, coefficient of variation (CV) = 37.9 %), (Tmax = 1.71 ± 1.15 h, CV = 67.2 %), (AUC0-∞ = 120.97 ± 44.4 μg.h/ml, CV = 36.7 %) and (t1/2e = 4.57 ± 3.15 h, CV = 68.9 %). Conclusion: Smoking behavior may not be a significant determinant of the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel following oral administration of 600 mg dose in patients undergoing PCI. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Source

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