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News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Dineo in the Mozambique Channel on Feb. 15, the storm was centered just off the coast of Mozambique and moving toward landfall. At 6:15 a.m. EST (1115 UTC) on Feb. 15, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite showed the center of Tropical Cyclone Dineo just off the coast of Mozambique. Visible light satellite imagery showed a well-defined storm with thick bands of thunderstorms wrapping around the low-level center. The MODIS image also showed a cloud-filled eye. On Feb. 14, when the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core observatory satellite flew over Dineo at 0926 UTC (4:26 a.m. EST) and found very heavy precipitation in bands of thunderstorms on Dineo's northeastern side. The most intense rainfall was measured by GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) falling at a rate of over 132 mm (5.2 inches) per hour in the intense storms in the northeastern quadrant of the tropical cyclone. On Feb. 15 at 1500 UTC (10 a.m. EST) Tropical Cyclone Dineo's maximum sustained winds were near 80.5 mph (70 knots/129.6 kph). Dineo appears to have reached its peak strength, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Dineo was located near 23.5 degrees south latitude and 35.8 degrees east longitude, about 235 nautical miles west-southwest of Europa Island, and just off the coast of Mozambique. Dineo was moving to the west-southwest and the eye is expected to make landfall by 2100 UTC (4 p.m. EST). After making landfall in southern Mozambique Dineo is forecast to move west and weaken quickly.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Carlos as it moved south of La Reunion Island in the Southern Indian Ocean. On Feb. 9 at 1015 UTC (5:15 a.m. EST) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite took a visible picture of Tropical Cyclone Carlos. The image showed that the storm remained compact with a tight circle of thunderstorms around the center of circulation. At 0300 UTC on February 9 (10 p.m. EST on Feb. 8), Carlos had maximum sustained winds near 55 knots (63.2 mph/102 kph). It was centered about 310 nautical miles (357 miles/574 km) south of Port Louis, Mauritius, near 23.9 degrees south latitude and 53.4 degrees east longitude. Carlos was moving to the southeast at 7 knots (8 mph/12.9 kph). The Joint Typhoon Warning Center said that "Upper-level conditions are showing improvement with near radial outflow over the system and sea surface temperature values remain warm near 28 to 29 degrees Celsius (82.4 to 84.2 degrees Fahrenheit)" Tropical cyclones need sea surface temperatures of at least 26.6 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) to maintain strength, and warmer temperatures can assist in intensification. So, further intensification is expected over the next 24 hours, but by February 11, vertical wind shear will weaken the system as it travels over open waters of the Southern Indian Ocean.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite captured a night-time image of Tropical Cyclone Carlos using infrared light that showed the storm was being stretched out. Carlos is being adversely affected by the Westerlies. The Westerlies are a semi-permanent belt of prevailing westerly winds in the mid-latitudes that are found in both the temperate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. On February 9 the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the NASA-NOAA Suomi NPP satellite captured an infrared image of Tropical Cyclone Carlos in the Southern Indian Ocean. Infrared imagery detects heat. The VIIRS image showed the thunderstorms around the center of circulation has become more elongated from east to west. Carlos has now moved further into the Westerlies, which have caused the elongation. The winds affecting Carlos are battering the tropical cyclone at a speed between 34.5 mph (30 knots /55.5 kph) and 46 mph (40 knots/74 kph). On Feb. 10 at 1500 UTC (10 a.m. EST) Tropical Storm Carlos' maximum sustained winds were near 51.7 mph (45 knots/83.3 kph). Carlos' winds peaked on February 9. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) expects Carlos to continue weakening. Carlos was centered near 28.5 degrees south latitude and 60.8 degrees east longitude, about 502 nautical miles southeast of Port Louis, Mauritius. Carlos was moving to the southeast at 17 mph (15 knots/28 kph). JTWC forecasters expect Carlos to rapidly erode, then dissipate by Sunday, February 12 because of increasing vertical wind shear and movement over cooler sea surface temperatures.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The fifth tropical cyclone of the Southern Indian Ocean season formed today, February 13 as NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of the storm. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of newly developed Tropical Cyclone Dineo in the Mozambique Channel on Feb. 13, 2017. Madagascar is to the east of the storm and Mozambique lies to the west. The image revealed strong storms around the center of circulation. On Feb. 13 at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC), Dineo had maximum sustained winds near 46 mph (40 knots/74 mph) that are expected to strengthen over the next two days. Dineo was located about 48 nautical miles north-northwest of Europa Island. Dineo was crawling to the south-southwest at 2.3 mph (2 knots/3.7 kph). The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that animated multispectral satellite imagery shows "a consolidating low-level circulation center with deep convective banding (of thunderstorms) wrapping into the partially-exposed low-level center." The bulk of thunderstorms were over the eastern side of the storm. In one and a half days, atmospheric conditions are expected to allow the system to turn westward to west-northwestward where it is forecast to make landfall along the east coast of Mozambique on February 16.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

NASA's Terra satellite saw strong thunderstorms spiraling into the heart of Tropical Cyclone Dineo on Valentine's Day as it continued to strengthen in the Mozambique Channel. On Feb. 14, 2017 at 2:45 a.m. EST (0745 UTC) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image Dineo that showed strong thunderstorms wrapping into and around the "heart" or center of the storm's low-level circulation. A thick band of powerful thunderstorms from the eastern quadrant wrapped south and west into the center. The Mozambique Channel is the body of water bordered by the island nation of Madagascar to the east and Mozambique on the mainland African continent on the west. On Feb. 14 at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC), Dineo had maximum sustained winds near 63 mph (55 knots/102 kph). Dineo's winds are expected to reach hurricane strength later today, February 14, and peak near 75 knots by 7 a.m. EST (1200 UTC) on February 15. Dineo was located about 78 nautical miles west of Europa Island near 22.5 degrees south latitude and 38.6 degrees east longitude. Dineo was crawling to the southwest at 3.4 mph (3 knots/5.5 kph). Residents of Mozambique should be preparing for the storm's landfall. As Dineo continues to strengthen and move toward Mozambique, residents can expect heavy rainfall, strong surf and hurricane-force winds. Dineo is forecast by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center to make landfall along the east coast of Mozambique on February 15 around 2100 UTC (4 p.m. EST) at hurricane-force. For updated forecasts from Mozambique National Institute of Meteorology, visit: http://www.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Carlos as its center moved just to the west of La Reunion Island in the Southern Indian Ocean. On Feb. 7 at 10:25 UTC (5:25 a.m. EST) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Carlos' clouds and showed the eastern quadrant over La Reunion. The storm appears more organized from the previous day, as wind shear has relaxed and allowed the center of circulation to become more defined. At 1500 UTC (10 am EST) Tropical Cyclone Carlos had maximum sustained winds dropped from 55 knots (64 mph / 102 kph) to 45 knots (52 mph/83 kph) as a result of the wind shear that was affecting it. However, warm sea surface temperatures are expected to allow the system to continue to strengthen. It was centered near 20.3 degrees south latitude and 54.0 degrees east longitude, just 59 nautical miles north of St. Denis, has tracked west-southwestward at 10 knots (11.5 mph/18.5 kph). Meteo France is issuing advisories on Carlos. For forecast updates on La Reunion island, visit: http://www. . The Joint Typhoon Warning Center said that Tropical Cyclone Carlos will peak around 70 knots (80 mph/129.6 kph) on Feb. 9 as it begins curving to the southeast away from southeastern Madagascar in over the open ocean. Once Carlos' winds peak the storm is expected to start weakening quickly. For updated forecasts in English from the Meteo France La Reunion website, visit: http://www. . NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Carlos as its center moved just to the west of La Reunion Island in the Southern Indian Ocean. On Feb. 7 at 10:25 UTC (5:25 a.m. EST) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Carlos' clouds and showed the eastern quadrant over La Reunion. The storm appears more organized from the previous day, as wind shear has relaxed and allowed the center of circulation to become more defined. At 1500 UTC (10 am EST) Tropical Cyclone Carlos had maximum sustained winds dropped from 55 knots (64 mph / 102 kph) to 45 knots (52 mph/83 kph) as a result of the wind shear that was affecting it. However, warm sea surface temperatures are expected to allow the system to continue to strengthen. It was centered near 20.3 degrees south latitude and 54.0 degrees east longitude, just 59 nautical miles north of St. Denis, has tracked west-southwestward at 10 knots (11.5 mph/18.5 kph). Meteo France is issuing advisories on Carlos. For forecast updates on La Reunion island, visit: http://www. . The Joint Typhoon Warning Center said that Tropical Cyclone Carlos will peak around 70 knots (80 mph/129.6 kph) on Feb. 9 as it begins curving to the southeast away from southeastern Madagascar in over the open ocean. Once Carlos' winds peak the storm is expected to start weakening quickly. For updated forecasts in English from the Meteo France La Reunion website, visit: http://www. .


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of the end of Tropical Cyclone 8P as it was being sheared apart by strong vertical wind shear. Tropical Cyclone 8P "lived and died" within two days in the Southern Pacific Ocean like Alfred and Bart before it. Wind shear was responsible for the quick demise of Bart, while landfall was the reason Alfred fizzled so quickly. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of 8P on Feb. 22 at 2145 UTC (4:45 p.m. EST). The MODIS image showed strong northwesterly wind shear pushed the bulk of clouds and showers south of the center of circulation. On Feb. 22 at 4 p.m. EST (2100 UTC) the Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted 8P's maximum sustained winds were near 40 mph (35 knots/62 kph). At that time, 8P was centered near 26.6 degrees south latitude and 163.7 degrees west longitude, about 388 nautical miles south-southwest of Tonga. 8P was moving to the southeast at a speedy 40 mph (35 knots/62 kph) and over open waters of the South Pacific Ocean. In their final warning on the system, the JTWC noted that 8P had become extra-tropical.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

NASA's Aqua satellite spotted Tropical Cyclone 08P as it was developing in the South Pacific Ocean. Tropical Cyclone 08P, or 08P formed east of Extra-tropical cyclone Bart. Tropical cyclone 08P developed on Feb. 22 at 0300 UTC (Feb. 21 at 10 p.m. EST), and strengthened by 1500 UTC (10 a.m. EST) into a tropical storm with maximum sustained winds near 35 knots (40 mph/62 kph). 08P is expected to maintain strength over the next day as it moves in a southeasterly direction in the South Pacific's open waters. 08P was located near 25.4 degrees south latitude and 165.8 degrees west longitude, about 660 nautical miles south-southeast of Pago Pago, American Samoa. 08P is moving to the southeast at 33 knots (38 mph/61 kph). Like its predecessor Bart, Tropical Cyclone 08P is also dealing with vertical wind shear despite forming under those conditions. The MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite took a visible image of the storm on Feb. 21 as it was developing. The MODIS image showed wind shear was pushing the clouds and strongest storms southeast of the low-level center of circulation. The MODIS image also showed that 08P is elongated from northwest to southeast. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted that dry air associated with a nearby trough (elongated area of low pressure) is wrapping around the northern quadrant of Tropical Cyclone 08P. JTWC expects 08P to become extra-tropical in a day.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

NASA found heavy rainfall occurring in Tropical Cyclone Carlos as it continued to move between Madagascar and La Reunion Island in the Southern Indian Ocean. NASA's Terra satellite imagery revealed a concentrated storm, while the GPM core satellite measured rainfall rates within the storm. The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core observatory satellite flew above tropical cyclone Carlos on February 7, 2017 at 1056 UTC (5:56 a.m. EST). Carlos was moving past Reunion Island with maximum sustained winds estimated at 51.7 mph (45 knots/83.3 kph). GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) data show that rain bands west of Carlos' center were producing heavy rainfall. DPR measured a few downpours in the bands west of the Carlos' center of circulation dropping rain at a rate of over 120 mm (4.7 inches) per hour. GPM's radar (DPR Ku Band) found that a few storm tops were reaching heights of 11 km (8.8 miles). GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. On Feb. 8 at 1500 UTC (10 a.m. EST) Tropical Storm Carlos' maximum sustained winds were near 51.7 mph (45 knots/83.3 kph). The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Carlos to strengthen to 69 mph (60 knots/111 kph) by Feb. 10. Carlos was centered near 22.8 degrees south latitude and 52.5 degrees east longitude, about 197 nautical miles southwest of St. Denis, La Reunion Island. Carlos was moving to the southwest at 6.9 mph (6 knots/11.1 kph). On Feb. 8 at 06:45 UTC (1:45 a.m. EST) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Carlos off Madagascar's east coast. The image showed strong thunderstorms over a compact low-level circulation center. Over the next two days tropical cyclone Carlos is predicted to follow a track between southern Madagascar and La Reunion. Then Carlos is predicted to re-curve toward the southeast. Vertical wind shear is expected to decrease during the next couple days so Carlos may intensify for a while. After a couple of days vertical wind shear and cooler sea surface temperatures are expected to cause Carlos to gradually weaken.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Carlos when it was affecting La Reunion and Mauritius islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. The satellite imagery provided a clear picture of how wind shear was affecting the storm. Earlier the GPM core satellite found heavy rain and towering storms within Tropical Cyclone Carlos. Tropical Cyclone 04S formed north of La Reunion Island on February 4 and continued to track slowly toward the island. This ended an unusual drought of tropical cyclone formation in that part of the Indian Ocean that began in July 2016. When NASA's Terra passed over the newly-formed tropical cyclone imagery showed a concentration of strong thunderstorms around the center of the compact storm. The storm was later renamed Tropical Cyclone Carlos. NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core observatory satellite flew above tropical storm Carlos on February 5, 2017 at 1056 UTC (5:56 a.m. EST) when Carlos had maximum sustained winds of about 45 knots (51.8 mph). GPM collected data that showed the intensity and structure of precipitation within Carlos. GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) measured rain falling at a rate of over 100 mm (3.9 inches) per hour in intense feeder bands converging into Carlos' northeastern side. The 3-D vertical structure of tropical storm Carlos was examined by GPM's radar (DPR Ku Band). This inspection showed that some of the powerful storms around the tropical cyclone had storm tops reaching heights greater than 14 km (8.8 miles). Heavy showers in a few of these storms were bouncing radar reflectivity values of almost 49 dBZ values back to the GPM satellite. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. On Feb. 6 at 09:45 UTC: (4:45 a.m. EST) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Carlos' clouds and storms over La Reunion and Mauritius. The image clearly showed the center of circulation was north of the clouds and thunderstorms which covered the two islands. Strong vertical wind shear up to 25 knots 28.7 mph/46.3 kph) from the northwest pushed the clouds and showers south-southeast of the center and over the islands. A thin ring of clouds appeared around the center of circulation. At 1500 UTC (10 am EST) Tropical Cyclone Carlos had maximum sustained winds near 55 knots (64 mph / 102 kph). Warm sea surface temperatures are expected to allow the system to continue to strengthen. It was centered near 18.3 degrees south latitude and 57.0 degrees east longitude, approximately 120 nautical miles north of Port Louis, Mauritius, has tracked south-southwestward at 4 knots (4.6 mph/7.4 kph). Meteo France is issuing advisories on Carlos. For forecast updates on La Reunion island, visit: http://www. . The Joint Typhoon Warning Center said that Tropical Cyclone Carlos will peak at 80 knots (92 mph/148 kph) in on Feb. 9 as it begins curving to the southeast away from southeastern Madagascar in over the open ocean. For updated forecasts in English from the Meteo France La Reunion website, visit: http://www. .

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