Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Nairobi, Kenya

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology is a public university near Nairobi, Kenya. It is situated in Juja, 36 kilometres northeast of Nairobi, along the Nairobi-Thika SuperHighway. It offers courses in Technology, Engineering, Science, Architecture and Building science. The university has a strong research interest in the areas of biotechnology and engineering. Wikipedia.

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Muigai A.W.T.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Hanotte O.,University of Nottingham
African Archaeological Review | Year: 2013

Indigenous African sheep genetic resources have been classified into two main groups, fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep. The fat-tailed sheep are the most widely distributed, being found in a large part of North Africa (from Egypt to Algeria) and in Eastern and Southern Africa (from Eritrea to South Africa). The thin-tailed sheep are present mainly in Morocco, Sudan and in West Africa. African sheep were domesticated outside Africa. They share a common ancestry with European and Asian sheep. Archaeological information supports separate introductions and dispersion histories for the African thin-tailed and fat-tailed sheep. The first sheep entered Africa via the Isthmus of Suez and/or the southern Sinai Peninsula, between 7500 and 7000 BP. They were likely of the thin-tailed type. Fat-tailed sheep entered Africa through its northeastern part and the Horn of Africa. Mitochondrial DNA analysis supports a common maternal ancestral origin for all African sheep, while autosomal and Y chromosome DNA analysis indicates a distinct genetic history for African thin-tailed and sub-Saharan fat-tailed sheep. The main ancestral population of southern African fat-tailed sheep likely originated in East Africa. Further work is needed to assess the possible dispersion of sheep from western Africa to the southern African regions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: WATER-5c-2015 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2016

VicInAqua will follow an integrated approach in order to develop a sustainable combined sanitation and recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for wastewater treatment and reuse in agriculture in the Victoria Lake Basin area. In this decentralized integrated treatment system wastewater from households and fish processing industry as well as RAS production water will radically reduce stress on the sensitive ecosystems of the Lake Victoria and will contribute to food and health security. It will be operated fully autonomous powered by renewable energies (PV, biogas). The RAS will particularly produce high quality fingerlings of the local fish species to supply the pond aquaculture of the area with stocking material. The innovative core idea of the project is to develop and test new technologies which enable the integration of sanitation with the aquaculture in a sustainable manner. The core of the project concept is to develop and test a novel self-cleaning water filters which consist of a highly efficient particle filter as well as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) as principal treatment unit within a combined treatment system where the nutrient rich effluent water will be used for agricultural irrigation. the surplus sludge from both filter systems will be co-digested with agricultural waste and local water hyacinth to produce biogas. The overall concept will promote sound approaches to water management for agriculture, taking into consideration broader socio-economic factors and also fomenting job creation and greater gender balance in decision-making. The pursued approach will be perfectly in line with the strategic guidelines of the Rio\20 and the post-2015 development framework.

News Article | December 12, 2016

Lincoln, Nebraska, Dec. 12, 2016 - Maximizing cereal crops yields in sub-Saharan Africa would still fail to meet the region's skyrocketing grain demand by 2050, according to a new study from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Wageningen University and multiple African institutions. Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 80 percent of the grain it now consumes. But that consumption could triple if its population rises an expected 250 percent by 2050. Presently, cereal crops account for about half of sub-Saharan Africa's food and farmland. Even if sub-Saharan yields continue rising at the rate they have over the last quarter-century, the region's existing farmland would still produce only between a third and half of the grain needed in 2050, researchers reported Dec. 12 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "The status quo is simply not acceptable," said co-author Ken Cassman, professor emeritus at Nebraska and fellow of the Daugherty Water for Food Global Institute. "Complacency is the enemy. This is a clarion call for action."To maintain even 80 percent of its self-sufficiency in 2050, sub-Saharan Africa must reach the realistic yield thresholds of corn, millet, rice, sorghum and wheat, the study found. The region currently grows about a quarter of the cereal crops it could by optimizing its plant and soil management, the authors said. Closing this gap would require what the study called a "large, abrupt acceleration" in yield trajectories similar to the Green Revolution that transformed North American, European and Asian agriculture in the mid-20th century. "But our analysis shows that even closing the gap between potential yields using modern farming practices and current farm yields, with traditional crop varieties and little fertilizer, still leaves the area at a deficit with regard to cereals," Cassman said. "That's quite eye-opening, because my guess is that most people in the agricultural development community might have thought sub-Saharan Africa could be self-sufficient, or even produce excess cereal, if it were able to close existing yield gaps."The authors analyzed 10 sub-Saharan countries using the Global Yield Gap Atlas, which estimates the disparity between actual and potential yields while accounting for differences in soil types and climate. After assembling location-specific data and assessments from agronomists in each of the 10 countries, the team used a novel upscaling technique to estimate yield gaps at national and sub-continental levels. Meeting future cereal demands could depend on expanding responsible irrigation use to raise yield ceilings and stabilize cereal production, said Kindie Tesfaye, agronomist with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre in Ethiopia. Recent analyses have documented regional aquifers that could become sources of sustainable irrigation, though the authors emphasized the importance of withdrawing only what can be replenished by rainfall and recharge. Tesfaye said irrigation could ramp up yield thresholds by allowing farmers to annually grow a crop multiple times in the same field or introduce new cereals into yearly planting schedules. Patricio Grassini, assistant professor of agronomy and horticulture at Nebraska, stressed that these efforts will require "massive and strategic investments in agricultural development on an unprecedented level." Combining the yield gap findings with socioeconomic and other data, Grassini said, could inform essential upgrades to infrastructure that might include roads and water pipelines; publicly financed research and development; and farmer access to credit, state-of-the-art equipment and pest-management resources. A failure to upgrade could force sub-Saharan Africa to transform savannahs, rainforests or other natural ecosystems into farmland - a process, the study noted, that would produce massive amounts of greenhouse gases while shrinking the habitats of native plant and animal species. If yield growth and cropland distribution remained constant across the 10 countries, seven would lack the land area to accommodate such expansion, said Abdullahi Bala, professor at Nigeria's Federal University of Technology, Minna. And the newly converted land would very likely prove less fertile than the region's current farmland, Cassman said. Though the region might also resort to importing cereal crops, the authors cautioned that many of the developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa could struggle to do so. The price spikes that often accompany drought-driven market shortages could further complicate matters. "If it is true that sub-Saharan Africa will depend more heavily on food imports," Grassini said, "the next question is: What would be the infrastructure networks needed to alleviate food shortages in the most vulnerable areas?" The researchers said several sub-Saharan countries may produce surpluses that could be shared among neighbors. Though the projected surpluses would fall short of compensating for neighboring deficits,this represents one of several opportunities the region might seize to contend with the profound challenges ahead. "To reach those goals is going to take very strategic, careful prioritization and adequate resources to do the job," Cassman said. "Having a strategic vision of what to invest in - to fund those things that can give greatest payoff - is critical. What this work does is allow for a much more surgical look at how to do that, which just wasn't possible before." The Daugherty Water for Food Global Institute, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, USAID and the university supported the development of the Global Yield Gap Atlas, which agronomists at Nebraska and Wageningen created in 2011. The new study was co-authored by agronomists at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (Kenya); International Food Policy Research Institute; Africa Rice Center (Benin); Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (Kenya); International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (Ghana); AGRHYMET Regional Centre (Niger); Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); University of Zimbabwe; National Agricultural Research Laboratories (Uganda); Institute of Rural Economy (Mali); Ministry of Agriculture Food and Cooperatives (Tanzania); Environmental and Agricultural Research Institute (Burkina Faso); and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (Ethiopia).

News Article | November 28, 2016

LONDON, 28-Nov-2016 — /EuropaWire/ — Ambitious plans to boost IT literacy in Kenya by supplying thousands of primary schools with brand-new laptops are being supported by G4S. The Kenyan government has pledged to provide 22,000 schools across 47 counties with the portable computers over the next two years. It believes that the ‘Digischool’ programme will boost both education by putting Kenyan schoolchildren on a par with their global counterparts, as well as the country’s economy. G4S has signed an agreement to store, secure and deliver the devices on behalf of one of the two universities chosen to supply and install them, the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). The £600,000 contract involves supplying the devices to 8,600 primary schools in 21 counties – some 365,737 devices in total. Work has already begun on delivering them to an initial 75 schools. Already being kept in secure storage at G4S Kenya’s main hub in Nairobi, the team will distribute the laptops through its existing extensive courier services network. “The size of our courier operation – with more than 600 vehicles and 141 offices across the country – is one of the reasons G4S was selected for this programme,” said Geoffrey Mwove, Director – Courier, G4S Kenya. “Our team is also skilled and experienced, with around 70 per cent of our couriers having worked with us for more than seven years.” With that experience comes knowledge of both the terrain of the country and locations of the schools, with the team having previously carried out the distribution of books to the same establishments. Beyond its ability to handle a distribution operation of this size, the secure storage facility in the country’s capital was another factor that persuaded the university to accept the G4S bid. It is also being used to keep safe projectors, servers, teachers’ laptops and spare parts prior to delivery. “Having a security division was a major attraction for the customer, as it wanted a supplier who could store as well as deliver these devices in a secure manner,” Geoffrey said. “We handle 90 per cent of Kenya’s bank shipments, which gave them confidence we can handle this programme. “Our flexibility and ability to tailor solutions were other major plus points.” He added: “We’re delighted to be involved in such an important programme for Kenya, which will empower our young people with advanced IT knowledge and help secure the future of our country.” The business is currently in talks regarding future opportunities, as the Kenyan government has plans to eventually extend the programme to pupils joining Grade 1 and even secondary schools. What they say “We are now starting on a journey that will without a doubt transform not just the education sector but the entire economy. “When we put these devices in the hands of our children, we are securing not just their future but that of the country and look forward to being a global IT powerhouse in a few years.” “So far we have trained 80,000 teachers across all primary schools in readiness for this massive programme. We have also ensured that each school is connected to electricity. “This programme will revolutionise the process of learning in this country and put our children on a par with their global counterparts.” ABOUT G4S G4S is the world’s leading global, integrated security company specialising in the delivery of security and related services to customers across six continents. The group is active in more than 100 countries*, and is the largest employer quoted on the London Stock Exchange with over 610,000* employees and has a secondary stock exchange listing in Copenhagen. *Includes 44,000 employees in businesses in 15 countries that are being sold or exit For any media enquiries, please contact the G4S Press Office, on +44 (0)20 7963 3333 If you are a journalist and have an urgent enquiry outside of office hours, please contact us on +44 (0)7710 950 346

Mbaisi E.M.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2013

Accidental occupational exposure of healthcare workers to blood and body fluids after skin injury or mucous membrane contact constitutes a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens. Such pathogens include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and associated factors for percutaneous injuries and splash exposures among health-care workers in Rift Valley provincial hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out from October to November 2010. Self reported incidents, circumstances surrounding occupational exposure and post-exposure management were sought by use of interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure) analyses were performed. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Twenty five percent of health-care workers interviewed (N=305) reported having been exposed to blood and body fluids in the preceding 12 months. Percutaneous injuries were reported by 19% (n=305) and splash to mucous membrane by 7.2%. Higher rates of percutaneous injuries were observed among nurses (50%), during stitching (30%), and in obstetric and gynecologic department (22%). Health workers aged below 40 years were more likely to experience percutaneous injuries (OR=3.7; 95% CI=1.08-9.13) while previous training in infection prevention was protective (OR=0.52; 95% CI=0.03-0.90). Forty eight percent (n=83) reported the incidents with 20% (n=83) taking PEP against HIV. Percutaneous injuries and splashes are common in Rift Valley Provincial hospital. Preventive measures remain inadequate. Health institutions should have policies, institute surveillance for occupational risks and enhance training of health care workers.

Wanyika H.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2013

The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol-gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Mogaka E.O.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2011

Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219) were male. Nineteen percent (56/300) of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15) had head injury while 38% (115) had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users) comprised 33% (99/300) of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9), road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5) and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=-1.1-3.9) were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries.

Muvengei O.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Kihiu J.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Ikua B.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2012

This paper numerically investigates the parametric effects of differently located frictionless revolute clearance joints on the overall dynamic characteristics of a multi-body system. A typical planar slider-crank mechanism is used as a demonstration case in which the effects of clearance size and the input speed on the dynamic response of the mechanism with a revolute clearance joint between the crank and connecting rod, and between the connecting rod and slider are separately investigated with comprehensive observations numerically presented. It is observed that, different joints in a multi-body system have different sensitivities to the clearance size, and changing the driving speed of a mechanism makes the behavior of the mechanism to change from either periodic to chaotic, or chaotic to periodic depending on which joint has clearance. Therefore the dynamic behavior of one clearance revolute joint cannot be used as a general case for a mechanical system. Also the location of the clearance revolute joint, the clearance size and the operating speed of a mechanical system, play a crucial role in predicting accurately the dynamic responses of the system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Maina L.C.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2013

The institutionalization of strong immunization services over recent years has ensured that today more than 70% of the worlds' targeted population is reached. In Kenya, approximately 77% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated with some districts reporting even lower levels of coverage. However, low immunization coverage remains a challenge in low income and high population settings such as Kaptembwo Location, Nakuru district. A cross sectional community based survey was undertaken between January and March 2011. Cluster sampling method was employed. Data was collected using pretested interviewer guided structured questionnaires through house to house visits. Data was analyzed in SPSS using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full immunization. Complete immunization coverage was 76.6%. Coverage for specific antigens was; BCG (99.5%), OPV0 (97.6%), OPV 1(98.7%), OPV2 (96.6%), OPV3 (90.5%), Penta 1(98.9), Penta 2 (96.6%), Penta 3 (90.0%), Measles (77.4%). The drop-out rate between the first and third pentavalent vaccine coverage was 8.9%. Predictors of full immunization included number of children within the family, place of birth of the child, advice on date of next visit for growth monitoring and opinion on the health immunization services offered. Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months is still below target. Efforts to improve vaccination coverage must take into account the immunization determinants found in this study. There is need to focus on strengthening of awareness strategies.

Onyango A.N.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids | Year: 2012

Small reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, glycidaldehyde, and 2-butene-1,4-dial are involved in carbonyl and oxidative stress-related physiological disorders. While some evidence indicates that lipid oxidation could be an important source of these compounds in vivo, this has sometimes been doubted because the mechanisms of their formation thereby are poorly understood. Here, representative literature supporting the significant formation of these compounds during lipid oxidation under physiologically relevant conditions are highlighted, and the strengths and weaknesses of previously proposed mechanisms of their formation thereby are considered. In addition, based on the current understanding of lipid oxidation chemistry, some new pathways of their formation are suggested. The suggested pathways also generate 4-hydroxy-2-butenal, a precursor of the carcinogen furan, whose endogenous formation in tissues has hitherto not been seriously considered. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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