Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology is a public university near Nairobi, Kenya. It is situated in Juja, 36 kilometres northeast of Nairobi, along the Nairobi-Thika SuperHighway. It offers courses in Technology, Engineering, Science, Architecture and Building science. The university has a strong research interest in the areas of biotechnology and engineering. Wikipedia.
Mbaisi E.M.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2013
Accidental occupational exposure of healthcare workers to blood and body fluids after skin injury or mucous membrane contact constitutes a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens. Such pathogens include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and associated factors for percutaneous injuries and splash exposures among health-care workers in Rift Valley provincial hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out from October to November 2010. Self reported incidents, circumstances surrounding occupational exposure and post-exposure management were sought by use of interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure) analyses were performed. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Twenty five percent of health-care workers interviewed (N=305) reported having been exposed to blood and body fluids in the preceding 12 months. Percutaneous injuries were reported by 19% (n=305) and splash to mucous membrane by 7.2%. Higher rates of percutaneous injuries were observed among nurses (50%), during stitching (30%), and in obstetric and gynecologic department (22%). Health workers aged below 40 years were more likely to experience percutaneous injuries (OR=3.7; 95% CI=1.08-9.13) while previous training in infection prevention was protective (OR=0.52; 95% CI=0.03-0.90). Forty eight percent (n=83) reported the incidents with 20% (n=83) taking PEP against HIV. Percutaneous injuries and splashes are common in Rift Valley Provincial hospital. Preventive measures remain inadequate. Health institutions should have policies, institute surveillance for occupational risks and enhance training of health care workers.
Wanyika H.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2013
The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol-gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Onyango A.N.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology |
Baba N.,Okayama University
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2010
Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a mutagenic compound that has been widely used as a biomarker of oxidative stress. However, the nonenzymatic mechanisms of its formation are not well understood. Some lipid oxidation products were previously suggested to be MDA precursors and found to afford MDA heterolytically under acidic conditions. We predict that some of these compounds are not important MDA sources under the autoxidative conditions under which the bulk of MDA should be formed in vivo and that others require further oxidative modifications to generate MDA homolytically. Thus, we outline the likely important pathways of MDA formation in vivo. All these pathways are intense aldehyde producers, generating two other aldehydic products for every MDA molecule formed. Some of the predicted aldehydes are new and may merit further analytical and biological studies. Peracids derived from the aldehydes are proposed to participate in the formation of isofurans (which at high oxygen tensions are excellent markers of oxidative stress) as well as important bioactive epoxides such as leukotoxins. This generates interest in the biological relevance of lipid aldehyde-derived peracids. The suitability of tissue MDA determination methods is discussed based on their likelihood of involving acid-catalyzed artifactual MDA formation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Mogaka E.O.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2011
Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219) were male. Nineteen percent (56/300) of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15) had head injury while 38% (115) had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users) comprised 33% (99/300) of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9), road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5) and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=-1.1-3.9) were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries.
Maina L.C.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2013
The institutionalization of strong immunization services over recent years has ensured that today more than 70% of the worlds' targeted population is reached. In Kenya, approximately 77% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated with some districts reporting even lower levels of coverage. However, low immunization coverage remains a challenge in low income and high population settings such as Kaptembwo Location, Nakuru district. A cross sectional community based survey was undertaken between January and March 2011. Cluster sampling method was employed. Data was collected using pretested interviewer guided structured questionnaires through house to house visits. Data was analyzed in SPSS using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full immunization. Complete immunization coverage was 76.6%. Coverage for specific antigens was; BCG (99.5%), OPV0 (97.6%), OPV 1(98.7%), OPV2 (96.6%), OPV3 (90.5%), Penta 1(98.9), Penta 2 (96.6%), Penta 3 (90.0%), Measles (77.4%). The drop-out rate between the first and third pentavalent vaccine coverage was 8.9%. Predictors of full immunization included number of children within the family, place of birth of the child, advice on date of next visit for growth monitoring and opinion on the health immunization services offered. Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months is still below target. Efforts to improve vaccination coverage must take into account the immunization determinants found in this study. There is need to focus on strengthening of awareness strategies.