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Gainesville, FL, United States

Hamed A.,Jones Edmunds and Associates Inc. | Madani K.,Imperial College London | von Holle B.,University of Central Florida | Wright J.,University of Central Florida | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Management

Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida’s east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between $42 and $57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents’ demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents’ perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source

Pellegrin M.-L.,HDR | Greiner A.D.,Hazen and Sawyer | Diamond J.,General Electric | Aguinaldo J.,Doosan Group | And 6 more authors.
Water Environment Research

This review for literature published in 2010 contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. Copyright © 2011 Water Environment Federation. Source

McKnight T.,Jones Edmunds and Associates Inc. | Cho Y.M.,Geosyntec Consultants | Townsend T.G.,University of Florida | Choate A.,0 Environmental Loop South
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering

The cone penetration test (CPT) was evaluated as a tool for characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW). Cone penetration test soundings were performed at 16 locations in a closed MSW landfill in Florida, United States, where tip resistance (qt), sleeve friction resistance (fs), and friction ratio (fr) data were collected up to a depth of 10 m, and compared to waste properties from borings in the same location as five of the CPTs. The delineation of cover soil, waste, and subgrade soil was readily identifiable from the CPT data, but intermediate cover layers could not be discerned. At greater depths in the landfill, waste generally exhibited greater degradation with an average biochemical methane potential of 0.044 L CH4/g volatile solids versus shallower waste that was less degraded with an average BMP of 0.200 L CH4/g volatile solids. More degraded waste tended to have lower tip resistances of 3.6-3.7 MPa than less degraded waste that exhibited 5.0-5.4 MPa. The friction ratio tended to be greater for more degraded waste (2.8-3.2%) than less degraded waste (2.3-2.4%). The CPT data collected from the MSW landfill were also compared to conventional correlations to soil classification systems. The CPT data for more degraded waste generally correlated with finer soil classifications while CPT readings of less degraded waste corresponded to more coarse soils. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

Hua G.,Jones Edmunds and Associates Inc. | Reckhow D.A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Water Research

Bromine substitution factor (BSF) was used to quantify the effects of disinfectant dose, reaction time, pH, and temperature on the bromine substitution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination. The BSF is defined as the ratio of the bromine incorporated into a given class of DBPs to the total concentration of chlorine and bromine in that class. Four classes of DBPs were evaluated: trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs), dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). The results showed that the BSFs of the four classes of DBPs generally decreased with increasing reaction time and temperature during chlorination at neutral pH. The BSFs peaked at a low chlorine dose (1 mg/L) and decreased when the chlorine dose further increased. The BSFs of chlorination DBPs at neutral pH are in the order of DHAN > THM & DHAA > THAA. DHAAs formed by chloramines exhibited distinctly different bromine substitution patterns compared to chlorination DHAAs. Brominated DBP formation was generally less affected by the pH change compared to chlorinated DBP formation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee D.-U.,Jones Edmunds and Associates Inc. | Woo S.-H.,Kyung Nam Development Institute | Svoronos S.,University of Florida | Koopman B.,University of Florida
Water Research

Denitrifying bacteria that are switched from oxic to anoxic conditions can experience diauxic lag, which is the time required for re-synthesis of nitrate reductase and other denitrifying enzymes. Pseudomonas denitrificans were exposed to alternating oxic/anoxic phases in a continuous flow reactor with either 4-h or 8-h anoxic phase lengths, in comparison to a measured diauxic lag of 9.5 h following steady-state oxic conditions. The P. denitrificans were unable to sustain anoxic growth at either of the anoxic phase lengths tested. Diauxic lag observed after several cycles of alternating oxic/anoxic phases was significantly longer than the diauxic lag measured after steady-state oxic conditions. This may be attributed to increase of cell maintenance energy requirements due to substrate accumulation during anoxic phases and concomitant high specific growth rates during oxic phases. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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